US 913942 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. W. BODGE.
APPLICATION I'ILBD DBO. 21. 1901.
' Patented MaI'. 2, 1909.
lTOHN W. BODGE, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented March 2, 1909.
Application led December 21,1907. Serial No. 407,476.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN W. BoDGE, a citizen of the United States, residin at Ohicago,.
county of Cook, and State of I linois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Locks, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to locks and particularly to that class thereof known as cylinder locks.
More specifically my invention relates to locks of the class generally known as pintumbler locks.
. Locks of the Aclass mentioned comprise a lug fitting within a casing called the tumliler case, and which operates the bolting mechanism of the lock, by moving the plug in the case, generally by turning it upon its longitudinal axis. The pluO is locked against turning by a plurality of split or divided pins arranged in the tumbler case and spring ressed into engagement with corresponding lioles in the plug. When the proper key 1s inserted the several divided pins are moved back until the line of 'division of each pin is in alinement with the periphery of the plug after which the plug is free to be turned. The1v pins, or the portions thereof which remain in the lug, are of various lengths and the edge of t 1e key is irregularly notched, so as to cause the ends of the pins to come flush with the periphery of the plug when it is inserted therein. It is possible to make a great number of combinations with a lock ol' this character by changing the lengths of the several ins and notching the key to correspend; ut it should benoted that the great number of combinations ossible is due to the unlimited number of c ano-es which can be made in the lengths of the pms, that is, of the ortions within the plug.
T 1e object of my invention is to provide a cylinder lock composed of few parts of standard sizes and o f such improved construction that an almost unlimited number of different combinations may be had by simply rearranging` the tumblers, the sizes of the tumblers or their component parts being unchanged.
A further object of my invention is to provide alock as mentioned, of such construction that a greater number of combinations for a given size oi' lock may be had.
A further object of my invention is to pro-- vide a lock as mentioned, of such construc- |tion that a greater number of combinations nay be had with a given number of tumb ers.v
Other objects will appear hereinafter.
With these objects in view, my invention consists generally in the tumbler case and rotary plug in combination with a plurality of two-part tumblers or tumbler pins, the parts thereof within the plug being of two lengths only and interchangeable, a stop to limit the inward movement of the tumblers and a key apertured to permit certain of said tumblers to engage said stop when the same is inserted in the plug.
My invention further consists in a lock comprising a tumbler case and rotary plug in combination with a lurality of two part tumblers, .the parts wit in the plug being of two lengths and interchangeable, and the di vision line between certain oll said tumbler pins being in alinement with the peripllery ol' the plug when in normal position and a key apertured to permit said tumblers to remain in normal position and to move the others into unlocking position.
My invention. further consists in a lock characterized as mentioned, and having the tumblers arranged in different radial planes.
My invention further consists in various details of construction and arrangements of arts all as will be hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims.
My invention will be more readily understood by reference to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification and in which, Y
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of a lock embodying my invention in its preferred form, Fig. 2 is a similar' view illustrating the key inserted in the lock and in position to turn the plug, Fig. 3 is a transverse section through the lock on the line x-fc of Fig. 1, Fig. 4 is a similar' view on the line y-y of Fig. 2 Fig. A5 is an elevation of the key such as is used with the lock, illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4. Fig. 6 is a transverse section of a modified form of the lock, Fig. 7 is a longitudinal section thereof, on the line z-z of Fig. 6, and Fig. 8 is a detail view of the key, such as is used with the modified form of lock.
Referring to Figs. 1 to 5 of the drawings, 1 indicates the tumbler case which is preferably formcd integrally with one side of the lock casing, 2
and having a cylindrical bore,
3. Rotatably mounted within the bore, 3 is a cylindrical'plug, 4 having a centrally dis' yposed cylindrical keyhole, 5. The inner end hole, 5. Upon the inner end of the plug is an eccentric pin, 11 for operating the bolting mechanism of the lock. The tumbler case, 1 and the plug, 4 are provided with a correspending number of radially disI osed tumbler recesses, 12 and 13 respective y in which are arranged the spring pressed tumblers.
Each tumbler comprises a spring barrel, 14, arranged within the recess, 12 and the. follower, 15 arranged in the recess, 13 of the plug. The follower, 15 may be formed with a spherical end to engage and cooperate With the key, but I prefer to form it cup shaped as shown, and provide a ball, 16 whlch shall be engaged by the key, the latter offering less resistance to the insertion and withdrawal of the key thanthe former, and also being subjected to less wear. The spring barrels, 14 are all of the same length, but the followers,
' 15 are formed of two lengths, 15-,-15. Ar-
ranged centrally of the keyhole, 5, is a stem, 17. This is cylindrical, and the tumblers, that is the ball, 16, thereof, are pressed into engagement therewith by the springs, 18, arranged behind the spring barrels, 14 or between said barrels and the shell or casing, 9. The'followers, 15 are so proportioned that when the balls are in engagement with the stem, 17, their outer ends will be flush with the periphery of the plug and the followers, 15 are somewhat thinner than the followers, 15', hence, at such times the spring barrels, 14 will extend a short distance within the recesses, 13 locking the lug against rotation. The thickness of the ollowers, 15" is such that when the inner point of the ball, 16 is flush with the wall of the keyhole, 5 the outer end of the follower will vbe flush with the perlphery of the plug. It is obvious therefore, that if a key is insert-ed which will press the followers, 15 outwardly but which will permit the followers 15 to remain in normal position, the plug, 4 may be turned. To this end I provide the cylindrical key, 20, having the apertures, 21 of sufficient size, and so arranged, as to permit the balls corresponding to the followers, 15 to rest against the stem, 17. When the key is properly inserted the balls corresponding to the followers, 15l will rest-against, the unapertured ortions of the key which will hold the tumb ers in position to unlock the plug. .p If the apertures, 21 are not properly arranged and of the proper number, the plug can-not be turned, for it is obvious that 1f a follower, 15 is ermitted to remain in normal position, or i a follower, 15 is raised out of normal position, the plug cannot turn. To rotatably X the keywithin the plug, the bottom of the keyhole isprovided with a pin or lug, 22 adapted to engage a notch 23 formedin the end of the key. It is obvious that by rearrangin or interchanging the positions of the fol owers, 15 and 15 or changing the relative number of each, a great number of combinations may be had, and to increase the number' of possible combinations I arrange the tumbler recesses in different radial planes. This latter arrangement also admits of a greater number of changes or combinations in a lock of a given size or having a given number of tumblers. In Figs. 1 to 4 I have illustrated rows of parallel tumbler recesses, the rows being arranged in different radial lanes, four rows being illustrated at right anglles to each other. It will be understood that an infinitely greater number of combinations may be had with the twelve tumblers arranged as shown, than with the twelve similar tumblers arranged in a single row and also that Vthe lock will occupy a space of substantially onefourth of the length of one of the latter arrangements. ber of combinations possible, the position of the lug or pin, 22 with relation to thetumblers may be varied.
It should be noted that although an almost unlimited number of combinations may be had with the lock above described there is no fitting or cutting lof pins to vary their length, nor is any special care or skill necessary in making the key for the lock. Where pins of various lengths are used it is necessary that the serrated edgev of the key should nicely conform to the various lengths, however, with the lock above described, itis but neceslsary to drill the apertures, 21 in the proper positions. In as much as less skill and accuracy is required in making the lock it may bte manufactured at a very low cost in comparison with others.
In Figs. 6 and 7 I have illustrated a modified form of lock wherein a flat key is used. This partakes of the general characteristics of the preceding or preferred form, but 1t 1s obvious that the central stem, 17 forming .a stop for the tumblers must be omitted. It is further obvious that when the' stem, 17 1s omitted, the tumbler recesses cannot be arranged diametrically Vopposite from each other. In the modified form the flat keyhole, 5 is angularly shown in Fig. 6, and the tumbler recesses are staggered about the keyhole in such a manner that the opposite wall of the keyhole will constitute a stop to limitthe inward movement of the tumblers. The key To further multiply the num- 24, is provided with a plurality of apertures,
25 corresponding in position to the tumblers having the longer followers, and is equipped with a lug or stop, 26 which limits its movement into the plug. Except for the difference above noted, the modified form of lock is the same in construction and operation as that illustrated vin Figs. 1 to 4 and the combinations may be varied in a like manner by changing the relative positions and numbers of the followers, 1.5V and 15. To limit the rotary movement of the plug, 4 in order that thetumbler recesses shall properly register when the bolt is in locking position, I provide the coacting lugs, 27 and 28 on the members, l and 4 respectively.
Having described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters sprin Patent is:
' 1. A lock comprising a tumbler case and rotary plug in combination with a plurality of two part tumblers or tumbler pins, the parts thereof within the plug being of two engths and interchangeable, a stop to limit the inward movement of the tumblers and a key apertured'to permit certain of said tumblers to engage said stop when the same is inserted in the plug, substantially as described. A
2. A lock comprising a tumbler case and a rotary plug, in combination with a plurality of tumblers, each said tumbler comprising a tumb er case, a follower portion arranged barrel portion arranged within the Within said plug and a ball portion at the inner end, the line of division between certain of said spring barrels and their coacting followers being normally in alinement with the periphery of said plug and the line of division of the remaining tumbler-s being normally within said plug, substantially as deand means for rotatably fixing said key witl1- y in said lock, substantially as described.
4. A lock com rising a tumbler case having a cylindrical ore, in combination with a vcylindrical plug fitted within said bore and having a centrally disposed cylindrical keyhole, a plurality of two part tumblers arranged in different radialplanes, a stop arranged concentrically within said keyhole and a cylindrical key suitably apertured, substantially as and for the purpose specified. p In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing. witnesses.
f JOHN W. BODGE.
Witnesses f v f FRANCES E. SHEEHY,`