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Publication numberUS904212 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 17, 1908
Filing dateDec 6, 1906
Priority dateDec 6, 1906
Publication numberUS 904212 A, US 904212A, US-A-904212, US904212 A, US904212A
InventorsCharles A Moran
Original AssigneeCharles A Moran
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Moving-picture machine.
US 904212 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



Patented NOV. 17, 1908.



APPLICATION FILED DEU. 6. 1906. y I 904,212. Patented Nov. 17, 1908. 2 SHEETS-SHEET Z.





Appiie'ation mea Decemb'e e, 190e. serial No. 346,639.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Nov. 17, 1908.A

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, CHARLES A. MORAN, a citizen of the United States, residing at Bernardsville, in the county of Somerset and State of New Jersey, Yhave invented certain new and useful Improvements in Moving- Picture Machines, of which the following is a specification. i

This invention aims to provide an improved moving picture machine which shall permit the throwing of the successive impressions or pictures-upon a screen at a slow rate, without disclosing the transition from oneimpression to the next, and which shall thus avoid the effect of exaggerated rapidity which spoils the illusion to such a great extent with machines now in use. By the same comparatively slow movement the objectionable rapid iiashes of light which take place with 4present machines, will be avoided or ineasiirably eliminated.

Other advantages are referred to in detail hereinafter. y vThe accompanying drawings illustrate an embodiment of the'invention. q

Figures l and 2 are diagrammatic illustrations of a pair of films showing the exposure and positions of the parts during successive subdivisionsof the interval between the suc- Aof a complete apparatus.

vcessive impressions. Fig. is a detail of 7mechanism employed for operating certain screens. Fig 4 is a diagrammatic plan view Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are elevations of the obsouring device in different positions.

The invention is shown as applied toiilins` moved in the ordinary way, that isfto say, exposed in a fixed position for a certain length of time and then quickly shifted to the next xed position, and so on. In previous apparatus, in order to-avoid-thennaking of a noticeable break during' the tion from one impression to the nextf the successive transitions must .be eected very yrapidly; The period oftransitiom although very short, is of considerable extent compared with the pression. l

My invention obviates tliediicu-lt'v referred to `by using a second film-and displaying aii impression thereof during the period of transition of the iirst film. The

. second film may be an exact duplicate of the first, so that during the transition' period of one filmv4 the second film is displaying the same impression which was previously .dis-

period of display of each im',v

L occurs Without effect.

i played by the first; orthe second film may have impressions which alternate in point of time with those of the first film, so that while the first film is in the transition period, the second film will be displaying an impression succeeding that which has just been displayed by the iirst film. Preferabl also i l the apparatus is arranged to gradua y obscure the display of each film as the transition Vperiod approaches, and. to gradually lighten it after the transition period is passed; which causes a gradual mergin of one impression into the next, the succee ing impressions being so nearly alike that there is little or no disturbance of .the eifect of' continuity. For example Fig. l shows in succession the positions of two iilms A and B, the degree of illumination or. of obscuration being also indicated. The film A conpressions are fixed, and are both projected i upon the same point of the screen, so that they appear as one picture. The outliiies of this-compositepicture'will not be as fine as in the case of a single impression, but the successive impressions are so nearly alike that the lack of sharpness of outline will not be seriously noticeable. Atthe next period impress-ien 2 on ilm B has remained stationary aifjd'is receiving full illumination, At 'th'e same time lm A is fully obscured and this period, or a portion of it, is utilized to effect a transition from impression l to im-l pression 3. lFilm B then passes toward obscurity while film A is passing'toward full illumination, so that the impressions 2 and 3' are thrown together upon the screen each in semi-obscurity. This is followed bya full obscuration of film B and-av full illumination `of film A, so that impression 3 alone is projected on the screen and the transition of film B from impression -2 to impression 4 This is followed b the exposure ofN impressions 3 andl 4 simili)- taneously, each insemi-obscurity; and so on. Throughout the exposure the total amount of light cast upon the screen 1s the same, which will produce an .effect much easier on `the eyes, and will also heighten the illusion of continuous movement.

It is not essential that the two films shall contain alternate impressions. The films Amay be duplicates of each other as shown at A B (Fig. 2). In this case impression 1 of film B will be shown in full light while film A is shifting; impressions 1 and 2 willV then be thrown together on the screen; impression 2 on film A. will be shown in full light while film B is shifting from impression 1 to 2;

impression 2 on both films will be shown at the same time each 1n semi-obscuratlon; 1m-

pression 2 of film B will be shown in full light while film A isbeing shifted; and so on, they total amount of` light on the screen being alwaysthe same. This arrangement has the advantage of showing a single impression, as impression 2 in the diagram, during three successiveintervals, for one interval in which two impressions, as land 2 in the diagram, are displayed simultaneously.

' in the same length of time that the arrangement shown in Fig. 2 will pass from impression 1 to impression 3. Consequently to produce the same rate of motion 1n the picture thrown on the screen, the films in Fig. 2 will have to be moved at a rate twice as rapid as that of the films in-Fig. 1. The arrangement of Fig. 1 is preferable for representing rapid action, and that of Fig. 2 for slow action.

It is conceivable that more than two films (and/a corresponding vnumber of lanterns) might be employed 1n .one machine, while utilizing the principle of this invention, and in describing the use ofa pair of lmsI am not to be'understood as excluding a greater number than two.

' The means for projecting theY successive impressions on the screen Aand for bringing into play the proper degree of obscuration and illumination, may be largely varied. A suitable mechanism is shown in Figs. 3 to 6. A pair of lanterns of ordinary type are directed to a common point upon a screen C."

Each lantern may comprise' 'anyusual or suitable devices su'ch for example as a lamp D backed by a reflector E, a lens F, and a pair of rolls one above the 'other and carrying 'a straight stretch ofv film between them, these `opaque and` equal each to approximately "tion, may be varied according to the necesdevices being represented at G. The shaft I-I for operating the vfilm spools has a connection at J with the shaft of one of the spools so as to vgive the film an intermittent movement, while the shaft H rotates continuously. Any usual or suitable mechanism may be employed for this' purpose. A pulley K is used for driving the film-operating shaft Il.

The lamp D may burn steadily, and a screen be used- `for effecting thedesired degree of obscuration. I have provided a rdevice for this purpose which is entirely outside of the individual lanterns, and may therefore be conveniently used with any type of lantern. It will be understood, however, that the screen may be arranged at any point in advance of the lamp. v

In the mechanism illustrated, a pair of I half-round screens L and ivi are employed, rotating in opposite directions and centered upon a common shaft N. Each of the two screens has a portion O which is opaque or nearly so, and equal in area to about a quadrant of a circle; portions I) which are semi- 9U one-eighth of a circle; a half circle of each screen being entirely open to the light. The area of thel several portions of the screen, and the degree of transparency of each porsity shown by experiment in a particular case. Likewise the material or -materials used in the screen may be largely varied. I have found a brass frame with sectors of oiled paper to vbe satisfactory. Starting 10o from' the position shown in Fig. 5 with the darkest portion of the two screens in con* junction in line with the right handlantern (during which position the film in this lantern will be shifted), the screen L passes around to the lower position shown in Fig. 6, while the screen M passes to the upper position, giving aV medium quantity of light from both lanterns. As the movement of the screens continues, they come -to the posi- 11o tion of Fig. 7', completely obscuring the left v 4 hand lantern by a conjunctionof the two screens, and completely illuminating the right handflantern (during which period the left hand film will be shifted). There is then a return to the position of Fig. 5 through an intermediate position similar to Fig. 6, that is with both films partially obscured, the screen L being uppermost and the screen M lower'most. i

The movement of the two screens constituting the obscuring device may be conveniently effected by the mechanism shown in detail in Fig. 3. The shaft N carries -a pair of sprocket-wheels or other suitable pulleys Q R carrying the respective screens L M, the sprockets Q It being driven in opposite di.-

vrections by means of a chain S which passes over a sprocket T upon a driving shaft U and over. an. idler V. The screens L and M` 150 andthe shifting devices ofthe lms may be synchronized, so that the screens will always be in the position of Fig. when the right hand film is shifted, and in the position of Fig. 7 when the left hand film is shifted. The driving ofthe screens andpf the films is preferably effected by means of belts or chains runningA from a pulley W on the shaft U, and from the pulleys K 0n the filmshifting shafts to pulleys X and Y upon a common shaft Z at the rear, Which may be provided with joints to lie over the slight angular divergence of the driving belts, and which may be driven by an electric motor a or other suitable driving means. The usual screens for obscuring the lamps during transition periods may be omitted, the opaque portions of the screens L- and M rendering them unnecessary.

' Though I have described with great particularity of detail certain specific embodimentsvof my invention, yet it is not to be understood therefrom that the invention is restricted to the specific apparatus described.

.Various modifica-tions thereof in detail and in the arrangement and combination of the parts, may be made by those skilled in the substantially opaque portion,a semi-opaqueportion, and a substantially transparent portion, said Screens being geared to each other in such a relation that the opaque portion of one is in line with the rays of its lantern when the correspondingNportion of the other is out of line with` the rays of the other.v

lantern. l

In witness whereof, I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2460320 *Sep 11, 1944Feb 1, 1949Waldeyer CarlMotion-picture combination
US2460864 *Sep 17, 1945Feb 8, 1949Whiteley Fred HowardMotion-picture projecting system
US2503277 *Mar 4, 1946Apr 11, 1950Krows Arthur EDissolving slide film projector
US2677012 *Mar 23, 1949Apr 27, 1954Bach Walter HApparatus and method for recording television programs
US2966095 *Jan 7, 1953Dec 27, 1960Prudential Insurance Company OShutter for multi lens cameras
US3271097 *Apr 24, 1964Sep 6, 1966De Montremy JeanMethods and apparatus for making animated cartoons
US4528587 *Oct 28, 1982Jul 9, 1985Cjm AssociatesThree-dimensional video apparatus and methods using composite and mixed images
US5014126 *Oct 23, 1989May 7, 1991Vision Iii Imaging, Inc.Method and apparatus for recording images with a single image receiver for autostereoscopic display
International ClassificationG03B21/40
Cooperative ClassificationG03B21/40
European ClassificationG03B21/40