US 872598 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATENTED DEC. 3, 1907. E. A. WATTS & E. G. MORRISON.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 12. 1906.
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. PATENTED DEC. 3, 1907; E. A. WATTS & E. G. MORRISON.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 12. 1908.
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To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that we, ELMERQAr VVATTS and EDWARD G. MORRISON, citizens of the United States, residing at Springfield, in the 5 county of Clark and'State of Ohio, have in vented certain new and. useful Improve: ments in Gas-Engines, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings.
This invention relates to gas engines, and to other explosive engines of the same general type, and has for its object to provide a construction whereby speed of the en ine may be eifected through 1% breakingof the electric circuit of the ignition device, provision being further made to economize the fuel by 1naintaining the exhaust valve closed while the ignition circuit is thus broken, so as to pre- ,vent the drawing in and expulsion of the fuel charges while the igniter is thus rendered iiioperativc.
A further object of the invention is to dispense with the usual side shaft, gearing and cams employed to transmit motion from the engine shaft and to operate the valves.
More specifically, our invention has for its ob ect to provide a simple, compact and efficient mechanism whereby the desired results above indicated may be obtained, and to these endsour invention consists in certain novel features which we will now proceed to 4 describe, and will then particularly point out in the claims. 1
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view of a gas engine embodying our invention in one form; ig. 2 is a view of one of the fly wheels and the governor. thereon; Fi 3 is an enlarged detail the cylinder forming a part of the valve-operating apparatus; and Fi 4 is a det'ailview of the contact ring whic 1 v cooperates with the governor shown in Fig. 2. i In the present instance, we have chosen for our invention a well known form of gas engine, but we wishit to be understood that our invention is not limited in its application to this particular form of engine.
In the en ine chosen for purposes of illustration, 1 indicates the supporting frame, and 2 the. cylinder, containing the piston 3, .swhich, by'the connecting rod or pitman 4, operates the en ine shaft- 5 through the fi nrank 6, said sha t being shown as having a the regulation of the Specification of Letters latent. Application filed January 12 1906. SerialNo. 295.692.
Patented Dec. 3, 190?.
fly wheel 7 at each end. The engine is shown as of the vertical type.
8 indicates the igniter, which, in the present instance, is shown as an electric igniter of the jump-spark type. 9 indicates the inlet valve, which is an inwardly opening valve, normally, closed by a spring 10, and opened by the suction ofthe piston during the charging stroke. Any approved valve of this type may be employed.
11, indicates the exhaust valve, whichlis also shown as an inwardly opening valve,
provided with a stem 12 and held normally closed by a spring 13.. I
Y In the wall of the cylinder 2 therev is formed a port 14', so located that the piston just passes beyond the same at the end ofits outward stroke. through inder 16, located at the side of the main cylinder 2 and preferably in a position at right angles thereto.
The cylinder-16 has an opening 17,- at its inner end, through which the passage-.15
establishes connection'between the interior of the cylinder 16 and port 14. The cylin der 16 has an opening 18, through which extends the outer or free end of the exhaust This port communicates a passage 15 with an auxiliary cylvalve stem 12, in the present instance, its
lower end. Directly opposite the opening 18 there is formed in the cylinder 16 anopening 19, through which extends the free end, in the present'instance, the upper end, of an actuating rod 20. This rod is'operated, at
proper intervals from the engine shaft to open the exhaust valve by any suitable mechanism. In the present instance, we have shown for thispurpose a rocking-lever 21, to one arm of which the lower. end of the actuating rod 20 is pivotally and slidingly connected, the other end of said rocking leverbeing operated by a rod 22 from a cam or eccentric 23 onthe engine shaft. The actuating rod 20 is thus 'reciproeated once for each revolution of the engine. The distance separating the adjacent ends of' the actuatin rod 20 and exhaust valve stem 12 is such, owever, that the formerdoes not come into contact with the latter during. its movements. The connection betweenrthe actuating rod and valve stem isefiected at the proper time by the mechanism which we will. now proceed to describe. l
Within the cylinder 16 there is located a piston 24, having formed therein a slot 25,
theresent mstance. This block; is of alen t such that it can pass between the end of t e valve stem 12 wlthin the c linder 16 and the; opposite wall oi? said cylinder, and its relations with the piston 24 are such that it travelsin 'unison with saidpiston. Any approved construction may be em' loyed to t end, but that which we re erv is the construction shown, in which t e piston 24 is composed of-two parts, having a supplemental portion 27, provided with a'stem or rod 28, guided through a suitable aperture. in the removable outer head 29 of the cylinder 16 and extending into the groove 25 in the body oi'the piston 24 so that its inner end 30 forms a guide for one side of the connectin block 26, the o posite guide being formed by the end wall 31 of the slot 25, Springs 32 and 33 act upon the opposite ends of the piston, counterbalancing each Gillie/l and holding the piston normally in the position shown in the drawings; The spring 32 bears a ainst the inner head of thecvlinder 16 and against the adjacent end of the body proper of the piston 24, while the spring 33 1s coiled around the outer portion i the stem 28, hearing at one end against -t e supplemental portion 27 of the iston vided with an exhaust passage 34, communicating with one end of the cylinder through a port 35, normally closed by the piston 24, and with the other end of the cylinder by a port 36, normally open, said exhaust passage communicating with the atmosphere or any other suitable outlet through a port 37. I
Referring to the structural features thus far described, it will be seen that, when the engine is running under normal conditions,
said engine being an engine of the four .cycle type, during the first or'charging outstroke of the piston 3, the charge is drawn in through the inlet valve 9 in the usual manner, and when the piston passes and uncovers the port 14, there being no pressure in the cylinder 2, the piston 24 in the-cylinder 16 is unaffected, and remains in the position shown, in which the connecting or transmission block 26 lies at one side of the path of the actuating rod 20, and this latter moves into the slot 25 in said piston without affecting the exhaust valve. It should be noted in this connection that the extreme limit of nd at the other end against the hea 29 of ,thecylinder 16. The cylinder 16 is prothis inward movement of the actuating rod 20 is such as to prevent it from coming into contact with the inner end of the stem or red.
28, which'now'lies in its path. During the next movement 'ofthe main piston3, which is its first inward or compression stroke, the
piston 24 remains quiescent, andtheactuating rod 20 moves outward again, withdrawing from the slot 25; The next out ward stroke of the main piston 3 occurs after ignition and explosion of the charge, and
pressure therefore exists Within the main cylinder 2; When the main piston 3 is moved outward far enou h' to uncover the port 14,. the gases un er ressure pass throu h said port andthroug the passage 15 and 16, where theyact upon the piston 24, and move it toward the right of Figs. 1 and 3, thereby bringing the connecting or transmission block 26 into the path of the actuating cylinder opening 17 into the cylinder,
rod 20 andexhaust valve stem-12. At the I to its original position by means of the s ring 33, thus again moving the connecting lock out of the path of the actuating rod. Thereupon the same cycle of operations occurs.
It will be noted that the port 36 and exhaust passage 34 permit the air to esca e from in front of the piston 24 in the cylin er 16 while it is moving outward or to the right, thus preventing resistance b compression 'tov such movement, until sai piston, or, in the present instance, its supplementary portion 27, has closed the port 36. This occurs before the-piston reaches. the end of the cylinder in that direction, so that whatever air remains in the cylinder forms acushion for the piston at the endof its movement in that direction. main body of the'piston 24 will uncove the port 35 after it has moved'a predetermined distance, and will thereby permit the escape of any surplus pressure which may be shut in between the body of the main piston 3 and the piston 24 during the first portion of the return stroke of the main piston, While the port 14iskept closed by the 'body of said main piston. The spring 33 cushions the re- At the termination of this It will'also be noted that the body of the piston24 is provided with'a stem 'orprojection 38, which may enter and gine shaft, t
o in said cylinder. Weutilize this fact in the erased closet he aperture 17, thereby closing that end of the cylinder 16 and forming an air or gas cushion to the same end.
It will thus be seen that the construction is such that, during the normal operation of the engine, the exhaust valve is only opened once for each two inward strokes of the main piston, this result being accom lished without the employment of any sha ting, gearing or cams such as ordinarily required to obtain this result by motion derived from the enereby materially reducing the cost of the machine by its increased simplicity, and increasing its eliiciency.
It will be noted that the construction just described is such that the exhaust valve is opened to permit the escape of the contents the main cylinder only after an explosion governing of the engine by employing a governor which controls the ign lter in such a way as to prevent ignition'iupon any undue increase 1n speed, and by reason of this, when the igniter is thus rendered inoperativeduring excessive sieed, the engine no longer draws in and exhausts fresh charges, thus wasting fuel, but merely compresses and permits the expansion of the same charge one'or more times, until the speed falls to the extent necessary to cause the governor to again render the igniter operative, whereupon this charge is exploded, and the normal '0 oration of the engine proceeds as before. he particular type of governor which we. prefer for this purpose is that,
shown, whichwe have devised. This governor comprises a lever 39, fulcrumed between its ends at 40 on one of the fly wheels 1, 'end preferably on the inner face thereof. This leveris provided with a centrifugallyacting weight 41 o one side of its fulcrum, while a con trifugally-acting spring 42 is conncctvd to said lever on theother side of its fulcrum, as indicated at 43, the other end of said spring being connected to the fly wheel at 44. i that at which the-connection"43 is located is provided with a contact roller 45, which is in electrical connection in any suitable manner with one part of the ignition circuit. usually, the entire engine forms a part of this circuit, and, in the present instance, the
roller is assumed to be thus connected. 46 indicates an insulating ring or annulus, having a body of insulating material with a contact plate of conducting material 47 set into and forming a part of its outer peripheral surf-ice. This contact plate 47 is connected in any suitable manner, for instance, by a conductor 48, with one oi the terminalsor points 49 of the igniter 8, the other terminal 50 of said igniter being in electrical connection with the roller 45. The ring 46 is supported in a stationary i'ositioi in any suitable manner. Prefers; ly we mount the The end of the lever 39' opposite to Most said ring upon the projecting end of one of the bearings 51 of the engine shaft 5, the
same being reduced, as indicated at 52, to
receive said ring. Attached tothe ring is a bracket 53, in which. is mounted alocking bolt 54,-normally pressed toward the bearing 51 by a spring 55. The bearing is provided with a plurality of notches or recesses 56, mdicated in dotted lines in Fig.4, with any of which the end of the locking bolt 54 may be engaged, and whenin such engagement it will hold the ring 46 stationary and prevent rotation thereof, It will be seen, however, that the ring may be turned upon the bearing which constitutes its support in such-a 30 way as to shift the position of the contact plate 47- and thereby cause the roller 45 to come into contact with said plate and close the ignition circuit at differentperiods of the stroke of theengine.
ad'ustment of the contact ring 46.
n the normal operation of the engine, running at normal speed or below, which speed can be regulated in the usual manner by the engine, an explosion is produced. The alternate circuit closings occur at the end of the exhaust stroke, so that no explosion is produced. Upon an undue increase in speed, the centrifugal action of the weight 41 overcomes the o posing action of the spring 42,
and moves t 1e roller 45 out of contact with the ring'46, thereby preventing the closing of the ignition circuit. When this occurs, no explosion is possible, the exhaust valve re- 0 f u mains closed, and the same charge rcplnams inthe engine cylinder, being alter ately compressed and permitted to expand, untll the speed falls suiliciently for the governor to again niovc the roller 45 into contact with the ring 46. When this contact is restablished, the charge is exploded u on the first contact of the roller with the p ate 47, and,- the normal 0 eration of the engine begins at, once, regard ess of the original cycle.
der with the igniter cut out of action by the governor, no fresh charge can be drawn in,
since there is no sucking actionof the englne, no' m nus pressure being produced in the cylinder by the outward movement of the piston. We do not wish to be understoodas limiting ourselves to the prefeisedetails of con;-
structionhereinbefore described and seem The time at which 85 ignition occurs can thus be controlled by the ate 47 once during each revolution of the 95 It' will be understood, of course, that when an 120 unexploded charge is thus held in the cylinin the accompanying drawings, as it is obvious that these details may be varied without departing from the principle of our invention.
Having thus fully described our invention,
. What we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent isz- 1. In an explosive engine of the four cycle type, the corn ination, with a main cylinder,
a piston therein, and an exhaust valve and I its stem, of an auxiliary cylinder into which said valvestem enters, said cylinder cornmunicating with the main cylinder, an auxiliary piston mounted in said auxiliary cylinder, a connecting or transmission member .carried by said auxiliary piston within its cylinder and movable relatively thereto, and an actuating rod reciprocated by the engine and entering said auxiliary cylinder, said auxiliary ,piston being normally so positioned that the transmission member is out of the path of the actuating rod, and being moved by the-explosive forces to a position such that said member is engaged by said rod and engages the exhaust valve stem, substantially as described.
2. In an ex losiv e engine of the four cycle type, the com ination, with ainain cylinder and its piston, of an auxiliary cylinder communicating therewith and piston, an exhaust valve having a stem entermg said auxiliary cylinder on one side thereof,'an actuating rod reciprocatedby the engine at each revolution thereof and entering the auxiliary cylinder on theoppositesidethereof, and a transmission member carried by the auxiliary iston Within its cylinder and adapted-to e interposed between the actuating rod and exhaust valve stem by the movement of the auxiliary piston when an explosion occurs in the main cylinder, said auxiliary pistonibeing normally so positioned that said transmission member is out ofitne path of the actuating rod, substantially as described. I
3. In a four cycle as engine, the cpmbrhation, with a main cy inder and its piston, of
an exhaust valve having a stem, and an actuating rod reciprocating in alinement there-.
with, an auxiliary cylinder communicating 'with the main cylinder, ana'uxiliary piston mounted therein and slotted transvbrsely to receive the ends of the valve sem and actuating rod, and a transmission block mounted to slide transversely of the piston in said slot, said block being moved to a position between the ends of the rod and valve stem when the auxiliary piston is actuated by an explosion in the main cylinder, substantially as depcribed. I
4. In .an explosive engine, an exhaust valve operating device comprisingan auxil iary cylinder communicating with the main cylinder at one end and closed at theother end, a piston fitting said cylinder and prorovided with 8/' vided with a transmitting member movable by the piston to a position to transmit. movement from an actuating rod to the exhaust valve stem, an exhaust port for the commu valve stem and its actuating rod enter, a two,
part piston/fittim said cylinder and having springs interposed between it and the cylinder heads on each side, the'main or body portion of said piston being transversely,
slotted to receivethe ends of the exhaust valve stem and actuating rod and having a transmission block adapted to slide therein, the supplemental portion of'the piston having a stem extending into the slot ofthe body portion and serving as a guide for the transmissionblock, substantially as, described.
6. In an explosive engine, the combination, with a main cylinder and its piston, of an exhaust valve having astem, an actuating rod extending in alinement. therewith and out of contact with the same, means for reciprocating said rod, an auxiliary cylinder connected with said main cylinder, a piston moving therein, a part actuated by said piston and adapted to be interposed between said valve stem and said actuating, rod to op eratively connect the same when the piston I in said auxiliary cylinder is moved to its outer position by an explosion in the niain cylinder,
slbstantially as described.
7 7. In an explosive engine, thecombina tion, with a main cylinder and its piston, of.
an exhaust valve having a stem, a reciprocating rod actuatedfrom the engine, guideways arranged'inalinement and adapted to receive the adjacent ends of said valve stem and said rod, and a part actuated by the ex,-
plosion in said cylinder and adapted to be interposed bet-ween said valve stem and said rod to operatively connect the same, substantially as described.
8. In an explosive engine, the combination, with a main cylinder, audits piston, of
' an exhaust valve having a stem, an actuating rod extending in permanent alineriient therewith, means for reciprocating said rod,
an auxiliary cylinder connected .with said jmam cylinder, a piston moving therein, a
part actuated by said piston and adapted to be inter-posed between said valve stem and said actuating rod to operatively connect the same when the piston in said auxiliary cylinder is moved to its outer position by an explosion in the main cylinder, substantially as described.
9. In an explosive engine, the combinatively connect said vaive sitem and said ae tion, with a main cylinder and its piston, of tnating rod, substantially as described.
an auxiliary cylinder connected to said main In testimony whereof, We affix our sigma cylinder and having a piston, an ezhaus't turesinpresence of two witnesses,
5 .Va ve having a'stem exten ing into sai aux- I iliary cylinder, an actuating rod extending Y ?R into said auxiliary cylinder opposite said a s valve stem, means for actuating said rod Witnesses: from the engine, and a part actuated by the E. O. HAGAN,
lo'piston in said auxiliary cylinder to operai IRVINE MILLER.