US 881821 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 881,821.. PATENTED MAR. 10, 1908.
D. L. NBWGOMB.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 23,1904.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
27 27 z5 -1 mzww f Ina/6772 Zw M @BCP ezwZLJ/fwcaw No. 881,821. PATENTED MAR. 10,1908.
k11A.Amwcolms. MECHANICAL BALLoT.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 23,1904.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
-PATENTBD MAR. io, 1908.
D. L. NBWGOMB. MECHANICAL BALLOT.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 28,1904
UNrTEDSTArns PATENT onirica.-
'DAvm L. NEwroMB,orsanjnraeo, CALIFORNIA.
MECHANICAL Bannon i N0. 881,821, spebic'ation of Letters. Patent. PatentedMarch 10, 198.
'Application led May- 2 3, 1:904. v'Serial210.209,231.
Mechanical Ballot/of which the following.
isa specification. f
This invention rel ates tofa ballot which is portable and whichispro'vided with movable members operated'by the voter for indicating the choiceeof candidates, and which` after beingjprepared by thevoter is 'ada ted to .be` placed in asuitablemachine whic registers the v o'teaccording as the ballot is prepared.
- This ballot is similar inmany'respects to, andis designed to be an'improvement on the ballot'shown 4in my applications for lpatent* SerialNumber 11 1`,561, .led June 13, :19.02," and'Serial Number 167,921 August 1, 1903,01?.
which applications this-isacontinuat'ion as to such features thereof as' are shown herein.
One form of machinewhich is adaptedtowork with `this ballot is shown in a former application of, iiiine, tiled Juner 17, 1903, Serial Number 161,773. L One vobject' ofthe inventionis to provide a ballot of the character described withfwhic'h it is possible to conform to the many-requiref men-tsat present in vogue; which is-lightV in y weight, compact, strong, accurate, easily manipulated, and `proof against fraudulent operatiom Another objectbf the invention is to pro# vide a novel, convenient and efficientdevice' by which astrai'ght ticket for either of the' political parties may bevoted by themanipulation of a single movable member.
Another Objectis to provide a novelsi,1n
f ple. .and efficient yn ieans for voting. Yes for N 0 asyon constitutional'amendments. 'Another object is to prov1de -anvel and 'efcie'ntdevice forpferrnitting the operation of eitherfon'e oftwo movable' members and lpreventing the simultaneousoperation of oth, whereb if 7 one of .the` two movable menibersisfsliiifted and the other movable memberjthen shifted, the iirst will be auto-l matically restored.
Another object is' ofyprovid'e lsimple'andv effective means l(which may readily-be set `atthe limit desired, previous to the voters manipulation ofthe ballot) whereby a certain number 0f tappets in a definite block on the ballot maybe freely erected, irrespectivel of provision being maderfor vvsegregatmg one Vor 'more sectionsl of theballot which it maybe desired to vote cumulatively.- vVVhe'n one or s more 'sections of the ballot have been so set aside for cumulative voting, the remainder of thegball'ot'is still adapted for the regular segregativ'e voting.
`lIt may happenj that `two parties, Greven more, will have the same" candidate for a certain office, and another object isto provide 'to vote for the samecandidate more than one time.
I lThe invention comprises a detached, port-l v means whereby itis'impossible for the voter at .right angles tothe ballot/,toindicatea,
ychoice of candidates, and extensible means arranged in series for limiting the number of selections so'ma'de.
The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention and referrin thereto z-.Figure 1 is a plan 'view ofthe allot with the tape .pets depressed 'in the posit-ion they have before being raisedby the voter; 'in the ln-` dependent? yc olumn,fo`ne itappet has been y shown raised-'and an Independent ballot is 4shown in-position, beingsustained by the erected tappetjand yin .the".ConstitutOnal amendments column, two tappetgs have been shown as-.moved-bythe'voter, one voting "Yes and theother NQ. 'perspective of a raised tappetfand a portion Lof the top vplate and illustrates `the 'manner in which Y an 1 Independent ballot"l is supported by* 'the yoweredge of a tappetnhen the tappet iserect;v ,f Fig. 3y is a 'planvIeW of the ballot with the top .plat-e, removed, and
gives a. comprehensive view of" the general yarrangement and .connectionsof' the trackersvv lwhich connect the tappets 'with the 'carns.
Owing, to the size of .the view and smallnesa ofthe detail features of the c 'arns Iand tappets, these details have been omitted to. prevent blurringof the' lines. Figui is ade'tai'l plan view, enlarged, ofthe erector tappetfand adjacent mechanism which is usedin voting a straight .ticket.. Fig. 5 is a View, vpartly 1n section, taken on line `xsf-15V, Fi t 4.5 Fif. is a view,= partlylin section -taven on iine -XL-XF, 4. Fig. 7 "isla side 'elevation of an ordinary tappetI 'and adjacent parte sequence or `position, forl cumulative voting,
of a lballot.4 Fig". 8 is al perspective view,
Fig. 2 rsa on a somewhat smaller scale, of a portion ofthe divider supports. Fig. 9 is a plan view, enlarged, lof eight 'cams and the adjacent dividers, divider supports, and cam shaft.v Fig. 10 is a view, partly in section,
taken on line x10-x10, Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is al detail view, on a somewhat reduced scale, taken on line x11-x,- Fig. 9, and illustrates a divider turned into'` its grooves inthe divider supports. Fig. 12 -is a vvievi7 similar to Fig. 1 1 -showing the divider turned out of the grooves. Fig. 13 is a detail view in perspective of a cam. Fig. .14 is a perspective view of a modified form'of tappet showing how the same may be constructed of one Y ieee of sheet metal. The tappet is shown 1n place on a shaft. Fig. 15 is a-sectional view taken on line x15-x15 of Fig. 19, and illustrates the manner of attaching the top and bottom plates of the ballot tothe ribs. '.Fig. 16 is a perspective view in detail showing a part of one of the ribs. Fig. 17 is a perspective view in detail showing the form of tappet used in voting forconstitutional amendments. Fig.
18 isa sectional view taken on line xls-nx, Fig. 17. Fig. ,1-9 is a transverse, vertical; sectional view taken through the ballot show- -ing only the right hand part of a ballot thus embracing but' two tappets, both of whichA are depressed, and illustrates in detail the connection between the tappets and their cams, and also the auxiliary device for alternative voting between two tappets.' Fig. 20 is a view similarl to Fig. 19,il ustrating oth .,tappets raised 'land having turned their cams.
Fig. 21 is a perspective of the form of tablet* used for independent cumulative votin The casing of the ballot comprises a ottom plate 1; ribs 2 have notches 3 which receive slotted posts 4 and the bottom 1 is de tachably'fastenedto the posts 4 by screws 5. The upper edges of the ribs are flanged and provided with perforations 6, and a to plate 7 for the ballot may be permanenty fastened to the ribs 2 by dropping solder through the perforations 6 in the ribs on to the top plate. The bottom plate, top plate and ribs are preferably'formed of a thin, light and vstrong material, and by soldering the to plate to the ribs in the manner mentione uckling and warping of the top plate is avoided. The edges of the ballot are by suitable side walls 8. y
Extending along the right hand side of the ballot a pair of walls 9 are provided which form supports for revoluble lates or dividers 10. In the present em odiment, 44 .dividers are provided spaced equirlistantl apart and pivotally mounted on a cam sha t 11. The inner faces of the divider sup orts 9 are concave and have grooves 12 whicli are adapted to receive the convex ends of the dividers 10, the ends of the dividers being curved concentrically with thecam shaft. The width of the dividers` 10 is slightly less closed than the distance between the nearest edges of the divider walls, and the dividers 10 being revoluble on the cam shaft 11- are free to be moved longitudinally of the divider walls when they are turned into the position shown in Fig. 12, while when a divider is turned on the'cam shaft 1-1 so that its convex edges enga e in the grooves in the' divider walls, it is oc.' ed against-'shifting along the cam shaft between the divider walls.
The dividers- 11 are not'. turned by the voter, but are to. be pro rlysetfor a givenl election by the proper ol cial before Athe ballot is put in 'us'e, and 'as' the dividers are housed within the casing of the ballot, they cannot be altered by the voter. Inorde'r to hold the dividers from turningI a pair of locff ing bars 13 and `14are provided which lie res ective'ly onithe up r and lower edges of the outer divider wal 9, and the lower'locling bar 14-may be fastened to the divider wall at suitable intervals by screws`15 which ass through slots 16 in the locling bar `v14. he 1oc` ing bars project slightly over the corners of the dividers and prevent the dia viders from turning out of the grooves .accidentally. By first removing the bottom 1 of the ballot from the ribs 4 and loosening the screws 15,# the locling bar 14 may be shifted sidewise ,soas to disengage the lower corners of the dividers so that as many of the dividers'as desired' ma then be turned into the osition shown in A ig. 12, after which the o'cling bar 14 is moved bac1r into its ori inal `position and the screws 15 tightened. hen this has been done` the dividers which have been turned out ofthe grooves are' free to -move alon the cam shaft, while those dividerswhic have not been turned out of the grooves are maintainedin position by the locking bars. This' device is employed for cumulative and segregative voting, the lformer being arranged for b turning the dividers vertically so as to be slidable along the cam shaft, and the latter being provided for byllo'clling the dividers in the grooves. Thus the dividers may be so arranged` that cumulative voting is possible on part ofthe ballot, while segregative voting ma be done on the other part; or, by turning a l of thedividers into the grooves, segregative voting isal'one possibleover the entire ballot.
. The cam shaft 11 extends from end. to end'.
of the ballot, and arranged in each space between the dividers lare four pair of cams, each pair comprising r' ht .and left' cams 1'7- and 18, respectively. e opposing faces of the members of a pair of cams are provided with A a pair of diametrically opposite, peripheral, segmental lugs 19 having tapered ends or shoulders 20. The facesof t e lugs 19 are parallel with 'the face-of the cam, while the tapered shoulders 20 are rather abruptnbeing preferably formed 4at an angle of thirty .degrees froml a perpendicular to the face of up, in all likelihoodhe will at plete themovement ofthe tappet to either of the positions into which it has been started. Thus, if a voter is careless in raising his .perfectly depressed, as f there is only one p oint 1n its movement where the spring would not act upon it, whichpoint is when the ear 29 is on a dead-center.
Extending from thehub at substantially right angles to the line 4of the tappetis ata pet arm 31 to the end of which is pivot ly.
attached one end. of .a tracker 32.v The tracker 32 extends along between the ribs 2 and its other end is attached toanfear of its ilpspecgtive cam (see Figs. 19 and 20.. also i 3 7. here are in Lne present embodiment eighttappets in each-horizontal row and each tappet in a; row is connected .to its respective c am in the alinedspace between the ividers, as shown in Fig.. 3. The tappet which lies nearest the earn shaft obviously will have the shortest tracker, while the tappet at theextreme left of the row will have the longest tracker, intermediate tappets havingV trackers of a length corresponding to their positions in the-ser1es.
In order to concentrate the greatest number of cams in the smallest possible space,
, the cams are made inrights andlefts as explained, and alternate `tappets in a horizontal series connect with the top ears 22, while. the other tappets in the series connect with the bottom ears 23 of the cams. Thus, the two trackers which' are 'connected to the two mates of a pair of cams, lie substantially in the same vertical plane when looked at from the top, as shown in Fig. 3, althou h, of course, there is someV divergence in t e trackers, but inlFig. 3 the lines have been drawn to show onlyfthe toptrackers, and it .may be assumed that those trackers which are connected tothe lower ears 23 lie direct-ly under the trackers shown in-Fig. 3.l
Thus, a tappet at the extremeleft of the series may be connected with its tracker to the upper 'ear 22 of the bottom cam in the series, as shown in Fig. 3 the tappetnext to the right of this tappet may be connected by its tracker (which is concealed by the firstmentioned tracker) to the lower ear 23 of the mate of the first cam mentioned; the next.
connects with the tappet arm is slightly upturned, as shown in Figs. 19 and 20, so that when a tappet is erected, as shown in Fig. 20, thev ivotal point of connection between the trac er' and the tappet arm will lie somewhat above a horizontal line drawn through the pivotal axis of the tappet, so that a slight reaction vis allowed for, the tracker which will lock vthe tappet erect, and which will insure that any tensile strain on the tracker which might occur through contact between the cams, will hold the tappet erect and not depress it, as might be the case if the pivotal point of connection lay directly ine withv the pivotal point ofthe tappet, orL
slightly below. When atappet is raisedvby the voter,.its tracker turns its connected cam and causes the cams `-in the associated series tospread and fill the space between the dividers. When the' tappet is depressed, the tracker 32 pushes the cam into its normal position andthe associated cams in the series are relaxed. As the turning of one cam of a group spreads lall the cams ofithat group so that they fill their space between two dividers, it is obvious that' only 'one tappet' ofthe eight formin a horizontal row may be raised. Thus, t e voter may erect only one tappet for a given ofhce which lies under one the seven political parties or under the Independentf He may' raise the tappets for the different offices in any sequence and may depress all, or part only, of thoseI raised, if he changes his mind, and mayerect'others in place of those he depressed.
It sometimes ha pens that two or more parties will have the same candidate to be elected.and provision has 'to be made for preventin .the voter from voting for the same. can idate twice. To this end I have provided a iexible Vconnection 34 (see Figs. 19 and 20), which is at one end connected to the tappet plate, as shown, and which runs under a smallsheave l35 and thence over a tappet, lthe connection at its other end being attached tothe bottom of the ballot. Sufficientslack is provided in the cable 34 so that only lone of the two tappets may be erected, and when one ofthe two tappets is erected the cable 34 will be taut, and it will be impossible to raise the other tappet; while if one of the two tappets has already been raised and the voter 'afterwardl raises the other tappet (which may stand for the same man under another political party), the first tappet he may have erected will be restored to its depressed position through the tightening of the cablev as the 'second tappet raises. This devicevrnay only be applied to the .ballot when necessary to provide for the contingency in which two parties nominate the same candidate.
Fig. 1 shows the appearance of the face of the ballot. The names of the political parties are printed at the. top, the ballet being divided into vertical columns, one col# umn.v for each party, land a column each'for i 'theu Independent and Constitutional amendment?" votes. In each party column, a tappet is provided for each candidateify the party, and directly over the tappetf may beprintedthe title of the oflice; for instance, For .governor,7 and under the tappet may be vprinted the name of the candidate for that oIice.
In casting a vote for an independent candidate, the voter will Write the na'ne of the candidate upon a slip of paper which he will preferably fold to conceal the name and then insert in a tablet 37, and he will' place the tablet upon the face of the ballot in the Independent column upon the square which alone Will not sustain the tablet in position,
but will allow the tablet to fall when the tappet is depressed.
In' the Constitutional amendmentsI column is provided a simple device for vot* ing"Yes or No (see Figs. 17 and 18), which comprises a cap 39 whiclris fastened to the top plate 7 by a screwr'4() and which has a segmental opening 41. Pivoted to the screw 40 and resting fiat upon the top plate 7 and projecting through the slot 41, is a s cial tap et 42 having a vertical finger 43.`
` his specia tappet may be formed of a single reo piece of sheet metal, the finger 43 being struck up'from the bottom plate of the tappet 42. A coil spring 44 is provided within the cap 39 and presses upon the top of the tappet plate 42 so that the tappet plate is he d frictionally in position against the top late 7,'and three depressions 45 are formed m the,y top plate 7 which are adapted to engage with a small knob 46 formed on the under side of the tappet plate 42 so that when the tap et is turned toward the word Yes, the knoll)` 46 will engage in one ,of-the depressions 445, and when the tappet is turned toward the word N o, the knob will engage in the extreme opposite de ression 45 while when the tap et stands mi way between the two Words f es and No/f the knob will engage the intermediate depression 45; the three depressions, together with the spring 44,l serving to yieldingly hold the tappetl in l,
In order to set either of the three positions. the ta pet lin 'er 43 in the proper position so that wqien the allot is placed in the machine the vote will be registered, it is necessary that the tappet be turnedA until-the knob 46 clicks into either one of the outside depress sions 45. Thus,l to vote Yes, the voter turns fthe tappet toward the Word Yes, and for No toward the Word No, If heleaves it at the center no vote is made.
In yvoting a straight ticketmeans are provided whereby by erecting a single special tappet at the top of the desired party column all of the tappets in that column are simultaneously erected lf the voter desires to split his ticket after he has voted the party column straight, he may vdepress such individual tap pets as he desires which stand for candidates he does notwish to elect, and he may erect other tappets under other parties in horizon- .tal rows which respectively correspond or aline with therespective tappets which'he has depressed from the straight ticket; he may ere'ct onlyas many tappets outside the straight party column ashe has depressed in the straight party column, and he can raise only one tappet in each horizontal row.
If the voter has -voted a straight ticket andA has yafterward depressed one or more tappets in that vertical column, and has raised cer tain tappets outside the column; and, if he has afterward changed his mind and again wishes to.,` erect those particular tappets which he has depressed, he may do so by first turning down the latest raised tappets.
a Inasinuch as all of the tappets for a given party are mounted on the same tappet shaft, it is obvious that with suitable means, by rocking this shaft all of the tappets on the shaft may be erected. This is accomplished by providing the hub 28 of each tappet with 100 a segmental slot 47 through which a'pin 48, which is fixedly attached to the tappet shaft, projects:
The slot 47 permits of a movement of 45 of the tappet with respect to a given position of the pin 48, and when the tappets are depressed the pin lies against the u per shoulder formed b the slot 47 so that if the shaft 26 be Mturne in the direction of the arrow (see Fi s. 4 to 6), the pins 48 bearing against 110 th'e Wa ls of the slots will rotate the hubs of all the tappets in the same direction and v thereby erect all of the tap ets. If, now, 4a single ta pet be pushed bac/Il( or depressed, the shoul er of the slot in the hub of the tappet will bear against the respective pin and will turn the shaft 26 back as the ta pet descends, but the other tappets on the s aft ,will stand erect as all of the pins on the shaft 26 sweep through the slotsin the hubs of the 120 erect tappets, the individual springs 30 main-- taining t ose tappets erect. 5 To rotate the shaft 26 to erect all of the tappets, an 'erector tap et or straight ticket tappet 49 is employed w A ed in the shaft v26., and'which has a segmen tal notched plate 50. An operating arm 51 is rigidly attached to the shaft 26 and has a toe 52 which .rests4 against the side of the segmentalr 1nate .A spring .53 iscoiled 330 ich is loosely mountaround the shaft 26, and one end rests against the toe 52 while its other end is engaged by one of the notches in the segmental plate 50, and the spring' 53 tends to yieldingly hold the toe 52 against the plate 50. Byadjusting the end of the spring 53. in the notches, its tension may be regulated.
One end of an extension spring 54 is connected to the plate 50 and the other end may be connected to any stationary oint such as a sleeve 55 loosely mounted on t enext nearest shaft 26. Referring to Figs.4, 5, and 6, when the erector 'tappet 49 is moved up in the direction of the arrow, through the me dium of the spring 53 it causes the operating arm 51 to turn in the direction of the arrow,
and as the operatingarm 51 turns, the shaft `26 is turned with'it, thereby raising all the ta ets on that taplpet shaft( he tension oft soon as the voter lets go o the erector ta pet 49 it immediatel resumes itsdepress'e position, being pul ed back by the spring 54, and as it turns back it carries with it the arm 51 and the tappet shaft is thus also automatically turned back to normal position. Hence, the raising movement of the erector tappet causes the tappet shaft to be turned clock-wise by a resilient strain, while the lowering movement of the erector tappet causes the tappet shaft to .be turned counter-clock-wise. positively. Thus, when either of the erector tappets is raised, its respective tappet shaft is turned and theregular tappets on that articular tappet shaft are erected and lie d erect by'their individual springs, While the erector tappet andta pet s iaft turn back to original position. t is then impossible to raise any more tappets on the ballot as the cams have been spread so that each group fills the allotted space between the dividers. lf the ticket is then split, it is obvious that none vof the depressed tappets in the strai ht ticket column can be ralsed, either b t e voter` `trying to raise them individually with his lingers, or by means of the erector tappet, for while he may readil raise the erector tappet, the only effect will e to stretch the sprlng 53, as the tappet shaft is locked from turning bythe depressed tappets in the straight ticket col umn, certain of the pins 48 on the tappetv shaft being ositively opposed by the end walls of the s ots 47 in the depressed tappets.v Thisree action of the erector tappet thus foils the attempt to raise the depressed tappets and is a great check against tampering and obviates any unnatural strains and pos-l sible breakage from either ignorant or intended misuse of the ballot.
In cumulative voting, as in voting for residential electors, judges, supervisors, `sc oolboards or trustees,l and the like, the ballot set before being put in use, by turning lsome of the dividers free to throw two. or
e sprin 54 is such that as ymore groups of cams into one lar" e group in which the cams are all associate in asingle series, as 'man dividers, less one, being turned free as' tliere are to beelected candi' dates. This will form a block of tappets op'- posite the series of associated cams in which tappets may be raised to the number limited by the allowedspreading spaceconfining the associated cams. The names of the electors or other candidates are placed on the face of the ballet next to 'the tappets as in. segregative-"voting, but obvious there may be more tappets in the block thus set Aaside than there are electors to receive the vote; in`such event,'only certain of the tappets will have names ofelectors, while the rest will'fbe left In the block of tappets'thus formed for cumulative votin tappets may be raised promiscuousl l unti the Y- limit has been reached, at w 'ch time the cams in the series have been 'spread so that they completely fll* the allotted space betweenthe two'confining dividers. i
If there are lsome blank ltappets on the block and a voter raises some of them, they. will not count, except in a negative way by vreducing by just that many votes forfelectors whichcan only4 be secured by raising tappets which are named. For example, 1f there are thirty-six presidential electorslto be elected,
the allot shownwill -place Itwo hundred thirty-five dividers are turned free, which in eighty-eight cams into' series. As for each' orlginal group of eight cams sufficient spacev was. allowed for the turning of one cam, so
now there is sufficient space to allow of turn- Y ing thirty-six cams; therefore, thirty-six tappets ma be raised. Thetappets raised ma e in a unc'h or they may7 be scattered. f in the present case the rst fourhorizontal rows of tappets and four adjacent tappetsin the nextrow below to complete the -thirt six, are raised, the first thirty-six camsat t e top of the ballot will be turned, and as the tappets are raised one after -another bythe voter, the spreading action is gradually transferred down through the entire two hundred eighty-eight-cains, so that the raising of the last tapfpet will just fill the bottom gap in the series o cams. When a cam is turned its resulting sidewise movement -carries the end of its tracker slightly out of ldirect alinem'ent with its other end, which obviously lengthens y .the tracker distance between the cam, and
tappet. While 1in segregative voting this lateral movement of a tracker end is practically negligible, it has tp be provided for: in cumulative voting, especially in the case just mentioned in which the thirty-six cams at the end 4are turned, as the lateralmovementsof the trackers gradually increase toward the lower cam, the resulting shortened tracker distance of the last lower tracker being appreciable. Thefree motion allowed between-two mates of a, pair. of cams before theirl inclined sensei case referred to the lower cam will sustain its necessary lateral movement and be allowed to turn thev resulting requisite distance before its inclined shoulder makes contact with its.
mate. This free motion also allows the cam to accommodate the reactivemovement of the tracker as its tappet end moves above the dead'center as before described. n
l/Vhen in cumulative voting'the voter de sires to cast an independent vote for one or more different .erson's whosenames 'are not on the regular allot, he writes the name or names on a slip of paper which he then inserts in a tablet 50,- and he places the tablet '5&0 on'the face of the ballot so that'its ribs engage in lthe grooves 38 in the to plate He then erects asoman tappts in tfie independent column as he as wr'tten names on the paper, raising one ta pet opposite each name, and the heels of tliese ytappets stand over the edge ofthe tablet and sustain it in position, the grooves 38 alone being insufiicient. Thus, for exam le, if there are eight trustees to be elected'eighthorizontal rows of tappets on the ballot will be set aside and the tablet 50 will be long 'enou h to extend over the eight spaces or bloc s in the independent column. It may be assumed that four of the trustees whose names are duly printed in the allotted spaces overl the tappets lmeet with the approval of the voter and he therefore raises their respectivetapplets; While the remaining four votesiwhich e is permitted tol make he desires to cast for other persons. He therefore writes these four different names on a slip of paper ywhich o he folds'and inserts in the tablet; he vthen places the tablet in position and raises four tappets in the independent r'ow, irrespective of 4position in the row. He now has raised the limit of eight tappetsl and can raise no more. Y p v It is manifest that in constructing the bal lot, as many party columns may be provided x as desired, and the nurpber ofcams in a group should be provi 'tid to correspond.
Thus, lfor six .party columns (in this sense used party column includes the ifInde-- pendent column), six cams may be employed; for ten party columns,l ten cams, and so on. As many tappets in a party column may be employed as there are offices to be filled.
After the tappets have been'set by the voter, which is preferably done in secrecy, the voter places a suitable cover over the ballot which hides the face and he, hands it to the proper lifficial wh places the ballot in a suitable machine whi h re isters the vote according'to the setting of t e .tappets-and incidentally.. automatically restores the tappietsso that when the ballot is taken from the machine its appearance is normal, giving no clue, even to the oflicial, ofthe vote.
The machine is constructed to stamp, rintor markthe slips of pa er on the ta ets in the indepenr ent co umn. ln segre ative votingeach slip of' paper will have on y one mark as the marking evice in the machine is operated through the agency of the tappetwhich is raised over the tablet.` The mark applied to the pa ver authenticates the paper and shouldV be o a character not easily counterfeited. ln the kcumulative independent `voting there will be as many marks on the paper as there are tappets erected in the independent column of the cumulative section. Thus, if the voter -writes his four names and only pulls up three tappets, only three marks will be made and when the paper .is examined in the count, this will be noticed and' the paper may be thrown zout. lf the voter writes his four names andpulls up `five tappets over the tablet, five'marks will appear, and while the election officials may count that vote, the.
lvoter will have limited his ticket for the regular candidates by the `superfluous tappet on the tablet.
The great advantage of the large tablet for independent cumulative voting over the use ofthe smaller ones for individual tappets such as are used in segregative voting,'is in the absolute check it affords against a voters attempt to vote for the same person several times on one ballot. Thus, if the small indir vidual tablets were used the voter could'.
Write the same name on each one, and in thej count this duplication might not' be observed duced by a consecutiver numbering device which produced a different numeral for each ballot; while though numerals could be used leverywpaper cast in lthe independent vote must be compared. But with the large tablet, all of the names which the-voter can write for his independent choice, appear on one paper and in compact order, so that if veven though the marking character was provalue, the comparison must be accurate and he has duplicated a name, detection is positive in the count. The ballot is then ready for another voter. As the preparation of a ballot by a voter, on the average, takes several times longer the time consumed when 'the ballot is in the machine, by supplying several votersieach with la ballot, voting isl greatly facilitated and is carried on with apparatus costing very much less than in that stylev of machine using no ballot, in lwhich only one voter can vote at a time.
What l claim is :f-
1. A top plate a plur'a'hty of tappets adapted `to be raised perpendicular thereto; an erector tappet, and means operated by the erector tappet 'for raisin the tappets.v
'2.' A top' plate, a p urality of tappetsl adapted to be raised perpendicular thereto,
' an erector tappet, and meansA operated by the erector tap et for raising several tappets-'si-*- multaneous y.
3.- A top plate., a plurality of movable;
members adapted to be raised perpendicular thereto, a special movable member, and means, operatedby the special'memher for changing the relativepositions vofseveral of the movable members. l v
4. A top plate, a plurality of tappets adapted bto be raised. perpendicular thereto arranged in party columns, erector tappets for the columns and means operated an erector *tappet for raising the vtappets 1n adapted to be raised perpendicular thereto,
an erector tappet,. means operated by the erector tappet for raising the tappets, means for yieldingly holding the tappets erect when so placed, and means for restoring the erector tappet. y Y
' 8. A shaft, a plurality of. tappets pivoted thereon, means for limiting the turning of the tappets respectively to the shaft, and an lerector tappet for turning the shaft and rais# ing the tappets, thev limited movement of the tappets enabling one or-more tappets to be individually depressed-When'the others are raised, or to,\be individually raised when the others are depressed; if desired.
9. A shaft, a plurality of'ta pets pivoted thereon, means for limiting the turning of the tappets on the shaft, .and an erector tappet resilientl for turninfvr the s ait and raising the tappets.
10. A shaft, a lurality of ta pets plvoted thereon, means or limiting tlIie turning of the'tappets on the shaft, an erector-ta pet pivoted on the shaft, an arm on thevs aft, and a spring between the arm and the erector tappet.
11. A shaft, a plurality of tappets pivoted thereon, pins on the shaft for the respective tappets and adapted to bear against shoul- -ders on the hubs of the tappets, an erector tap et'pivoted to the shaft, an arm onthe sha t engagmg the erector tappet, means for connected wit-h the shaft resiliently holding4 the erector tappet against the arm, and a spring for depressing the erector tappet.
12. A plurality of ivoted tappets, supporting means, indivi ual springs connected tov the tappets and to the supporting means,
4one end oi aspring being attached to the supporting means onv a median line with-the axis of a ta pet", the other end of the spring being attacY ed-to the tappet at a point which is onthe median line when the tappet is in van intermediate position.
f .13. Ashaft, a lurality'oftappets pivoted thereon, means or limiting lthe. turning of the tappets 0nthe shaft, a pivoted erector tappet, an arm on the shaft, -the erector tappet `having a series of notches, anda spring connected to the arm and engaging in one of the notches.
` 1.4. A plurality of tappets arranged rows, meansfor locking a definite number of promiscuous tappets in a row, erector tappets, and means operated byA an erector tappet for raising a definite tappetin each row.
l5. A top plate, a plurality of tappets arranged in a column on the top plate, an erector tap et, means operated by the erector tappet or raising the ta ets in the column, in combination with a ta et adapted to stand under the heel of the ta pet.
16. A top plate, a p urality of tappets arranged in a column on the top plate, an erector tappet, means operated by the erector tappet for raising the tappets in the column, v
in combination with a ta et ada ted to stand under the heel of the tappet, a ri onthe tablet, the top plate having grooves adapted to receive the rib.`
17. A top. plate, a plurality of tappets arranged in a column on the top plate, the topplate having grooves adjacent the tap ets, 1n combination with a separate tablet ac apted to'stand under the heel of a tappet, and ribs onthe tablet for engaging inthe grooves.
18. A detached Vmechanical ballot comprising a top plate, a special tap et pivotcd:
to swing in the plane of the to p ate, a symbol on the top late at one si e of a median line -through t e vaxis of theV tap et, and another symbol on the other side o the median line,'othertappets of the .character set fort-h, and interlocking `mechanism for said tappets.
19. A .top plate, a capthereon, a special tappet projecting .from under the cap, a
screw' passlng throughl the cap and tappet Ainto the top plate, and a'Spring-between the cap and tappet.
20. A topplate, a cap thereon, a special tappet proJecting from under the cap, a screw passing through the cap and tappet into the top plate, a spring between'the cap and tappet, the to plate having a plurality of depressions, an a projection on the tappet adapted to engage in the depressions.
dicating a choice of candidates, and extensi' ble means for limiting the number of selections so, made.
45. A mechanical ballot rovided With permanently-attached movab e members for indicating a choice of candidates, and extensible means arranged in series for limiting the selections so made.
146. A mechanical ballot provided with movable members for indicating a choice of candidates, and means for o erating a plurality of said movable members simultaneously. A
47. A mechanical ballot comprising a casing, tappets pivoted thereto, and means for operating a plurality of said tappets simultaneously.
48. A mechanical ballot comprising va casp ing, tappets pivoted thereto, and a tappet cerector plvoted to the casing for actuating a plurality of said tap ets..
49. A mechanica ballot comprising a casing, tappets pivoted thereto, and a tappet erector comprising a plate hinged to vthe casing.
50.' A mechanical ballot comprising a cas-- ing, tappets pivoted thereto, a Series of cams,
means connecting said cams With said tappets, and means for limiting ,the aggregate spreading apart of said cams.
51. A mechanical ballot comprising'a casing, tappets pivoted thereto, a-series of cams connected to said tappets, slidable cams intermediate the first-named cams, and means for limiting the over all's read'of said' cams. In testimony Whereo I have hereunto signed my name in the resence of two subscribing Witnesses, at os Angeles, in the county' of Los Angeles, and State ot' California, this 14th day of May, 1904.
DAVID L. NEWCQMB; Witnesses: i
GEORGE` T. HACKLEY, JULIA ToWNsEND.