US 871209 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 871,209. PATENTED NOV. 19, 1907.
A. COTTON. JET BLOWING APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.16, 1907.
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A. COTTON. JET BLOWING APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.16, 1907.
' 4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
PATENTED NOV. 19, 1907.
A. COTTON. JET BLOWING APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 16, 1907.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
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PATENTED NOV. 19, 1907.
A. COTTON. JET BLOWING APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 16, 1907.
4 SHBETSSHEET 4.
ALFRED-COTTON, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY.
' JET BLOWING APPARATTl'S.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Nov. 19,1907.
Application filed January 16.1907. Serial No. 352.541
. To all whom it may concern:
3 of self regulating nozzle Be it known that I, ALFRED CoT'roN,.a subject of the'King of Great Britain, residing at Newark, in the county of- Essex and State of New Jersey, have'invented certain new and useful. Im rovements in Jet Blowin Apparatus, of which the following is a speci 'cation, reference being had; therein. to' the. accompanying drawings, in which-:-
Figure 1 is a vertical, longitudinal sectional view of a portion ofan air conveyer equipped with one jet nozzle of my invention. Fig. 2 a vertical central sectional view of a nozzle provided with a regulating needle valve; Fig. 3 a similar sectional view of a fprovided with a slightly differentl nozzle form 0 adjustable .needle valve; Fig. 4a longitudinal sectional view of an air conveyer rovided with a series of automatically contro led nozzles, said section being taken on the line IV IV of Fig. 5; Fig. 5; a front elevation of the a paratus shown in Fig. 4; Fig. 6 an enlarge vertical sectional view of one of the automatically controlled nozzles shown in Figs. 4 and 5; Fig. 7 a similar sectional view showing a slightly different form ig. 8 a longitudinal vertical sectional view showing a conveyer having parallel sides and a slightly different form of a jet nozzle, said section being taken on the line VIII-VIII of Fig. 9; Fig. 9 afront view of the apparatus showing a group of jet nozzles arranged according to my invention in combination with a single conveyer of a peculiar form. Fig. 10 a transverse sectional view on the line b-b ofFig.
- 4; and Fig. 11 a similar view on the line b-b of Fig. 8. Fig. 12 a detail vertical sectional view of a conveyor and nozzle.
- My invention relates to blowing apparatus in which a jet of steam, or other equivalent motive fluid, is em loyed to induce the desired fiow of air or similar fluid which is tobe moved by the blower.
The special embodlment of my invention which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings and which is hereinafter articularly described, relates to air blow'ers or feeding furnaces, and may be briefly designated as a furnace blower.
Broadly stated the objects of my invention are simplicity, com actness and econom of construction-and e ciency, economy and reliability 'of operation.
More particularly the objectv of my invention is torovide a nozzle of peculiar form whereby 't he steam will escape therefrom with the least possible friction and loss of energy, and with the greatest speed and least tendency to lateral expansion when it issues from the nozzle.
A further object of the invention is to combine mypeculiar form of nozzle with a conveyer having its inlet end of proper form to insure the entry therein of the induced currents of air with the least possible friction and'without any tendency of themflowing air currents to cross the steam jet, whereby there will be no cross currents at the mouth of the conveyer.
A further object of my invention is to arrange a plurality of nozzles in such relation to one another, and to so shape a single conveyer to be used in combination with such plurality of jets, that the motive jets and the induced air currents will flow through said conveyer with the least possible friction and without. causing cross-currents of air or steam within the casing, whereb the greatest efliciency ofthe plurality 0 jets is obtained.
. Still another object of the invention is to provide automatically-operating pressurecontrolled valves for varying the capacity of the inlet to the nozzles, whereby the relative areas of the inlet end of the nozzle and the outlet therefrom may be varied.
I have discovered that the greatest efficiency in jet blowers is to be obtained by the employment of a nozzle of such form that the expansiveenergy of the steam will be converted into speed energy, or to kinetic energy, within the nozzle so that when the jet issues therefrom it will have the least possible tendency to lateral expansion, the jet moving forward in lines substantially parallel with the longitudinal line of the conveyer into which said jet is pro'ected. Where the motive jet expands laterally to any considerable degree as it issues from the nozzle, it obstructs the mouth of the conveyer and retards the inflowing air currents. It is necessary therefore, to rovide a nozzle whose bore. is divergent Tom a oint very near its inlet to its outlet, and w ose .outlet is so roportioned with respect to the inlet that t e steam will have expanded to almost atmospheric pressure before it lea-es the nozzle, so that its expansive energy will have been converted into speed energy. What ever expansive force remains in the steam after it leaves the nozzle seems toobstruct the inflowing air currents within the conveyer, and is, therefore, undesirable. I ac- 5 complish this preferably by the apparatus herein described.
Referring to the various parts by numerals, 2 in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 designates a nozzle support and steam inlet pipe. This pipe is provided with a stud 3 near its upper end which is bolted to an upward extending lip or projection 4 formed on the upper edge of the mouth of the air conveyer 6. The mouth of v this conveyer flares or is inwardly contracted, as at 5. The curve of the flaring part being as nearly as possible the curve which cur rents of moving gas would take upon entering an orifice, when said currents are induced or forced through said orifice.
)rovided with a T-head 57, shown as axially in line with the central line of the conveyer,
the rear end of-this head being closed by'a screw plug 7 ,.as arranged in Fig. 1. To the forward end of this T-head is attached, preferably by' screw threads,'nozzle 8, the central longitudinal line of said nozzle being axially in line with the central longitudinal line of the conveyer. This nozzle is formed with an enlarged chamber 8 at its inner end which is in open communication with the interior ofthe pipe 2. The nozzle proper is formed with a divergent bore, the inlet end 9 of said bore being uite small and the outlet end 10 being consi erably larger than the inlet end thereof. The relative size of the two ends of the divergent part of the nozzle must'be such that the amount of steam admitted to said.
nozzle may expand to almost atmospheric '40 pressure before it leaves said nozzle. 1 The result of this is that the expansive force of the steam is converted into speed energy so that the jet of steam upon issuing, from said nozzle will move forward in substantiallyparallel lines, until its speed is considerably reduced. The enlargement of the jet, due-to deceleration, and not to expansion, 'must take 'place a considerable distance within the conveyer so as not to retard the inflowing induced air currents, and further itmust not take place within the conveyer until the steam and air currents have reached the same velocityand are of the sametemperature. Any considerable lateral expansion v of the steam prior to this condition havin v been obtained is detrimental to the successfu operation of the'blower. It will be readily seen that when the steam expands laterally aafter leaving the nozzle the air ourrents are retarded and, therefore, a greater amount of steam must be used in the blowerto induce the desired amount of air currents.
""At the inlet end of the nozzle the bore is enlar ed or flared, the curve of the wall of said flared part being as nearly as possible The lower end of the nozzle support 2 is' g a b of the nozzle so that the steam jet will flow smoothly into the nozzle without any back pressure, a greater speed can be'obtamed 1n the jet with less" pressure than is possible where the inlet end of the nozzle terminatesv in a sharp corner. This I consider extremely important and it is one of the features of my invention. It is important that the proportion of the inlet of the nozzle to the exit thereof be varied accordingto the pressure of steam in the pipe 2 in order that the amount of steamadmitted to the nozzle shall expand to substantially atmospheric pressure before it leaves the nozzle. it is apparent that if the inlet of the nozzle were not varied in size the pressure of the jet and its tendency to lateral expansion as 1t issues from the nozzle would vary somewhat as the pressure of steam in the pipe 2 'varied. Therefore, to secure the most eflicient operation of the nozzle I provide a lon itudinally adjustable needle valve 16 whic projects into the nozzle and terminates at its forward end in an extremely fine point. The rear end of this valvepart 16 is joinedv centrally to a head 15 which is carried by-a stem 14. This stem is joined at its rear end to a screw plug 13, as
. to expand as herein before described, within It will be noted that the valve,
the nozzle. is very long as compared with the length of the nozzle, the urpose of this being to avoid any' sudden enl argeinent of the capacity of the nozzle at anypoint therein. It'will be pparent that if the end of the valve were untor squared, eddies of steam would be formed at that particular point and that said eddies or cross-currents would obstruct the forward movement of the jet and result in a loss of efliciency.
As shown in Fig. 3 the stem of the valve is threaded as at 21 and is formed with a cylindrical portion 20 which passes through a stufling box 18, a chamberlQ bein formed for'packmg material. The end of t is-stem is squared, as at 17, to receivean adjusting Wrench or other suitable tool.
It is desirable to provide meanswhereby the regulating valve 16 maybe automatically operated by pressure-controlled means eonnected'thereto. One form of device for accomplishing. this .is shown in Fig. 6. As
- and 31, diaphragm 29 being consi erably' -'larger than 31.
illustrated therein the stem 33 of the valve isconneeted to two flexible d1aphra ms 29 in communication with the steam space of the chamber 26 by means of a port 36 formed in the valve stem. The diaphragm chamber 28 is connected to the steam chamber 26 through the tubular neck 37 which is screwed into said chamber. As shown in this figure the nozzle is screwed'into the steam chamber 26 by means of its threaded forward end 40' and a locknut 39 is screwed thereon out-side of the casing 26 to lock the nozzle in place. The operation of this selfregulating valve is obvious. Under normal working pressure the valve will remain stationary. When the steam pressure exceeds the desired normal working pressure the diahragm 29' Will'be forced inward and the inlet to the nozzle 8 will be correspondinglyrestricted, that is its capacity will be re duced so that the amount of steam entering .thereinat the increased pressure will be permitted to expand, and thereby reduce any pressure to the desired point before it leaves the nozzle.
In Fi 7 is illustrated a slightly different form of self-regulating pressure-controlled valve. As shown in this figure the valve stem 60 is provided with an extension 46 which reciprocates in a recess formed in a This stem 60 is guided near its forward end by a bracket 44. Surroundin the stem and bearing against the inner si e of said bracket is a coil spring 50, said spring at its inner end bearing against the plate 49 which is adjustably secured at the valve stem by means of a nut 48 screwed on a threaded part 47 of said stem. As shown in this figure the casing 26 is formed with an enlargement 59 within which the enlarged inner end of the nozzle is screwed.
VVhcn'the steam pressure within the chamber 26 increases beyond the desired pressure. the valve will be forced toward the inlet end of the nozzle thereby varying the capacity of said inlet end in proportion to the steam pressure.
In Figs. 4 and 5 a plurality of nozzles are ranged in a peculiar manner and are to be used in combination with a conve 'er of peculiar shape in cross-section. The nozzle support and steam chamber 25 is secured to the forward end of the conveyer and extends I horizontally across the samev midway the height thereof. This chamber is provided on its upper edge with upwardly extending nozzle supports 26 which are short extensions of the main steam chamber 25; and on the lower edge of the chamber 25 are formed corresponding down-Ward extending enlargements of said chamber. These enlargements are so arran ed that those on the upper side of the cham er are, directly above a point midway between the centers of those formed on the lower side of said chamber. The nozzles are secured to these enlargements of the main chamber at points which are equally distant on each side of a line passing lon itudinal the center of the chamber 25 an thedistance between the centers of the nozzles in the u per row are equal to the distance between the nozzles of said upper rows and the centers of the adjoining nozzles in the lower row so that all of said nozzles are equal distances apart from the adjoining nozzles. The pur ose of this peculiar arrangement of the nozz es is to avoid as far as possible what may be termed dead spaces between the jets.
Eddies of air are apt to be formed in these spaces by the steam jets, and, of course; in so far as these eddies are formed they result in cross-currents and impair the efficiency of the blower. The interior of the conveyer ada ted for use with this grouping of the nozz es is somewhat elongated horizontally having substantially flat lower and upper surfaces, outward and downward inclined. sides and rounded corners connectingv the end of the sides with the ends. of the upper and lower walls. The upper andlower walls are tangent to the circumference of the jets at the point where said jets will impinge upon said walls. cumference to the two outer jets and. the rounded corners are on the same areas as the circumference of said jets, the arcs ofsaid corners being struck from the centers of the outer jets.
As-shown in Fig. 4 the form of nozzle illustrated is of the self-regulating pressure-com trolled construction illustrated in Fig. 6. AS shown in this figure the conveyer is formed with a flared inlet end and from the inner end of the flared portion the inner walls of said conveyer converge to a oint marked a'--a said point'being the smal est internal diametor of the conveyer. From this point aa The side walls are tangent to the cirthe internal diameter of the conveyer en- I nozzle.
considerable distance. To this end the jet must have very little tendency to expand laterally; and its expansive force must have been converted into speedenergy within the As illustrated in this figure the group of jets will have enlargedbecause of their deceleration at the oint marked b.b to such an extent as to impinge upon the walls of the conveyer. Steam is supplied to the chamber 25 through pipe 56.
In Fig. 9 is shown another arrangement of the nozzles wherein however, each nozzle is an equal distance from all the adjoining nozzles 1n the group. In this ouping there are three horizontal .rows og nozzles, each nozzle in the upper row is in a direct vertical line with. the corresponding nozzle in the lower row. The nozzles in the intermediate row are arranged midway between the nozzles. of the'upper and lower rows, and an equal distance from the adjoining nozzles in said upper and lower rows. In cross section the interior of the single conveyer adapted to'be used with this group of numerals is an irregular diamond shape, the corners formed by the meeting of the walls of the conveyer being rounded, The upper and lower interior walls of the conveyer are tangent to the surfaces of the jets in said rows, and the side walls of said conveyer are tangent to the circumference of the jets forming the ends of the rows. The corners of the said conveyer are on the same arcs as the circumference of the end jets and are struck from centers axially in line with the centers of the end jets. By-this grouping and by the eculiar shape of the conveyer, dead spaces etween the jets are reduced to minimum and the nozz es are arranged in the best possible osition foreliminating said dead space'sl his is an important feature of my invention and produces a most efficient blower.
As shown in Fig. 8 the conveyer is formed with parallel upper and lower longitudinal walls and the jets will be enlarged laterally because of their deceleration sufficiently to impinge u n the walls of the conveyor along the hue marked bb. a
As shown in Fig. 12 the conveyer is formed with acontracted throat or entrance, an inwardlyrtapered part extending inward from said t oat and then a rearwardly enlargin part extending from the inner endv of sai converging part to the end of the conveyer. The nozzle 8 is so arranged thatt-he jet issuing therefrom will flow inward beyond the smallest diameter of the conveyer before it has enlarged, by the loss of speed, sufiiciently to impinge upon the walls of the conveyer. By th1s arrangement there will be no checking of, the inflowing. jets in the conveyer. This is important as it contributes materially to the success of my particular form of nozzle-and blower. j 65 Having'full'y described my invention what erases I claim as newand desiretosecure by Letters Patent is 1. A jet blowing apparatus comprising a nozzle Whose internal diameter gradually increases from its inlet to its outlet, the smallest diameter of said nozzle being'so proportioned with respect to the largest diameter thereofthat fluid under a certain pressure entering said nozzle will expand to approximately atmospheric ressure before it eaves said nozzle, 1n corn ination with a conveyer open at its ends and formed with an inwardly contracted entrance throat and whose interior gradually converges for a short distance from its throat and then gradually enlarges toward its outlet, the smallest diameter of said conveyer bein located at such a point in the length of t e conveyer that the jet from the nozzle will travel beend said point of smallest diameter before 1t has enlarged sufficiently to impinge upon the inner surface of the conveyer, said conveyer beingarranged axially in line with the longitudinal center line of the nozzle, and the nozzle bein outside of said conveyer ad'acent to its i et, whereby the air currents will move inward'and entirely surround the nozzle, and means for changing the proportional areas of the inlet and outlet of said nozzle by varying the capacity of the inlet thereof, for the purpose set forth.
2. A jet blowing apparatus comprising a nozzle whose internal diameter gradually increases from its inlet to its outlet, the smallest diameter of said nozzle being so proportioned with respect to the largest diameter thereof that fluid under a certain pressure entering said nozzle will expand to ap roximately atmospheric res'sure before it eaves said nozzle, 1n com ination with a conveyer open at its ends and formed with an inwardly contracted entrance throat and whose interior gradually converges for a short distance from its throat and then gradually enlarges toward its outlet, the smallest 110 diameter of said conveyer bein located at such a point. in the length of t e conveyer that the jet from the nozzlewill travel beond said pointof smallest diameter before it hasenlarged sufficiently to impinge upon 115 the inner surface of the conveyor, said conveyer being arranged axially in line with the longitudinal center line of thenozzle, and the nozzle bein outside of said conveyer adjacent to its in ct, whereby the air currents 120 will move inward and entirely surround the nozzle, automatically operating pressure controlled means for changing the roportional areas of the inlet and outlet 0 said nozzle by varying the capacity of the inlet thereof,
for the purpose set forth. v
3. A jet blowing apparatus comprising a plurality ,of nozzles arranged in rows, each nozzle in each'row bein an equal distance from the adjoining nozz es of all the rows, I30 1 the nozzles at'the periphery of the group tion from the walls of the conveyer that the nozzles are from each other, means of sup plying fluid under pressure to said nozzles and a conveyer having upper and lower internal walls arranged in transverse section at a tangent to the surfaces of the jets from the upper and lower rows of nozzles, the side walls of'said conveyer-\in transverse section being tangent to the surfaces of the jets from the end nozzles, the corners of said conveyer in transverse section being rounded on arcs struck from (points axially in line with the centers of sai end nozzles, whereby the jets from the nozzle Wlll impinge upon the walls of the conveyer and upon each other in the same transverse plane.
4; A jet blowing apparatus comprising a plurality of nozzles arranged in rows, each nozzle in each row being an equal distance from the adjoining nozzles of all the rows the nozzles at the periphery of the group being half the distance in transverse direction from the walls of the conveyer that the nozzles are from each other, means for supplying fluid under pressure to said nozzles, and a conveyer having upper and lower internal walls arrangpd in transverse section at a tangent to t e surfaces of the jets from the upper and lower rows of nozzles, the'side -walls .of said conveyer being in transverse section tan ent to the surfaces of the jets from the en nozzles, the corners of said conveyer beingroundedin transversesection 'on arcs struck from points axially in line with the centers of sald end nozzles, the inlet end of said conveyer flaring outwardly from a point'nearits inlet end, said conveyer from plane.
the inner end of said flaring part gradually converging for a portion of its length and then gradually enlarging towards its outlet end, whereby the jets" from all the nozzles will impinge upon the walls of the conveyer and upon each other in the same transverse 5. A jet blowing apparatus comprisinga nozzle whose internal diameter gradually 1ncreases from its inlet to its outlet, the smallest diameter of said nozzle being so proportioned with respect to the largest diameter thereof that fluid under a certain pressure entering said nozzle will expand to approximately atmospheric ressure before it leaves said nozzle, in comliinat'ion with a conveyer open at its ends and formed with an inwardly contracted entrance throat and whose interior radually converges for a short distance rom its throat and then gradually enlarges towards its outlet, the smallest diameter of said conveyer being located at such a point in the length of the conveyer that the jet from the nozzle .will travel beyond said point of smallest diameter before it has enlarged sufficiently to impinge upon the inner surface of the conveyer, said conveyer being arranged axially inline with the longitudinal center line of the nozzle, and the nozzle being outside of said conveyer adjacent to its invlet, whereby the air currents will move inward and entirely surround the nozzle.
In testimony whereof I hereunto aflix my signature in the presence of two witnesses this 10 day of January 1907.
GEO.- O. TorTEN, GEO. R. FORD.