US 914856 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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APPLICATION FILED 11:13.10, 1908.
91%@ Patented Mar-9,1909.
2 SHEETS*SHEET 2.
UNITED., sTATEs PATENT oEEIeE.
I OTT() MEYER, RICMOND, VIRGINIA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
application ledFebruary `10, 190,8. Serial N o. 415,178: Y
the art'to Whichit appertains'to makeand This invention relates to apparatus -for the electrolytic deeom osition of electrolytes in general and the decomposition ofA sodium chlorid or common salt-in particular.
The object of the invention is to provide an electrolytic apparatus ofconvenient and economical'form and construction adapted to the productionof caustic soda from the electrolytic decomposition of common salt.
Figure 1 is a lsectional view ofthe improved electrolytic cell. Fig. 2 is a view in elevation of a number of the cells shown at Fig. 1 grouped in a battery.
Itis to be understood that while the arrangement shown in Fig. 2 maybe employed to connect the cells in series, such showing is only one o f the almost unlimited systems of connecting such cells.
The invention is characterized by the structure wherein an anode, anodecell, cathode, and cathode cell are formed of asystem of concentric tubes.
ln the accompanying drawing one form of construction is shown in which the innermost tube serves the double' urpose of anode and of conducti vg the sa t solution from the reservoir 11 and Within the anode cell, suc passage being regulated by means of valve or cock 13. The anode tube 10 is preferably a commercial carbon tube and isconnected by'means of a collar 14 with a conductor 15 fromany convenient source of electricity as l16. While carbon tubes of the kind described are obtainable in the market as commercial articles it is-to be understood that a tube of glass,
iard rubber, wood, or other suitable material :nay be substituted therefor in which case ;he anode yis provided by'means of metallic hovering formed upon the exterior of the ',ube, such metal being of necessity platinum )r a similar metal not Aacted upon by the )rocess performed. I
' The anode cell or compartment is a porous '.ube 'shown at 17 of clay or other suitable set pipe 21 through cathode terminal is -copper and here shown conventionally as of rouglh the tube 12 block of cement 18 set therein and also closed at the to except for an opening 19 formed therein t rough which the anode tube 10 is inserted and a tube Cl also inserted in the top of the -anode compartment. The opening 19 about the anodeis in Voperation closed by means of cement as shown at 20 whereby a tight joint is established and of such consistency that the anode tube may be removed or replaced without disturbing the Aanode compartment, other than breaking away and replacin the cement. The anode compartment is a so provided with an ir'- which spent sodium chlorid is dischar ed.
. Patented March 9,1909.
material closed at the bottom by means of a Y 'loA Upon the outside of the anode compartment is the cathode compartment or receptacle 22 preferably of iron pipe screw-threaded at its opposite ends and atits lower end closed by a cap 23 and at its upper end by a cap 24 which latter is provided with ing 25 through which the cathode cell 17 proects and with a pipe H withl a cement 26 closmg. the opening 25 aboutthe cathode cell and permitting the removal of such cell romf-the receptacle 22 by the simple removal of the cement.l About the cathode cell a metallic provided, preferably of wire 27 wound s irally about the. exterior of such. cathode ce and connected by. means of the Wire 28 with the source 16 of electrical energy, although it is to be understood that such spiral winding is not material to the formation' of the electrode as anyform of coveriing for the `cathode cell, which does not oban openstruct passage through the pores of such cell may be emplo ed, such, for instance, as perforate metal sA eet, wire gauze or the like.
Adjacent the bottom of thereee tacle 22- a i 'e 29 enters communicatin wit a'reservoir H2O from which source Water is conducted through the said pipe 29 to thevreceptacle 22, such assage being controlled by :a valve or cock s own conventionally at-30.
Adjacent' the 22 a pipe NaHO 1s provided through which .the product of decomposition isv discharged.
In. operation sodium chlorid solution is discharged from the reservoir 1 1 through the pipe 12and'aiiode 10 passing out at the bot- .tom of said tube Whlch stops short of the bottom of the anode compartment and upwardly within such anode compartment as indicated by the arrows. At the same time upper end of the receptacle g cocks 13 and 30Y and the from the cell may be, if esired, subjected' to` licate ofthe water is discharged from the tank H2O within the cell 17 are subjected'to an elecv charged from the apparatus shown at Fig. 1,
trolytic action from the source of energy 1 6. It will be obvious that such electrolytic action will result in the discharge of chlorin gas from the pipe Cl, of hydrogen-gas from the pipe H and caustic soda from the pipe'NaHO, while the spent sodium chlorid solution will be dis- .The passage of t (le) electrolyte through the apparatus iscontrolled by the Vuse of the roducts discharged further electrolytic action inidu it eing understood that such cells may be arranged in series as shown at Fig. 2 or otherwise so `that Vthe roducts may be further acted upon by furt er and similar cells communicating with the initial cell and that the passage of the electrolyte and the products through the cells is controlled by gravity.
In the arrangement ofthe cells in series as shown in Fig. 2,l 22 and 22 indicate the additional cathode receptacles, and 17 and 17", the additional cathode cells; Pipes 29 and 29 connect receptacles 22 and 22 and 22 and 22" respectively. 23" and 23 are the ca s which close the bottom ofthe recep'tac es 22 and 22". 2.4 and 24" are the caps which close the caps of the receptacles. 12 and 12" are the branch pipes which connect the pi e 12 with the cathode cells 17 and 17". l l and Cl are the tubes similar to the tube Clwhich are inserted in the top of each of the anode compartments. 28 and 29 are the connecting lwires which are similar to the wire 28, and 16 and 16 are sorces of electricity similar to the source 16.
21" and 21 are pipes similar to pipe 21 and connect with the cathode cells 17 and 17.
The apparatus as shown, it will be noted,
i constructed wholly of commercial mater1als.,-procurable on the market, such for instance as iron pipe for the outer receptacle,
porous clay pipe for the intermediate receptacle, and carbon tubes for the inner tube or anode and connectedup vb the 4usualand ordinarypipes and other-vitel known devices so that the inner apparatus is and v ma f be economically, quickly and conveniently4 made without resorting to special forms or v s ecial molds, dies or the likefor its products.
h e main objectV of the ap aratus is, however, to provide in a sma space, a very large surface action, as the salt solution and the water form flowing concentric tubes.
Also, the concentric tube form of anode and cathode brings the' electrical resistance down 'to a minimum.- Altogether it is the object of the apparatus to provide' large surfaces for l both electrolytes and for anode and cathode,
vin a small space and with simple means.
It is obvious that with a few slight mechanical changes the device may be employed with steam to wash away the caustic soda from the cathode instead of water. It is also obviousthat the cell may be so arranged that the streams of salt solution and 'caustic soda solution instead -of flowing in the same direction may be made to flow in opposite directions. Also that the cell 1nstead of being arranged vertically may, with but slight changes be' constructed so as to b e disposed horizontally or in an inclined position.
.1. An electrolyticcell comprising a pipe having caps at its extremities, a porous pipe disposed concentrically Within the pipe and having a discharge opening, a tube dis osed within the porous pipe, means to supp y an electrolyte to the tube, means to emdploy the tube as an electrode and an electro e of the opposite sign surrounding the porous tube, and means to discharge the products of electrolysis from the several members.
. 2.v An electrolytic cell comprising a cylindrical casing having its opposite ends rovided with closures, a porous cylindrica receptacle disposed concentrically within the outer receptacle, a tubedisposed within the porous receptacle, means to supply an electrolyte to the tube, means to employ the tube as an electrode, an electrode of the opposite sign disposed upon the exterior of t -e porousreceptacle, and openings formed in the outer receptacle'and the porous receptacle adapted to permit the discharge of 't products of electrolysis.
3. An electrolytic cell comprising a cylindrical container, a porous pipe disposed within the container, a ca closing the top of the vcontainer and positioning the porous pi e and ada ted to ermit the )crous i e topextend uplivardly Itherefrom, Ia tube Pdi)s posed within theporous pipe, means closing the top of the porous pipe and adapted to positionthe tube, means4 to sup-ply an electrolyte to the tube, means to employ the tube as an electrode, an electrode 'of the opposite sign carried by the porous pipe, and
vdischarge tubes communicating with the casing and the porous tube adapted to er- `Init the discharge of the products of e ectrolysis. 4 In testimony whereof I affix mysignaturf 1n presence of two witnesses. OTTO MEYER.
JAMES C. PAGE, Crais. C. RUSSELL.