US 870151 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UNITED STATES PATENT y OFFICE.
ROLLIN ABELL, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR, BY DIRECT AND MESNE ASSIGN- MENTS, OF ONE-THIRD TO SOLOMON A. CAMPBELL AND ONE-THIRD TO EDWARD T. KIM- BALL, BOTH OF BOSTON,MASSACHUSETTS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed October 19. 1906. Serial No. 339.644.
To all whom 'it may concern:
Be it known that I, RoLLrN ABELL, of Boston, in the county of Suffolk and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Tools,
5 of which the following -is a specification.
This invention relates to improvements in tools.
In particular, it relates .to tools intended to transform an alternating forward and backward action into a rotatory action in continuous direction. It is here shown as it may be embodied in a wrench, in which the jaws of the wrench are vnot set in a fixed and'rigid relation w'ith' respect to the handle of the wrench, but in which the handle be placed in any desired or convenient angular position about the axis of thelturning. After being 5 turnedrrom that'lrelation the handle returnedl to the same positioim "r to'jany other convenient position to eect a furth'er rotation, by a simple ,motion without removing the jaws, and will instantly seize the nut orV other object which is to be turned. i The drawings show several forms in which the invention may be embodied.
Figure 1 sliows the head of. a wrench embodying the invention. Fig. 2 shows the same sectioned on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 shows the same sectioned on the 5 line 3 3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4' shows different wrench head embodying the invention. Fig. 5 shows a section of thesame online 5`5 of Fig. 4.
The object of the invention is-to simplify the conv are eliminated, and a simple annular groove i's provided in their place. It has also been necessary in prior de- D vices to provide some special means for preventing sidewise displacementof the barrel. In the present device all such means are eliminated and the said groove serves that purpose, -in coperation with a spherical-shaped memberhereinafter described, which takes the place'of 5 the cylindrical rolls heretofore used. This sphere is seated looselyin the stock in a straight round hole formed therein .in the same plane as the groove on the barrel and intersecting the groove nearly tangentially'. A contracting throat i's thus formed where the hole and D groove intersect. The sphere is normally pushed gently toward and into this throat by a spring, and is thus i in irictional lcontact with both barrel and stock.l When Referring to the drawings: represents the head of al wrench, which as here represented is. integral withthe handle 11, the stock being in the form of a iat'bar in which a barrel 12 is set rotatably. The socket 13 in the barrel may be of any-desired shape or size. An annular groove 14 is formed inthe periphery of this barrel. A hole15 pierces the stock of the Wrench in the same plane with the groove and communicates therewith, as clearly shown in Fig. '3. This hole is preferably of circular bore, into which a ball 16 its loosely, projecting also into said groove; and the groove is formed so that in cross section it has the shape o f an arc of a circle of the' same siz asthe'ball lfand the bore of the hole 15. The
hole is bored so that the barrel does not cut open the full diameter of the hole;an d the diameter of the barrel 12 at thebottoin of thegroove 14 is such that it projects slightly into the bore of the hole15. This forns a contracting throat into which the ball is yieldingly pressed by a spring 17, seated against-ascrew plug 18.` As the hole containing the ball is perpendicular to the direction of the axis of the barrel 12, the engagement of the ball simultaneously with the groove-and with the side walls of the hole prevents the barrel 12 from slipping out of the hole in which it is journaled.
The description thus far is applicable to one side of the wrenchhead, as represented, for example, on the right hand half of 3. Precisely .similar arrangements may b e made on the other half, the' ho1e'15 passing entirely through the wrench `head and containing two balls, as represented in 3, one on either side of the center, each fitting the bore of the hole and engaging in the groove 14'.- An attachment may be vpro- 'vided for throwing one ofthe balls out of contact with the barrel, and this is represented bya key 19, having interiorly a cam 20 in position to engage either oneI of' vthe balls 16 and force it outward a short distance,
against its spring 17, as represented at the left in Fig. 3; and this key is set pivotally in the wrench head,
and on its outer portionhas a button or handle 2], by:
which it may be turned; and this button is preferably form to indicate the direction in which the parts Within l wrench permanently adjusted in this manner until the operator sets it lotherwise by turning the button 21.
The key may be set either in the position shown in Fig. 3; or the exactly opposite position in which the other ball 16 is retracted, and the ball shown retracted is in contact with the barrel l2;I or a position intermediate between these two, in which both balls are in contact, with the barrel.
The wrench may be operated in either of these positions. When in the first position, as represented in Fig. 3, a movement of the handle to the right about the axis of the socket 13 causes the ball 16 on the-right hand side, which is in contact with thel barrel 12 where the ball fits intov the groove 14, to roll to the left; but the contracting diameter oi the space to the leit, owing to the intersection of the barrel with the hole 15, prevents its passage in that direction, and causes the ball to become engaged firmly by frictional contact between the barrel and the wrench head; and when in this position the friction between' the ball and the parts with which it is in contact prevents 'the ball from rotatingV 'in situ, so that a clutch is formed between the barrel and the wrench head in which the ball is the active member and is in a state of compression between the barrel and wrench head. The compression occurs along a line which constitutes substantially a complete circle around the ball. Material advantages follow from this arrangement. The spherical shape of the member under compression, combined with the application of the thrust in circular line surrounding the sphere, renders the ball practicallyindestructible under any stress that -may be applied in practice; and the circular line of its bearing upon the barrel and upon the wrench head prevents the ball from making a dent in either of them as if there were merely a point contact, thus decreasing theoperative eliciency of the wrench by marring either surface. It is understood, of course, that a hardened steel ball is employed and that the adjacent surfaces of the wrench head and barrel are hardened.
When the handle is turned in the opposite direction the ball is rolledaway from the contracting throat, the spring yielding a little, and the handle turns freely to the left without engaging the barrel. Thus, the stock engages the barrel forcefully whenever the handle is swung to the right; turns freely without engaging the same whenever the handle is swung to the lei't; and
will engage again at whatever position the left motion parts will engage when turned in either direction, the
ball on the right engaging when the handle is turned toward theright, the ball on the left running free; andthe ball on the left engaging when the handle is turned toward the left, the ball on the right running free. j
4 and 5 show a wrench with adjustable socket. In this figure the barrel is marked 12 and projects toward one side of the wrench, in which a bolt 25 is journaled, having screws at each end 26 threaded in opposite directions and having at each end a knurled head 27. An annular groove 28 in the center of the bolt is engaged by a lug or set screw 29, In ordinary use the screw fits loosely within the groove, thus preventing the bolt from slipping out in either direction; but if desiredA it can be screwed rmly against the bolt, in which case the jaws will be locked and cannot be loosened by a chance rubbing against one of the nuts 27. .aws 30 are mounted on the bolt, onebeing located so as to engage the screw portion at each end of the bolt. Turning of the screw in one direction moves the jaws together, and turning it in the opposite direction moves them apart; while the operation of the wrench handle upon the barrel on which the bolt and jaws are mounted is the same as previously described.
I claim: I
1. A tool, comprising a stock; a barrel, having its body portion journaled therein and having its end formed as a face of the tool there being Within the journalV an annular groove in one part and a groove in the same plane therewith in the other part intersecting it. nearlytangentially;
2. The combination of a stock having a cylindrical opening with a barrel having a cylindrical body journaled therein; there being in the journal an annular groove in one part, and in the other part a groove in the same plane intersecting it nearly tangentially; with a rolling member located partly in each groove and forced yieldingly toward their intersection.
3. The combination of a stock; a barrel journaled therein and having an annular groove within its journaled surface; there being a hole in the stock intersecting the groove nearly tangentially; a ball located partly ini-the hole and partly in the groove; and a spring pushing it toward their intersection.
4. ',ihe combination of a stock; a barrel journaled therein; there being a groove in each part in its journaled surface, intersecting nearly tangentally, one being annular; with a rolling member located partly in each groove and forced yieldingly toward their intersection; the sides of one groove heilig formed to inclose the rolling member loosely therein.
5. 'lhe combination of a stock; a barrel rotatable and movable endwise therein; one of these having an annular groove and the other a groove in the same plane intersecting it nearly tangentially ;with a rolling member located partly in each groove and forced yieldingly toward their intersection, thereby latching the parts and normally preventing endwise motion of the barrel. i
6. The combination of a stock having a cylindrical opening, and having a cylindrical hole intersecting said opening nearly tangentially; a ball in the hole, projecting less than half its diameter therefrom into said opening; und a barrel rotatable in said cylindrical opening and having an annular groove in which the ball may engage.
7. A tool, comprising a stock portion; a barrel rotatable therein, having an annular groove externally; there being a hole in the stock in the same plane with the groove and intersecting it nearly tangentially; spherical members located on each side of the intersection, ttnginto both hole and groove; and means to retract each spherical member tlwrefrom independently.
8. A tool, comprising a stock portion; a barrel rotatable therein, having an annular groove externally; there being a hole in the stock in the same plane with the groove and los 4intersecting it nearly tangentially; spherical members located on each side of the intersection, fitting into both hole and groove; and a cam adjacent arranged to engage and retract either spherical member.
9. A tool, comprising a stock portion a barrel rotatable therein. having an annular groove externally; therebeng a hole in the stock in the same plane with 'the groove and intersecting it nearly tangentially; located on each side of the intersection, fitting into both l0 hole and groove; and a cam adjacent arranged to engage spherical members and retract either spherical member, said cam being mounted on a shaft projecting externally and having a handle and visible indicator externally to adjust and indicate the direction of action of the tool.
In testimony whereof I have affixed my signature, in L5 presence of two witnesses.
, ROLL'IN ABELL. j Witnesses:
SOLOMON A. CAMPBELL, EVERETT E,"K1uN'1..