US 883756 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R0. 883,756. PATENTED APR. 7', 190a.
K. J. STEINER. HEAT RADIATOR FOR HYDROOARBON AND OTHER HEAT MOTORS.
APPLICATION TILED D30. 28, 1906- v Fjl.
w| TnIsu k M WWW 1 1- mam? KLAUS I. STEINER, OF PITTSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA.
BEAT-RADIATOR li'OB-HY DBOCARBON AND OTHER HELT-IOTOBS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented April 7, 1908.
Application fled December 88, 1906. Serial No. 859,758. a
To all whom 'it may concern:
Be it known that I, KLAUS J. STEINER, of Pittsburg, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, have invented new and useful Improvements in Heat Radiators for Hydrocarbon and other Heat-Motors, and also in the Method of Making the Same, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification, in which Figure 1 is a side elevation showing apparatus suitable for the practice of my invention; Fig.2 is a plan view of the same; and Fig. 3 is a sectional View of a portion of a radiator embodyin the invention.
My invention re ates to, improvements in construction of cooling devices utilized for radiating excess heat absorbed by the cylinder walls of hydro-carbon motors of the water-cooled type; likewise for similar struetured cooling devices used in connection with steam motors, wherein the cooler acts as a condenser of the exhaust steam.
My invention relates particularl to improvements in the construction 0 cooling devices utilized in connection with automobile heat motors of the water-cooled hydrocarbon type, as well as for those cooling devices of similar construction used in connection with steam automobile engines for the urpose of condensing the exhaust steam. liese devices are commonly known as radiators.
In the operation of hydrocarbon motors of the Water-cooled ty e, as used on the great majority of automo iles, the cooling of the water, heated during its passage through the e water through such radiator, usually mounted in front of the engine. tor consists of a large number of small metal tubes, usually of brass, leading into and connecting Withand together, a closed top and bottom hollow, sheet metal chamber, through which system the hot water flows in a downward direction adually radiating its heat to the walls of ti e tubes and the two chambers, which are kept cool by a draft of air drawn through the nest'of tubes by a ower-driven fan in the rear of the radiator.
11 the manufacture of suchradiators, the tubes are common] soldered or sweated into theheads" of t e top and bottom overflow chambers, with tinsmiths ordinary soft lead solder. Brazing with a more stable cylinder jackets, is accomplished by forcingt This radiasolder such as brass solder is not often done because the heat required is so" high that the heads of the chambers and other ad'acent parts are liable to buckle or warp. e result of the use of such a weak method of uniting two or more surfaces with soft solder giving trouble by leakage of cooling Water around the points of junction of tubes and heads. The union is so weak that vibration, to which automobile radiators are particularly subject, is alone sufficient to cause disruption. Expansion and contraction by chan es in temperature, to which radiators are eing constantly subjected on account of the nature of their use, also produces fracture between tubes and heads. But the worst effect is due to the solvent action on the soft soldered junctions of water, practically at theboiling point and in a constant state of agitation. This is forcibly illustrated by the troubles experienced in conducting hot water through lead pipes, where the strong solvent action of Water in motion will very soon eat its way through the walls of the lead pipe.
radiators or condensers, the labove mentioned results are even more 'marked, the temperature changes and the solvent action being greater because the steam enters at a temperature far above the boiling point of water and leaves at a much lower temperature comparatively.
There is no better metallic medium to withstand the solvent action of hot water than pure copper. Likewise, there is hardly a more eflicient conductor of heat'than copper. A solid copper union will also stand a great deal of vibration before rupturing because of the softness, tenacity and ductility of copper. In all of these respects a copper union is far superior to a lead soldered union of same or dissimilarmetals.
I purpose to make a practically leakageproo lon -lived and more efficient radiator y the fol owing process: In accordance with my invention aradiator is constructed in the usual manner out of very thin brass tubes soldered into correspondingly thin sheet chambers, using the ordinary soft solder and a non-resinous flux, as for example, neutral zine chlorid. The only difference thus far in the construction over the usual method is that much weight of metal in tubes and chambers is dispensed with. The use of a is that the radiatbrs so made are constantly In the case of steam V brass heads ofthe top and bottom overflow Y then take non-resinous flux is important in order that no art of the interior surface may be covered wit 1 a medium that may prevent the interior coating being applied. When completed, this thin, light-weight radiator is thoroughly cleaned inside by the a plication of hot caustic solution, preferab y forced through repeatedly by a circulating ump and reservoir tank arrangement simi ar to that used in the carrying out of the interior coating process hereafter described. This is necessary to thoroughly remove grease and dirt. ThlS operation is followed by washing with water so that all traces of caustic solution are removed, after which a weak acid pickling solution is forced through the radiator in order to remove all scale and to produce a continuous bright metallic surface on the inside of the tubes and chambers. I then coper-plate the inside of these tubes and chamhers with a continuous surface or deposit of pure metallic copper of requisite thickness by a special rocess of electric deposition, of which the fbllowing is a concise and clear description: The process of electro-deposition of copper on the inside of such a multiple tube radiator entails certain difiicultles. The radiator cannot be plunged into-a plating vat of the usual construction in which it acts as the cathode, as the deposition will lace on the surface instead of only in the mterior, unless this'be prevented by some non-metallic coating applied all over the outside of the radiator, w 'ch is both difficult on account of its construction, is not desirable and would cause trouble to remove thoroughly. In addition, the deposition of copper in the interior of the radiator by simple immersion in the electrolyte would not be practicable. On account of the many small passages to be reached and the great amount of surface to be lated or coated with copper, the great-difficu lty would be to prevent the electrolyte from falling below its normal strength by the deposition of the copper it carries, over this large surface, from a comparatively small amount of solution. This would eventuall interfere. with the regular and uniform eposit of the copper coating, and will ultimately lead to a cessation of the deposition. Also, the gases formed by the decomposition of' the electrolyte by the electric current, unless removed constantly, will interfere with the de osition, and by displacing an equal vo ume of electrolyte in the small andcontracted passages of the radiator, practically sto the progress of the deposition. In or er to present at all times over such extensive interior surface an electrolyte of constant and uniform strength and to remove all ases as rapidly as formed, it is necessary to raw the electrolyte from a large source of supply or reservoir, and to keep it passing in 65 a constant and uninterrupted stream through the radiator while the process of deposition is taking place. To accom lish this desired and I arrange the electroating apparatus as shown in the drawings fierewith.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2, 2 is the radiator to be internally coated.
3 is the vat or reservoir containing the electrolyte in large quantity as compared to the capacity of the radiator. This reservoir 3 also contains the copper anode plates 4 from which the copper is dissolved to replace that removed from the electrolyte by the action of the current. To heat the electrolyte, a hollow metal coil 5 for circulating steam or hot water, is included in the vat 3, care being taken that it does not come in contact with the anodes 4 or any of the electrical connections.
6 is a small rotary pump, preferably of some material not acted on by the electrolyte, such as vulcanite. The outlet of the pump 6 is connected to the bottomferrule 7 of the radiator 2 by an easily detachable rubber tube 8, having included in its length a stop-cock J. The inlet of the pump 6 is connected to the bottom of the vat 3 by another rubber tube 10 which enters preferably at a point as far removed from that at which the used electrolyte renters the vat, as the limits of the vat will permit. This is in order to procure a complete circulation throughout the vat. The top ferrule 11 of the radiator is connected to the top of the vat 3 by a rubber tube 12, also containing in its length a stop cock 13. The level of the solution in the vat 3 must at all times be above the level of the inlet into the vat of the tube 12 and the radiator should be placed on a level below that on which the vat rests.
The tubes connecting the radiator with the vat being non-metallic, are non-conductors of electricity and therefore have no action on the electrolyte, sothat no deposition of copper can take place except on the inside of the radiator. The electric current is led into the system by way of the anodes through the enterin conductor 14, thence passes into the electrolyte, and thence by way of the streams of electrolyte in the tubes 8, 10 and 12, which streams act as conductors, to the electrol te in the radiator, where the current passes rom the electrolyte into the metallic radiator. and by means of a temporarily soldered contact 15 with the metal of the radiator, back to the source of generation. By this arrangement of the apparatus, the radiator or vessel to be coated internally with copper becomes an integral part of the electrolyte containing system, while at the same time serving as the cathode, on which the deposition of cop er takes place.
The rotary pump orces a uniform stream of constant strength electrolyte through the radiator where part of its-copper contents is deposited. Thence the weakened solution 16 amperes per square foot of cathode surface It is believe streams of the-electrolyte, relatively small scans flows back into the vat where it is ated, partially by the neradual solution of the anodes, and partially by solution of salts of the metal constituents of the electrolyte contained in receptacles in the vats "lhe constant circulation of the electrolyte through the radiator removes all ases generated within the radiator by the electrolytic action and carries them into the vat where they escape into the air.
It is important that the cross sectional area of the tubes 8, -10 and 12 be as large as is consistently possible, asthe streams of electrolyte in these tubes carry the electrical current, and should offer as little resistance to the passage of same as possible. In practice, the usual current density of from 10 to is utilized, at a pressure of from fito 10 volts.
The electrolyte can be either of the sulfuric acid and cop er sulfate, or of the alkalinedouble cyanld of copper and ammonia types, whichever revious practice has dictated. that the acid solutions offer less resistance to the passage of the current, which is important 1n this process on account of the manner of conveying the electric current from anode to cathode through two in area as compared to the area of the cathode. Practice also dictates that a warm electrolyte gives best results, and means may be taken by the introduction of a steam or hot water coil in the solution in the vat to bring the electrolyte to the proper temperature. On account of the arrangement of the apparatus, by which the cathode becomes part of the electrolyte containing system, 1t is possible to warm the electrolyte to the desired temperature by the application of heat directly to the metal walls of the cathode with equally good results.
I am aware that it is not broadly new to cause the circulation of the electrolyte, as the necessity for eonstant agitation and circulation of such electrolyte durin process of. deposition has been recognized from the beginning of the art. The old methods, however, can not be utilized for the purpose herein described, viz: the internal coating of a complex, multi-tubular and multijointed vessel, of such construction that it is impossible to introduce the anodes within the confines of the cathode vessel, or where it is undesirable to introduce cathode and anode in the same vat, which latter method the old processes specifically contemplate. By the means herein described it is ossible to internally copperlate such multi-tubular, multijointed vesse s of com lex construction with a continuous and solid coat of copper of any desired thickness over the total interior area of such complex vessel and all its passages.
I do not wish to restrict myself to the exact arrangement of the apparatus as shown in orly to the vessel containing the drawings, as this may be modified to suit the practice without diverging from the principles involved, neither do I wish to limit mysel in the practice of this electro-deposition processto the deposition of the metal co'pper alone, as thesame device can be utillzed 1n the electro-deposition of all the other metals commonly used in such so called wet electrolytic processes.
What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent is 1. The herein described method for electroplating the interiors of metallic vessels of complex, multi-tubular, multi-jointed type, which consists in causing a current or stream of electrolyte to pass through said vessel in contact with the surfaces to be electroplated during the time of electro-deposition, the
article being electroplated being placed exteriorly of the vessel containing the electrolyte and anode, and itself forming the cathode.
2. The herein described method of electroplating the interior surfaces of tubular objects, which consists in causing a continuous circulation of an electrolyte through the said object in contact with the surfaces to be electroplated during the time of electrodeposition the article being electroplated being placed exteriorly of the vessel containing the electrolyte and anode, and itself forming the cathode.
3. The herein described method of electroplating multi-tubular, multi-jointed.articles, which consists in connecting the article to forma part of an electrolyte-containing and circulating system, the article forming the cathode therein, the article being )laced exteriorly e." the vessel containing the electrolplte and circulating the electrolyte through t e article. I
4. The herein described method of electroplating the interior surfaces of multitubular articles, which consists in circulating the electrolyte therethrough during the time of electro-deposition, and heating the electrol te thus circulated; substantially as descri ed the article being electroplated being placed exteriorly of the vessel containing the electrolyte and anode, and 'itself forming the cathode.
5. The method of electroplating the interior surfaces of multi-tubular articles, which consists in placing the article exterithe electrolyte, and connecting the article with the vessel containing the electrolyte by hollow tubular connections, and causing a constant circulation of the electrolyte from the source through one of the connections to and through the article, and from the article back to the source, the article forming the cathode; substantially as described.
6. The method of electroplating the interior surfaces of multitubular articles,
which consists in connecting the article by tubular connections with a vessel containing an electrolyte and having anodes therein, and forcing a constant circulation of the electrolyte through the said article and back to the vessel, the article forming the cathode; substantially as described.
7. The method of electroplating the interior surfaces of multitubular articles, which consists in connecting the article by tubular non-conductive connections with a vessel containing an electrolyte and having anodes therein, and forcing a constant circulation of the electrolyte through the said article and back to the vessel, the article forming a cathode, and the electrolyte in the tubular connections completing the circuit between the anode and cathode; substantially as described.
8. The method of electroplating internal surfaces, which consists in placing the article outside the electrolyte-containing vessel and connecting it therewith by circulating connections, and carrying the electrolyte t0 flow through the connections into contact with the surfaces to be electroplated; substantially as described the article being electroplated being placed exteriorly of the vessel containing the electrolyte and anode, and itself forming the cathode.
9. The herein described method of electroplating the interior surfaces of tubular objects, which consists in causing an electrolyte to circulate through the object in contact with the surfaces to be electroplated during the time of clectro-deposition the article being electroplated being placed exteriorly of the vessel containing the electrolyte and anode, and itself forming the cathode.
10. The herein described method of electroplating the interior surfaces of tubular articles, which consists in preventing contact of the electrolyte with any portion of the exterior surface of the article, and circulating the electrolyte through the article in contact with its inner, surfaces, said article forming the cathode of the system.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand.
KLAUS J. STEINER. Witnesses:
H. M. CORWIN,
GEo. H. PARMELEE.