US 871202 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATENTED NOV. 19,
G. W. BULLEY.
PROOBSS OF GENERATING GAS.
APPLICATION FILED DEO.12,1906.
INVENTOR A770 NEYS B a W of ,coa', wood, peat or other solid GEORGE W. BULLEY, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
PROCESS OF GENERATING GAS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Nov. 19, 1907.
Application filed December 12.1906. Serial No. 347.461.
To all whomitmcy concern.-
Be it known that I, GEORGE W; BULLEY, residing at New .York, in the county of Kings and State of New York, have invented cerduction of combustible gases, but more especially to a process'for producing the same from carbonaceous substances.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide a new and improved process for producingfgases of the above character by the incom lete combustion and dry distillation organic substances.
Another object is to provide a process of the character, indicated whereby a greater quantity of permanent gas will be produced from a given amount of material and at less ex ense than has obtained in the processes hitdierto employed.
Another object is to provide a process of the above character which while substantially continuous may be carried out with a minimum amount of care and attendance.
e Other objects will be in part obvious and in art pointedout hereinafter.
he invention accordingly consists 1n the several steps and the relation and order ofone or more of such steps with relation to each of the others thereof which will be exemplified in the process hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In order that the nature of my invention and the objects and advantages to be obtained thereby may be made more intelligible, I have appended a drawing to this specification, the same forming a part there- 0 which shows diagrammatically a preferred mannerof carrying out the same, and while inthe future many different forms of apparatus maybe devised for carrying out the several steps of my process, that shown in the drawing is such as l'prefer to employ at the present time.
In the accompanying drawing, wherein my invention is illustrated schematically, 1 represents a furnace constructed of fire clay or other highly refractile material which is preferably set in an upwardly inclined position u on suitable bases 2 and 3 respectively. T e generating chamber 4 of the furnace is shown as constricted at its lower end and increasing in diameter from the lower constricted .portion toward the upper end, and at the upper end said chamber leads into'a vertical chamber 5. Vertical chamber 5 in the present instance is provided with an ash receptacle 6 designed to contain water which acts both as a water seal and as a medium for quenching the spent material or ash, which passes as shown downwardly through chamber 5. A water receptacle 7 is provided at the lower .end of the furnace and adjacent thereto, and a conduit 8 leads from said receptacle to the lower end of the enerating chamber. A hopper 9 is provided above conduit 8, and has a mouth 10 leading thereinto, said hopper being in open communication, as at 11, with the water contained in receptacle 7.
Mounted to reciprocate within conduit 8 below themouth of hopper 9 is a feed piston 12 which is reciprocated by means of a piston rod 13 actuated through a link connection with a bell crank lever 14 and a link 15 which extends to and is operated from any suitable source-of power.
The walls of furnace 1 are recessed as at 16 for the purpose of admitting an air blast to the generating chamber, the ingoing air passing downwardly through recess 16 and into said chamber through a plurality of twyer openings 17 provided in the lower portion of the recess. The size of the twyer openings may be regulated by a suitable controlling device or damper 1S. .lt will be noted that the form of recess 16 and the disposition of twyer openings 17 are such that the entering air blast will be deflected in a downward direction, the purpose of which will be apparent hereinafter. Furnacel is provided between recess 17 and the upper end thereof with air inlet openings adapted to be controlled by dampers 19.
Leading from the upper portion of chamber 4 is a gas exit 0 )ening 20, from which may extend a suitab e conducting conduit, and a second gas exit opening 21 is also provided in thelower portion of the vertical chamber 5. Access to the generating chamber and to the furnace may be' had through a manhole 22, and a poke or sight hole may also be provided as at 23.
Having thus described the construction of a preferred form ofapparatus forcarrying outthe several steps constituting. my process, the manner of carrying out the said rocess is substantially as follows: the carfionaceous material, which in the present instance is coal, is first introduced into'the hopper 9 and falls through mouth 10 thereof into the conduit 8, when the piston 12 is in a retracted'position, and when said piston is projected upwardly through the conduit the coal is forced upwardly there through into the lower portion of the generating chamber. Itwill be, understood that upon each reciprocation of piston 12 a fresh'charge of coal falls into conduit 8, and is projected upwardly therein and into the generating chamber. The level of water in the receptacle is kept above the lower end of conduit 8 and opening 11 of hopper 9 so as to effect a tight seal and thus prevent the escape of any gas through the lower portion from the lower end of the apparatus. When the coal passing upwardly through chamber 4 reaches the twyer,openings 17 the same is ignited, which operation may be effected by igniting kindlings introduced into recess '16. The air blast is then turned on, and owing to the dis osition of the twyer openings the blast will. be deflected in a downward direction, the combustion being substantially confined thereby'between the point of introduction of the carbonaceous fuel and said twyeropenings. At this point it may be noted that the air blast is regulated to admit only enough air into the combustion chamber to sustain an incomplete combustion of the carbonaceous material; This fuel, as it is fed upward" through the generating chamber past the seat of combustion, is converted into coke by the distillation of its hydrocarbon constituents, and these hydrocarbon constituents in the presence of the air issuing through the twyer openings are decomposed to form carbon dioxid. The coked material is forced upward from the seat of'combustion through the combustion chamber in a highly heated or incandescent condition, and the carbon dioxid infiltrating through this incandescent body is converted into carbon monoxid before reaching the upper portion of the combustion chamber. The carbon monoxid generated at the seat of combustion also passes through-the incandescent mass and is unchanged thereby. It may also be noted that the coal when introduced into the generating chamber is in a saturated" condition, and the hydrogen which results from the decomposition of the steam into which this water is formed p'asses up through the I incandescent carbonized material in an un- .upper portion of generating chamber 4,
tumbles into vertical chamber 5, the spent 7 7 material or ash indicated at 24 falling into receptacle 6, from which it may be removed said vertical chamber.
by any suitable means. The gas produced in the generating chamber, from which aa fixed or permanent gas by its infiltration through the incandescent mass located within .It is of course understood that, if desired, gas taken from either of conduits 20 and 21 respectively may be led through suitable washing or purifying apparatus, or that the same may be led directly to the apparatus in which the same is to be utilized. If desired, air may be admitted into the generating chamber through the openings provided in the upper portion of the furnace by manipulating dampers 19.
- It will thus be seen that I have provided a process through the carrying out of which the'volatile constituents oficoal, wood, coke or other preferably solid carbonaceous substances may be converted into valuable, permanent, inflammable gases with practically no loss of the volatile constituentsof said carbonaceous substances; The hydrocarbons present in the fuel are oxidized and are converted into hydrogen and carbonic oxid gases, and any water present in the fuel is decomposed and the hydrogen constituents thereof liberated bypassing through This the incandescent body of carbonized material. Moreover, since the distillation of the hydrocarbons present in the coal takes I place in a zone wherein free oxygen is present, some of them are decom osed andconverted into carbon dioxid, which in its passage through the incandescent mass is converted into carbon monoxid before it reaches the exit opening.
One of the advantages accruing by reason 1 of the carrying out of my process as above described resides in the fact that more ure carbon monoxid and hydrogen gases ree from moisture and volatilized liquid hydrocar bons are produced and stable gases generated than in processes hitherto provided, thus largely obviating the necessityofthe employment of purifying apparatus or opera tions to wash or'otherwise separate the nonstable and decomposed constituents from the gas before the same may be economically utilized. In this manner ,the difficulties arising from/the instability of producer gas .as hitherto generated are eliminated and gas suitable for general heating purposes is produced within the generating chamber. The
gas formed within the generating chamber is substantially free from water, tar and other unstable constituents, and the" portion-of the hydrocarbon content of the fuel converted into carbon dioxid by the incomplete combustion taking place within the ,generatingchamber is in turn converted into carbon monoxid by contact with or infiltration through the incandescent material present inithe generating chamber above the seat? of combustion.
Another important advantage obtained by reason of my process as described lies in the fact that the fuel, being introduced under the incandescent coke, is adually heated before'arriving at the seat 0 combustion and therefore does not affect the continuity of generation of gas. The advantage of the continuous and uniform feed of the fuel past the seat'of combustion .and the expense saved as regards the matter of care and at being withdrawn from the upper conduit of the generator, while the permanent or fixed gases suitable for gas engine work may be withdrawn from the lower conduit. This latter gas, being withdrawn from the generator in roximity to thewater n, the ash receptac e, will lose a large portion of its heat and will leave the generator in a comparatively cool condition.
As the process above described "could be carried on by the use of radically different apparatus, and as many variations from the details ofthe process herein set forth could be incorporated without deviation from the broad rinciples of my invention, I desire that al matter herein set forth or shown in the accom anying drawing shall be interpreted as 1 lustrative and not in a limiting sense. I
Having described my IIIVGIItIOIl, what I claim'as new and desire to secureby Letters Patent is:-
' 1. The process of generating a gas from a carbonaceous mass comprising green fuel, a coked portion and an intermediate partly coked portion, which consists in confining said mass within a'closed retort, progressively moving said mass through said retort, an air blast to said mass at said part y coked portion, and then causing the resultant gas to pass. directly through the cokedlplortion of said mass.
2. 6 process of generating a gas from a carbonaceous mass which consists in confim ing'said mass Within a retort, progressively mo said mass through said retort past a seat 0 combustion provided intermediate the ends thereof, subjecting said mass to an air blast above said seat of combustion, and then causing the gas generated at the seat of combustion to infiltrate through the highly heated partly coked portion of said carbonaceous mass produced at said seat of combustion.
3. The process of generating gases of different characteristics from carbonaceous material which consists in progressively feeding carbonaceous'material in a closed retort, forming a seat of incomplete combustion for the carbonaceous material intermediate the ends of the retort, causing the resultant gas to infiltrate directly through coke in a highly heated condition formed at the seat of incomplete combustion, withdrawing the gas from one portion of said retort causing the remaining gas, to further infiltrate through said highly heated coke, and withdrawing the resultant gas from another portion of said retort.
4. The process of generating gases of dif ferent characteristics from carbonaceous'material, which consists in confining said material within a closed retort, progressively feeding fresh carbonaceous material .into said retort, forming a seat of incomplete combustion for said material intermediate the ends of the retort, subjecting said material to an air blast at said intermediate portion, causing the resultant gas to infiltrate through coke in a highly heated condition formed at the seat of incomplete combustion, withdrawing a portion of the gas from the upper portion of the retort, causing the re maming gas to infiltrate through another bed of coke in a highly heated state, and withdrawing the resultant gas fllom the retort at a location below the point of withdrawal of the first mentioned gas.
5. The process of generating a gas which consists in confining a carbonaceous mass in a closed retort, conducting a green fuel through a water seal and progresslvely feeding thesame into said retort, forminga seat of incomplete combustion intermediate the ends of said retort, forcing air therein above said seat of incomplete combustion and then causing the-gas generated at the seat of incomplete combustion to infiltrate directly through coke in a "highly heated state pro duced at said seat of combustion.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature, in the presence of two witnesses. 4
. GEORGE Witnesses:
C. H. WIL'soN, H. M. SEAMANS.