US 876171 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 876,171. PATENTED JAN. 7, 1908. P. W. GRASZYNSKI. FIRBPROOF BUILDING.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 29.1907.
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PATENTED JAN. 7, 1908.
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APPLICATION FILED MAY 29. 1907.
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No. 876,171. PATENTED JAN. 7, 1908. P. W. GRASZYNSKI. FIREPROOP BUILDING.
APPLICATION FILED MAYZQ. 1907.
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PAUL WILHELM GRASZYNSKI, OF TEMPELHOF, NEAR BERLIN, GERMANY.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. '7, 1908.
Application filed May 29. 1907. Serial 110.376.3234.
T 0 all whom it may concern:
Be it known that 1, PAUL l/VILHELM GRAsZYNsKr, engineer, a subject of the German Emperor, residing at Tempelhoi", near Berlin, Germany, Dorfstrasse 19/20, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in a Fireproof Building, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to fire-proof buildings such as theaters, concert halls and other assembly rooms.
The object of the invention is to provide a fire-proof building of simple construction having an assembly room with two fixed floors superposed one over the other and both provided with openings the higher of which is normally filled out by a movable floor adapted to be lowered into the opening of the under-floor and connected with slides which are automatically moved in said higher opening when the movable floor is lowered and so shut off the assembly room from the under-floor in a fire and smoketight manner.
A further object of the invention is to provide galleries in the assembly room of a fireproof building, which are provided with ourtains adapted to be lowered downwardly for closing also the galleries in a fire-proof and smoke-tight manner.
Another object of the invention is to provide actuating devices for the movable floor and the curtains of the galleries, which are electrically operated for the purpose of enabling the curtains and the movable floor together with the slides for the higher flooropening to be actuated in unison.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification in which similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the views.
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section through a theater showing the two floors and the galleries of the assembly room in the normal position and appearance before the outbreak of a fire. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section through the same theater showing the movable floor lowered and the galleries closed after the outbreak of a fire. Fig. 3 is in an enlarged scale a plan view corresponding to Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic side view of a protecting slide and its actuating device. Figs. 5 and 6 are plan views of a slide combined with auxiliary slides, which are represented in two positions. Fig. 7 is a cross section through a gallery showing the position of the curtain.
Fig. 8 is a plan View of a gallery-curtain showing a part of its winding device. Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view showing the connection of a slide with the movable floor and Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic plan view of a device for moving the movable lloor.
Referring more particularly to the parts, 1 represents the movable floor provided with the stalls, and 2 the fixed iloor underneath. A part 2 of the fixed floor is also movable and connected with the movable floor 1 by means of columns 3. The whole construction 1 and 2 rests upon several piston rods or spindles 3 which in the height of the lower floor 2 are incased by the hollow columns 3.
In Figs. 13, the spindles 3 are adapted to be moved up anddown together with the floors 1 and 2 by a hydraulic device. By this means the floor 1 of the stalls with the spectators, in case there is danger from fire, is lowered to the level of the lower floor 2, whereupon the spectators may leave the house without any danger. In order that, as the higher floor 1 is lowered the spectators in the stalls shall be isolated from the fire by an upper rotective ceiling, I provide the slides 6 whicii are connected positively with the upper floor 1 by wires 5, chains or the like so that they will move together. The wires 5 are provided on its one end with counterweights 1. The slides 6 are made fire-proof,
consisting for instance 01 iron with an asbestos covering, and are arranged in an immovable hollow part 7 of the higher Iloor and the lobby S.
The diagrammatic view in Fig. 4 shows that upon the wire 5 is provided a catch 9 which strikes against a tappet 10 of each slide 6 and begins to move the slide 6 to the middle oi the spectators room only when the upper floor 1 of the stalls has already been lowered about two meters. As soon as the movable floor 1 has been lowered to the level of the lower floor 2, all the slides lie in the space previously occupied by the upper movable floor 1, and shut oil the interior of the spectators room from the space on the floor 2. Inversely, for carrying away the slides in the lifting of the floor 1, so that they may not be in the way during the upward movement of the said floor to its upper or normal position, I provide for instance an arm 11 pivoted to the catch 9 of the wire 5 and provided with a roll 12 running in a fixed guide 13. The inward movement of each slide 6 commences when the catch 9 of its actuating wire strikes against its tappet 10. ment of the roll upon the guide 13 provided with a rising part 14 a nose 15 on the arm 11 engages the front of the tappet 10. In the withdrawal of the slide this nose at once carries the tappet backward and consequently the slide but releases the same when the roll passes through the part 14 of the guide, so that the wire 5 with the catch 9 and arm 11 can continue to move freely in accordance with the movement of the floor of the stalls. If necessary the movement of the slide may be retarded or accelerated by suitable gearing.
In Fig. 9 is represented the manner in which a slide may be constructed and positioned in the hollow floor 7, of the building. It is assumed that the slide rests upon rollers 30, and the guide 13, 14 is supported by brackets 33 secured on the base 32. For the wire 5 guide rollers 31 are provided.
By reason of the position of the supports 16 in the outer wall 17 and of other supports for the circles (Fig. 3) there are narrow slits 18 between the slides 6, which slits are not closed up by the main slide. In order to insure a complete closure these narrow slits must be closed up by auxiliary slides. As illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, the main slides 6 are furnished for this purpose with two small lateral supplementary slides 6, which, as soon as the slides 6 have passed the supports 16, are moved laterally by shears 19 moving on the one end rollers 20 moving in a fixed guide 21 and pivoted at the other end to the slides 6. The guide 21 is provided with a forked end 21 so that when the rollers 20 of the shears 19 enter this fork the shears spreads out and moves the slides 6 sidewise.
It is expedient to use the hollow floor of the lobby 8 as an air channel. \Nith this ar rangement the spectators are supplied with fresh air from all sides directly the lowering commences so that they will be protected against any smoke there maybe already present. If there is an orchestra room it is lowered as well as the floor of the stalls, as shown at 22.
In case the floor of the stalls has boxes the occupants thereof will be protected in the same manner as those in the circles and proscenium boxes. This is effected by letting down fireproof iron screens or curtains 23 in front of the several circles. supported within the parapets 24, which for the protection of the spectators project far in front of the parapets of the circles. They are so arranged that each circle is shut off in a fire and smoke tight manner from the inner spectators room. Each curtain 23, when lowered as indicated in Fig. 2, extends downwardly a distance representing the distance from one gallery to the next lower gallery.
WVhile the boxes in the proscenium may have single curtains, a curtain for a circle consists of many narrow strips which are The curtains are During the move- By the turning of a common shaft 27 (Fig.
8) which on account of the curvature of the spectators room consists of short sections coupled together in any suitable manner, all the curtains of a circle are lowered and raised in auniform manner. As shown in Fig. 8, the several curtain strips 23 may be attached to cords or hands 28 which according to the direction of the turning movement of the shaft 27 are wound upon or from the rolls or pulleys 29 fixed upon the said shaft. The lifting and lowering are effected by motors 30 of well known construction, such as for instance by electromotors with a Windlass, which are arranged within the stage house and at one or more suitable points in the spectators house.
All the motors for the protecting curtains are set in operation in unison by switches provided at any desired points within the house, preferably at the firemens places. Each of these switches may be used for setting the protecting device in operation so that the curtains will drop down. It is immaterial whether only one or more switches are moved.
I do not wish to limit myself to the exact details of construction herein set forth, as I may utilize any equivalents thereof, provided the same are within the scope of my invention. In order to demonstrate this I have shown in Fig. 10 in which manner all the spindles 3 may be moved by a single electric motor. The spindles are provided with worm gear 34 meshing with worms 35 on shafts 37 and 38, the shaft 37 being connected by sprocket chains 39 with a third shaft 36, and by sprocket chains 40 with the shaft 38. The electric motor 41 is connected by gearing 42 with the shaft 37, and the said shaft is provided with a brake wheel 43 o erated by a brake lever 44 actuated by an e ectromagnet.
The electric circuit of the motor 41 may be dependent either upon a switch arranged together with switches for the curtain motors, or upon a switch adapted to connect also the circuits of said curtain motors.
For increasing the security of operation it is essentiaL'that all the electrical arrangements of the actuating devices for the curtains and the movable floor should be included in special circuits separated'from the others.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is 1. In a fire-proof building the combination of an assembly room with two fixed floors superposed one over the other and. both provided with openings, a movable floor in the opening of and normally registering with the higher fixed fioor and adapted to be lowered into the opening of the underfloor, a counter-weight device for said movable floor, a tappet fixed upon said counterweight device, an arm provided with a nose, said arm being pivoted to said. tappet, a fixed guide adapted to guide said arm and havinga rising part, slides adapted to be moved into the opening of the higher floor when the movable floor is lowered for shutting oil? the assembly room from the under-floor in a fireproof and smoke tight manner, a tappet on each slide, said tappet being adapted for engagement by the tappet of the counter weight device when said arm is in the rising part of the fixed guide, to move the slides to the closing position, the nose of said arm engaging the tappet of the slide when the movement of the counter-weight device is reversed.
2. In a fire-proof building, the combination of an assembly roornwith superposed fixed floors, each provided with an opening, a movable floor normally registering with the opening of the upper fixed floor and adapted to be lowered into the opening of the lower floor, slides connected with said movable floor and adapted to be moved into the opening of the upper fioor when the movable lloor is lowered whereby to shut off the upper fioor from the lower floor, supplementary slides in connection with the said slides, and means for moving said supplementary slides laterally with respect to the said first named slides when said first named slides are moved.
3. In a fire-proof building, the combination of an assembly roomwith two superposed fixed floors, each provided with an opening, a movable 'l'loor normally registering with the opening of the upper floor and adapted to be lowered into the opening of the lower floor, slides connected with said movable lloor and adapted to be moved into the opening of the upper Iloor when the movable lloor is lowered whereby to shut oIl' the upper fioor from the lower lloor, supplementary slides in connection. with the first named. slides, and means for laterally displacing the supplementary slides when the first named slides are moved, said means comprising shears having one end pivoted to the supplementary slides, and a fixed guide for engagement by the otherend of the shears.
4. In a [ire-proof building, the combination of an assembly room with two superposed fixed floors, each provided with an opening, a movable floor normally registering with the opening of the upper lloor and adapted to be lowered into the opening of the lower fioor, slides connected with said movable floor and adapted to be moved into the opening of the upper fioor when the movable floor is lowered whereby to shut oil the upper Iloor from the lower floor, supplementary slides in connection with the first named slides, 'means for moving said slides laterally with respect to the first named slides when said first named slides are moved, a gallery above the upper lloor, curtains mounted above the gallery and adapted to be lowered to shut ofi the gallery from the interior of the building, and a common actuating device for said movable fioor and said curtains whereby to operate said Iloor and curtains in unison.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two witnesses.
PAUL WlIillEhlll GRASZY NSKI.
HENRY Hasrnn, WoLDEMAR IIAUPT.