|Publication number||US907441 A|
|Publication date||Dec 22, 1908|
|Filing date||Mar 28, 1907|
|Priority date||Mar 28, 1907|
|Publication number||US 907441 A, US 907441A, US-A-907441, US907441 A, US907441A|
|Original Assignee||Wilhelm Baur|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (10), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
BULKHEAD AND LIKE BLTAINING WALL.
2 SHEETSA-SHBET 1.
Patented Dec. 22, 1908.
' www@ a w APYLIOATION FILED MAR. 28,
TH: Nmmls PETERS co., WASHINGTON, n. c.
BULKHBAD AND LIKE RETAINING WALL.
u l APPLIOATLON FILED MAB.. 2B, 1907. :Patented DBG. 22
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
m T. M VN,
' WITNESSES vN15 Nomzls PETERS coliwAsHmnruN. n. c.
WILHELM BAUR, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
BULKHEAD AND LIKE RETAINING-W' ALL.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Dec. 22, 1908.
Application led March 28, 1907. Serial No. 365,006.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, WILHELM BAUR, a citizen of Germany, residing at New York, in the borough of Manhattan and State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Bulkheads and Like Retaining-lWalls, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to the general class of excavating and particularly to the formation of bulk-heads and other retaining walls which are built in or under water or in water bearing soil, or in connection with both, the invention comprehending the use of certain freezing elements arranged in series to form substantially a skeleton frame-work about the part to be excavated, said freezing elements being constructed to provide for the circulation of a refrigerant through them for the purpose of freezing the water, or water bearing soil, or both, n situ, and thereby' forming `a water-tight retaining wall lcomposed of ice derived from the water in which the freezing elements have been driven.
My invention consists, essentially, of a series of freezing elements sunk directlyT into the water and forming substantially a piling which surrounds the place to be excavated, and means for circulating a freezing medium or skeleton frame work through said elements to solidify the water about the elements and cause ice tobe built up on the outside of said elements and to eventually form a retaining wall composed of ice.
`My invention also comprehends the employment of expanded. metal or other reticulated material positioned in the waterand. supported by the series cf freezing elements, and forming an interior reinforce for the mass of ice.
illy invention also consists of the parts and the constructions, arrangements and combinations of parts which l will hereinafter describe and claim.
ln the accompanying drawings forming part of this specification in which similar letters of reference indicate like parts in the several figures, Figure l. is a plan view of a bulk-head or other retaining wall showing the ice-walls built upon and around the freezing elements and showing, also, an exterior shield to protect the assembled freezing elements. Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of the line Y-a 7 in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a plan view showing the application of my invention when the freezing elements have been placed in an irregular position. Fig. 4 is a sectional view of the line B-B in Fig. 3. gig. 5 is a sectional view of the line A- of iff. 3. th freezing elements detached, showing the inlet and outlet headers connected therewith. Fig. 7 is a detail of one of the guides for centering the inner tube of the freezing element.
In carrying out my invention l employ a series of what l term freezingelements which are in the nature of hollow piles adapted to he lowered into the water and driven into the soil of the bottom of the place to be excavated, whatever the character of the structure to be subsequently built thereon. These freezing elements are of tubular or any hollow form and each includes the outer tube B and the inner tube C, these tubes being of different diameters and the inner tube being of such diameter that an annular space ispr0- vided between the two tubes for the circular tion of a suitable refrigerant, as l will presently describe. The outer tube is provided at its lower end with a conical or other driving point P, and the inner tube has its bottom terminating a sufficient distance above Fig. 6 is a sectional view of one of Clt the lower end of the outer tube to permit the refrigerating material to freely circulate between the tubes.
The upper portions of the freezing elements are herein shown as consisting of two toe-couplings F, F, the lower ends of these couplings being bolted or otherwise fastened to a fiange or collar secured to the upper end of the outer tube B, said coupling F having an opening through it of approximately the same diameter as that of the interior of the outer tube. The inner tube extends through the lowermost of the tee-couplings, F, and has fastened to its upper end a collar or flange, l, which is clamped or bolted between the adjacent flanges of the two tee-couplings F F.
Each tee-coupling has its lateral branch suitably coupled to a flexible or other pipe, O O', one end of which pipes is suitably coupled to an inlet header, H, which in practice will be connected to some suitable source of refrigerant supply, such as brine, the lower header H connects through its pipe O/ with the lateral or branch of the tee-coupling F and is the outlet for the brine which has been circulated through the tubes or pipes constituting the essential parts of the freezing ele-` ments. These elements are arranged in series in either a regular or irregular manner, and the headers substantially surround the series of freezing elements and are spaced therefrom a suitable distance and connect with each of said elements. In Fig. 1, the arrangement of the freezing elements is practically regular and the space included between their inner sides is of substantially rectangular form. In Figs. 3, 4 and 5 the freezing elements are of more or less irregular arrangement and are shown as being driven into a slanting surface or bed of a river or other body of water. The exact arrangement of the freezing elements is immaterial as they will operate with equal success in any position in which they may be placed, and upon any character of river-bed or body.
In order that the inner pipe of the freezing elements may be properly positioned and centered within the other pipe B, I provide a series of guides G as shown in Fig. 7 and in order that any one of the individual freezing elements may be cut out of the circuit or series of which it forms part, I provide a controlling valve V in the nipples orpipe connections leading from and to the respective inlet and outlet headers.
I have also shown in Figs. l and 2 an expanded metal or other foraminous sheet of material surrounding the series of freezing elements and supported or backed thereby, which material I design as an interior reinforce for the wall of ice which is to be built upon and about the freezing elements. I also show in Fig. l an exterior shield or casing W of planking, or other material, surrounding the series of freezing elements and their headers which shield or casing need not necessarily be water-tight, and may be made of metal or wood. The purposes of this shield are to serve as a protection to the inclosed freezing elements and to check and deflect the currents of water whereby the ice formed on the freezing elements will not be worn away by the currents more rapidly than it can be formed by the freezing process. If desired, an inner shield may be employed.
In operatin the invention, the freezing elements are Iowered into the water and driven through the soft mud, sand, earth or rock. When the elements have been properly positioned so as to substantially inclose the space to be excavated, I connect the several elements to the respective headers by means of suitable nip les or couplings and the aforesaid pipes O, whereby the freezing elements are connected in series. The upper or inlet header being connected to some suitable source of refrigerant supply, which may be the well known brine so extensively used in the manufacture of artificial ice, I admit into said inlet header brine at a low temperature, say about 25 below zero, and under such pressure that the brine will be forced through the inlet header and into the upper tee-coupling F and through the inner tube C of the freezing elements. The fluid escapes through the bottom of said tube and asses upwardly between the two tubes and) thence passes into the outlet header through the connecting pipe O', and will be returned to a brine-cooler when it is again cooled. This circulation of the brine through the freezing elements causes ice soon to form in all directions outwardly from the outside pipes B, and this continues until the ice formed on each element meets and forms one solid mass of ice as shown at R'R, while the mud or earth into which the lower ends of the freezing elements have been driven will be frozen solid and made practically water tight. This freezing of the water and of the earth produces an inclosed chamber of ice as well as a chamber which is practically water-tight so that the water within the chamber can now be pumped out and the mud, sand, gravel, and earth can be excavated by means of bucketsor other methods until a solid body or foundation has been reached. After the ice wall has been formed to the desired thickness, the amount of brine allowed to circulate through the systemfof freezing elements may be reduced and only sufficient cold brine need be circulated to hold the frost and keep the frozen mass from wasting away or otherwise deteriorating. When the foundation of pier has been completed, the freezing will be discontinued, and if it is desired to remove the ice more rapidly than it would naturally melt, warm brine may be circulated through the system of elements before described which would soon thaw away the frozen mass, when the elements may be rapidly disconnected and withdrawn and be ready for use again.
It will be understood that the thickness of ice-walls will depend upon the time of freezing and the temperature of the brine circulated. If greater speed or excessive thickness are needed, one or more sets of freezing elements could be used but as this would be but a duplication of what is'shown in Fig. l I do not deem it necessary to illustrate the two sets of freezing elements in the present drawings. It is also understood that the series of freezing elements will act as reinforcements in connection with the expanded or other fora-minous sheet, before described, which sheet operates substantially in the manner well known in the now commonly used reinforced concrete structures. It is furthermore understood that it will only be shield to the bottom strata of the river bed, but the shield should be high enough to protect the water onthe inside from waves s lashing over. 1n most cases the outer s iield alone will be sufficient. Under favorable conditions and in still cold water the use of all shields may be safely abandoned.
/Vhile the freezing elements shown in the drawings are of tubular form, it is evident that other suitable hollow sections may be used and of any desired size, without departing from the spirit of my invention. The reinforcement agency of these freezing elements is of great importance as said elements act as a girder or beam which serves as an internal reinforce for the vertical or other ice wall and also as a reinforce to preserve the joint between said wall and the ice wall which is formed in or on the water bearing strata at the bottom or side of the river bed. Any hollow girder or beam might be used as the outer casing of the freezing elements and whatever the character of pipe girder or beam used it is of great assistance in jointing the water-ice wall with the strata of waterbearing mud, sand, gravel etc.
Having thus fully described my invention, what l claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. An apparatus for constructing a watertight bulk-head and like structure, said apparatus comprising a series of individual freezing elements to be placed in the water and to substantially inclose the area to be excavated, said elements having enlarged points by which they may be anchored in the soil underlying the water, and means for circulating a refrigerant through said elements for the purpose of freezing the water in situ and to form a retaining wall of solid ice exterior to each of said elements.
2. In apparatus for forming a water-tight bulk-head, and like structure, the combination of a series of individual freezing elements adapted to be placed in the water and to substantially inclose the space to be excavated, the lower ends of said elements having means by which they may be anchored'in the soil underlying the water inlet and outlet headers, pipes connecting each of the freezing elements with said headers, and means whereby the freezing elements may be individually coupled to and disconnected from the headers, said headers and freezing elements forming a circulatory system for the transmission of a refrigerant whereby the water surrounding the freezing elements is frozen in situ to form a water-tight retaining wall.
3. 1n apparatus of the character described, the combination of a series of individual' freezing elements adapted to be positioned in the water, or water bearing soil, to substantially inclose the space to be excavated, the lower ends of said elements having means by which they may be anchored in the soil underlying the water and. means for connecting the elements in series to allow for the circulation therethrough of a refrigerating fluid, whereby the water surrounding the freezing elements is frozen to form a retaining wall of solid ice within which the freezing elements are embedded.
4. ln apparatus of the character described, the combination of a series of individual, imperforate, freezing elements adapted to be spaced apart and to jointly substantially inclose the area to be excavated, the lower ends of said elements having means by which they may be anchored in the soil underlying the water and means for circulating a refrigerating fluid through said elements to freeze the water surrounding them and to connect the elements transversely by a solid continuous wall of ice, in which the elements are embedded.
5. ln apparatus of the character described, the combination of a series of individual freezing elements consisting of inner and outer tubes spaced from each other, said elements adapted to be placed in position spaced apart and to ointly substantially inclose the space to be excavated, said outer tubes having enlarged points forming anchors to engage the soil underlying the water to be frozen whereby the tubes are retained in position, and inlet and outlet headers and connections forming with said tubes a circulatory system for the transmission of a refrigerating, fluid, whereby the water in contact with the elements is frozen into a mass which connects and includes the elements.
6. In apparatus of the character described, the combination of a series of freezing elements adapted to be placed in position to substantially inclose the space to be excavated, a reticulated sheet or member supported proximate to the elements when in position, and means for circulating a freezing agent through the elements to cause the body of water in which the latter are placed to be frozen into a mass which connects the elements together and embeds them and the said. reticulated sheet.
7. In apparatus of the character described, the combination of freezing elements arranged in the water and water bearing strata so as to substantially inclose the area to be excavated, the lower ends of said elements having conical points whose upper ends are of larger diameter than the adjacent end of the element whereby said points serve to anchor the elements in the soil underlying the water to be frozen, means for circulating a freezing agent through said elements to form an ice-wall in the water and in or on the strata beneath, said freezing elements being embedded in and forming a reinforce for said first-named wall.
8. In apparatus of the character described, the combination of means for freezing water and Water-bearing strata n situ to form Water-tight Walls of ice about the area to be excavated, said means including tubes having cone-shaped points the upper ends of Which are of larger diameter than the adjoining ends of the tubes Whereby the points anchor the tubes in the soil underlying the Water to be frozen, and said Walls of ice being arranged at an angle to each other and cer- 10 tain of said Walls being reinforced to preserve the'joint between them and the Water-bear- WILHELM BAUR.
W. V. SCHRAMM, EDW. C. EPPLE.
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|US3660983 *||Sep 24, 1969||May 9, 1972||Gill George W||Apparatus and method for the prevention of ice in waterways|
|US3943722 *||Nov 6, 1972||Mar 16, 1976||Union Carbide Canada Limited||Ground freezing method|
|US4187039 *||Sep 5, 1978||Feb 5, 1980||Exxon Production Research Company||Method and apparatus for constructing and maintaining an offshore ice island|
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|US5660055 *||Oct 16, 1995||Aug 26, 1997||Eriksson; Lars Leander||Apparatus for extraction of marine sediments via freezing|
|DE954048C *||Dec 24, 1953||Dec 13, 1956||Helmut Krause||Verfahren zum Herstellen von vereisten Baukoerpern|