US 871655 A
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APPLICATION FILED 00111, 1905.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
EDWARD JARVIS WINSLOW, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that EDWARD JARVIS WINs- LOW, a citizen of the United States, residing at Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, has invented certain new and use ful Improvements in Reinforced Vaults, of
which the following is a specification.
- in one place, transported to another and there set up and otherwise handled as a unit without damage. It has been difiicult heretofore to properly handle large vessels and the like when constructed mainly of waterproof plastic material on account of the fact that, in general, such vessels and the plastic material employed in the making thereof have so little tensile strength as to be insufficiently resistant against rupture; especially so when subjected to the rough usage that must necessarily attend any translocation of the vessel. Broadly-speaking, I realize a vessel free from such recited defects by introducing elements of great tensile strength 1n such a Way that they will receive and rebut the major tensile strains that may arise throughout the structure, and yet not interfere with the advantageous properties of the plastic material comprised in the structure.
Prior constructions have been particularly lacking in the provision of suitable points of attachment for the long chains employed in the lifting of such vessels. Such points will usually be in the form of a protruding hook or eye which I brace against movement by a peculiar tensional framework hereinafter 'described. This bracing is advisable, inas- -much as the distortive strain, imposed upon the hooks by the lifting ropes or chains, considerably increases the tendency to fracture the plastic structure. It will be found in practice that my present invention over comes such defects and that a vessel made in accordance with the herein stated description will be capable of being safely handled with grbat facility by means of hog chains or the like.
A further object of this invention is to devisc and formulate a waterproof cell of any Specification of Letters Patent.-
Application file-l October 17.1905- Serial No. 2884114! Patented Nov. 19, 1907.
size or form, within the limits of convenient transportation and handling, which will be adapted to be manufactured in one locality and subsequently set up in another, either underground oroth'erwise as the preference may be. In this way, the vaults may be most cheaply and well made and their perinanent/ installation accomplished without loss of time in accumulating materials and skilled constructors in given localities.
As this invention may be better expressed and made comprehensive to those skilled in the arts to which it more specifically relates, I have appended, as a part of this specification, drawings showing a preferred embodi ment of the underlying principles of my in shows details of the eye-bolt attachment as applied to the top of the vault. Fig. 3 shows the same as adapted to the bottom. Fig. 4 illustrates one manner of disposing the tensioned strands when the vault has a general elliptical shape, adapting it for use 1n narrow and restricted spaces.
Referring now to such figures by means of reference letters, it will be seen that the base of the vessel comprises among other elements, a taut skeleton frame-work. This feature has a two fold function; it perpetually serves to assist in supporting and otherwise bracing the floor of the vessel remlering the whole more rigid, but it especially assists in reserving the integrity of the vault when it is being temporarily hoisted by means of chains or the like ailixed to the periphery of the base, in that it directly takes up the strain imposed upon such base by said chains. This is apparent when it is noted that the chain pull will be mainly resolved along the radial tension members. As in the embodiment here disclosed, I may eonstruct such base frame-work in a most simple manner by providing an exterior or rini of iron or other rigid material, and in form either circular, elliptical or otherwise, with an interior ring located centrally therein and connecting radial strands. Such hoop 'l have designated on the drawings by 1, and
while I prefer to make it of angle iron, other shapes and materials may be substituted according to the requirements arising out of special circumstances. Also such hoop may be made of an integral piece or formed in several sections, which are suitably united, as by means of rivets, bolts or the like, and the hooks or other points of hog chain attachment maybe integral with said rim or may be separately attached thereto as when eye-bolts are employed. Centrally located with respect to the aforesaid hoop, is a device connected thereto by means of suitable tension members. While I do not limit my invention tothe particular adaptation here shown, because many other modes of holding the converging tension. member .ends' may be resorted to, such as pieces formed after the fashion of hubs'of bicycle wheels and the like, I prefer to use for such device a simple ring 2, constructed of the desired material and of suitable strength, and radially emanating from points of attachment to said ring are a series oftension members 3.. Instead of this one ring however, I may em,-
ploy a number arranged in a concentric or other relationship, in which case the strands would connect adjacent rings, or I may entirely dispense with any such device by con necting the strands at each end to the hook member. The general construction and arrangement of such tension members as here shown, is however the one I prefer to use in practice, mainly on account of its simplicity and ease of construction combined with the qualities of great durability and strength. Such parts may consist of double strands of tough wire, which are twisted to the requisite degree of tension by means of short pieces 4 40 inserted between such strandsfor that purpose, the twisted wire whenso resilient and springy as to tend to untwist, being prevented from undergoing any such reflex action on account of positioning an end of said short 'pieces so as to be embedded between twists of the adjacent strand, orelse resting it thereagainst so as to be maintained in such'position by the torsional tendency of the tensioned member. t-icularly where the wire is particularly malleable and ductile, I find in practice that such short pieces maybe entirel removed. The wire strands may be twisted t an extent as to secure'the requisite tension therein and at the same time acquire a temporary set so as to prevent their premature untwisting. Such twisted strands, when embedded in cement permeating and filling all interstices, will resist any unbending tendency set up by variousstrains resulting from miscellaneous causes, the hardened cement entirely preventing any torsional movement. be'twisted by any preferable means; for example, the instruments especially 'devised In many instances, par
ogether to such It is obvious that the wires may for twisting fencing wire may be employed or other devices may be resorted to to attain this end. While I prefer to use wire for such tensioned members and run the same in double twisted strands, it is obvious that in some instances it may be desirable tc'nresort to other expedients. Thus, for wire may be substituted rods and" instead of obtaining the tension by means of twists, it may be de'-' rived from screws thread and nuts. 7 5
Again, it will be noted that the twisted wire work andthe transverse twisting rods form a fabric exceedingly well adapted for the surrounding lastic material to cling to on account of t e numerous irregularities and interstices aflorded therefor. In case the wires are twisted by any sort ofrods which are subse uently withdrawn, the lastic cement will ow into the openings left by such rods and set therein and therearound so' as to form an interlocking entity which will be exceedingly durable. The same effect may be obtained by employing rods of irregular shape.
The tension members may be, if desired,
find preferable in practice, in which case, in-
stea of a hoop sha ed angle plate, I employ a flat piece of ban steel into which are ri'veted eye-bolts. Such construction possesses many advantages, thus 'it admits of being completely covered with a protective coating of plastic water-proofing material in a more secure manner than the angle iron form. It will be clearl perceived that the base is particularly we 1 adapted for being reinforced in this manner to any desired degree of rigidity and tension, and in the construction here shown, it will be readily seen that the strands are so distributed throughout the whole as to most perfectly adapt them for base or floor of the vessel, and render some resistance to pressure of soil, etc. In lifting the vault, the hoisting chains may be readily aflixed to peripherally located hooks 15, which are provided on the exterior of the hoop and securely fastened thereto b means of rivets or other suitable uniting e ements. In ordinary instances, four such hoisting or hog-chains will be employed, each affixedto a hook located at the distance of a quadrant from the adjacent ones. The chains or cables will converge in pairs toward an .in-
verted U shaped shoe, the cables running along the cylindrical surface of the vault and attaching to books at the extremities of the shoe arms. A beam or yoke is arranged above the vault and extends diametrically thereacross so as to protrude 'suiiicientlybeyond the upper circumference to afford a support for the inverted U shaped shoes g the yoke being suspended from 'a block which. straddle it. This, arrangementwill insure a uniform lift along the four cables tackle. attaching medially thereto. The
aforesaid tensioned'frame-work will preferably be embedded in the cement constituting-the bottom structure of the vessel as shown in the accompanying illustrations, andwill be nearer the under surface thereof in order that all possible tension maybeeliminated from 'the cementitious material, which however, iswell qualified to bear the compression components. In the course of constructing my'invention, it will be easiest to first make the tensioned frame-work and then apply thereto and therearound the plastic material or cement in such a way as to thoroughly cover such frame-work and form as close a union thereto as possible.
In order that the floor may be furtherstrengthened I may provide an additional embedded strengthening means consisting of an open mesh fabric or Wire netting which may be of any form. Such wire work may be readily obtained in a great diversity of construction, or it may be made up in special adaptations for articular vaults. Such b'ottom wire work Thave designated as 6,
' and 'a-s'shown by the drawing it is embedded'in a plastic material forming a part of the floor at a slight distance above the ten sioned frame-work, this being the preferred location. However, if it is so desired, it may be otherwise positioned with relation to the tensioned frame-work, the purpose being to form a floor construction of the utmost strength and rigidity consistent with economy, efficiency anddurability of construc- ,latteradds to the strength and durability of the same, it will in ordinary instances be em-- ployed. Such side network, which I have here designated as 9, may be, as in the case of the flooring net work, of any preferred sha e and design, but when employed it will pro erably be oinedto the floor-wire work y twisting the terminals of adjacent wirestogether as shown. Other means .of attachment, such as soldering or welding, may be resorted to according to the references of the constructor. One mode 0 constructing such side walls, more particularly with respect to what is possibly the most advantageous manner of doing so may be understood by means of reference to my Patent No. 772,117 granted Oct. 11, 1904, in which a method of making certain vaults comprising embedded wire mesh somewhat analogous to the herein described is covered, or I may make spiral circumferential convolutions of a long continuous wire so as to' form a seamless side reinforcement.
, Since in some cases but little strain will fall upon the top 10 of the vault, and moreover as'such top will ordinarily be braced against downward ressures by the cellular interior frequently ttedup in the vault, I do not always incorporate the wire mesh fabric therewithin, though it will be convenient in other instances, as when an interiorly placed yoke is used for hoisting purposes, to do so after the embodiment of In principle as shown by the mesh desi nate as 18. With a top suitably reinforce to resist strains imposed by the weight of the entire structure,
this mode of hoisting the same, by means of a' supporting yoke extending diagonally across the vault within the same and bearing up against the under side of the top, is very satisfactory in practice insome instances. Such yoke is medially suspended from a suitable tackle extending through the manhole in the top.. As the Weight of the soil carried by the top will ordinarily produce transverse strains. of progressively increasing intensity toward the under surface, the
wire mesh will be located as near such sur-.
face as possible in order that it may efficiently carry such tensile strains. Such mesh may be firmly united to a central ring '19, in any suitable way such as heretofore referred to with respect to the bottom construction to further enhance the effectiveness of the supporting power. The plastic top is commonly formed ,inte ral with the plastic side walls and may be uilt thereon in the manner outlined in my sai prior patent, or any other preferred manner of constructing'the same may be resorted to within the underlying principle of my invention. When the vault is used for containing electop will be provided with a suitably located aperture or vent 11, in order that a suitable conduit will be provided for the electrical conductors running therefrom.- Such aperthe dome .14, whi -h is advisably so applied trical cells or when other like need arises, such thereto as to be perfectly water-tight its joints. Suchunion will perferably be made by grouting or. otherwise cementing on the cover thereby causing it. to cohere t6 the I The bend or reduction 14' may 'beeither made of like material ora suitable dome of iron or metal of conical shape may be ado ted but in such minor details the par-' ticu ar construction employed must needs largely depend upon the circumstances surrounding such case. This dome will be flanged at 15 so as to' provide for receiving a manhole cover 16. In case the vault isused for electrical cells, transformers, or the like, a series of tubes or apertures 17 will be provided in the ca so that the conductors may be properly eadtherethrough. The cap or dome is also frequently strengthened by a reinforcing which may be embedded .in the walls and top and in the rise around the hatch and may have a ring if preferred around the hatch-way in much the same manner as in the underlying chamber.
The vault as av Whole is generally useful when buried underground with the super- .osed'subsidiary cap or chamber protruding. uch vault will be found to be of service'in affording a satisfactory means of storing combustible or dangerous materials, electrical batteries and the like. The dome permite of a ready handling and ins ction of the conductors or the like passing therethrough. a
It will be obvious that many variations may be made in detail in the constructiondescribed by the foregoing without departingfrom the spirit of my invention; the scope whereof is comprehended inthe following claims.
l. A water-proof vault comprising a main underlying chamber of substantially cylin drical shape and provided with a centrally located hatch-way in the top thereof, said hatch-way being rovided with a removable cover, and a relatlvely high subsidiar cylindrical dome superposed upon said chamber and covering the aforesaid hatch-way, and granted hermetically; onto said chamber, said dome provided wit remevable cover therefor.
2. A waterproof, vault com rising an underlying chamber and a top atch-way provided with a removable cover,'said hatchway being protected by a super osed' impervious dome having a to man ole, said chamber tures leadlng into said dome, and the latter presidingsuitable exit apertures, whereby a top man hole and a roviding suitab econduit aper an electrical conductor may pass from within the exterior of said vault.
material comprising a main chamber adapted to be buried deeply underground for safely, containing electrical batteries, said main chamber being provided adjacent its bottom with a plurality of protruding. members adapted to be engaged by a suitable elevating means, whereby the vault may be hoisted,
to said chamber and distribute the hoisting strains to prevent the rupture of said chambatteries will pass, "and openings .into said smaller chamber and from'tlfence into said larger chamber for the admission of a "person.
4. Awater-Proof vault com rising an imderlying main chamber. provi ed with a substantially flat to a hatch-way havingv a circumscribing raise hoop located in said top, said main chamber being provided adjacent its bottom with a plurality of protruding members adapted to be engaged by a suitable elevating means, whereby the vault, may be hoisted, a-means arranged to reinforce said members to said chamber and distribute the hoisting strains to prevent the rg ture of said chamber, and a superposed ome resting upon said top in waterroof union therewith-and covering said hatc -Way.
5. A waterproof vault com rising an substantiall flat top having a man hole vided adjacent. its bottom with a lurality of protruding members adapted to be engaged by a suitable elevating means, whereby the vault may be hoisted, 'a means arranged to reinforce saidmembers tosaid chamber'and distribute the hoisting strains to prevent the rupture of said chamber, and a superposed dome having a like opening and covering the former, said top providing conductor OI'lfiGGS leading into said dome and the latter providing exit orifices for said conductors such orifices extending through the side wall of said dome.
6. A vault having top, bottom and side walls of homogenous impervious plastic material having embedded therein-a continuous Wire cage terminating in a rigid-ring circumscribing .a top vault hatch-way, and a subs'idiary dome having a top around said hatch-Way, and conduit orifices passing through the topof said vault into. said supe osed chamber and corresponding chamber whereby an electrical conductor may ass therethrough.
a tension frame-worktembe a means arranged to reinforce said members her, and a superposed smaller chamber through which the conductors from said underlying main chamber provi ed with a.
n a vault, a bottomof lasti'cmaterial, ded therein and the chamber into and through the dome to 3. A water-proof vault of 'cementitioustherethroug said main chamber being proman-hole and resting 1n hermetic union w1th said vault top outlet on ces within the side walls of sai fixed to the aforesaid mem members attached to said frame-work and protruding exterior thereof, whereby an elevating means may be affixed thereto and saidvault be lifted without jfracturing the same.
8. A water-proof vault of plastic material having as an element of construction of the bottom thereof a frame-work composed of a number of tensioned twisted wires embedded within said p'astic material, and members extending from attachment to said framework. to the exterior of said vault and oisting said vault. 9. In a contalnlng vessel, a base hoop and a series of converging tensioned members attached thereto, said hoop and members being embedded in the plastic imperforate floor of'said vessel, and a lurality of external hooks attached. tov said hoop, whereby lifting strains applied to said hooks will be evenly distributed throughout said floor. 10. A vault having a floorof lastic'materialconverging tensioned mem ers embedded therewithin and extending from the center thereof, and a supporting hoop afers and external hooks affixed to said hoop whereby lifting strains'wil be evenly distributed throughout said floor. e
11., A water proof vault comprising a chamber having a substantially flat top surrounding an opening therethrough, a ring of rigid material embedded within the plastic material constituting said top around aforesaid opening, eye-bolts aflixed so said ring, and 'a web of tensioned wires extending from attachment with said eye-bolts to the side wall of the chamber, a reinforcement in the bottom of said vault, and rigid members bonded to said reinforcement and protruding externally of said side wall whereby said vault may be elevated by means of said members.
12. In a water roof vault, a base hoop, a series of radiallydisposed eye-bolts interiorly adapted to be engaged by a suitable meansfor positioned eye-bolts in attachcombination; a main chamber having sub- I stantially flat top and bottom walls connected by a cylindrical side wall, said walls being composed of cement, the top wall being provided with a centrally located hatchway; a removable cover fitted over said hatchway and having a hoop in peripheral engagement therewith; a relativel high subsidiary dome of substantially cyhndrical sha e superposed upon said to and covering sai hatch-way, said dome being grouted to said underlyim chamber and provided with exit orifices fbr electric conductors, said dome being provided with a hatchway in the rise thereof; a removable cover normally in interfitting relation with said hatchway; a wire mesh embedded in said main chamber and continuously extending from the bottom thereof to attachment with an embedded ring circumscribing the hatchway in the chamber top, a series of twisted tensioned wires embedded in said bottom and radially dis ose d; and a hoop to which said wires are a 'xed.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
EDWARD JARVIS WINSLOW. Witnesses:
EDITH O. SARLES, ALBERT F. NATHAN.