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Publication numberUS919105 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 20, 1909
Filing dateMar 12, 1908
Priority dateMar 12, 1908
Publication numberUS 919105 A, US 919105A, US-A-919105, US919105 A, US919105A
InventorsEmil Wischow
Original AssigneeEmil Wischow
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hewing apparatus for open-air mining.
US 919105 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



Patented Apr. 20, 1909.


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Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented April 20, 1909.

Application filed March 12, 1908. Serial No. 420,751.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that l, EMIL Vhsonow, a citi- Zen of the German Empire, residing at Luebeck, in the State of Luebeck and German Empire, have invented Improvements in Hewin A paratus for Open-Air Mining, of which the ibllowing is a specification.

This invention relates to hewing apparatus for the mining of minerals, especially of brown coal, which are to be worked in openair workings.

The essential novelty in the invention is the employment of a carriage or slide running along the working-face on a rigid guide rail which carriage or slide supports the cutting tools for hewing down the materials.

The invention can be carried out in a great variety of ways. The drawings show some of the most important and preferable forms of the apparatus.

Figure 1 shows a side view of a hewing apparatus constructed in accordance with the invention. Fig. 2 shows the tool-slide for the same drawn to a larger scale. Fig. 8 shows a modification of the up er part of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. ig. 4 is a side view of another hewing apparatus, the lower part of which is shown in front view in Fig. 5, and in plan in Fig. 6, while the upper p art is shown in plan in Fig. 7 and in back view in Fig. 8. Figs. 9 and 10 show respectively a front and side view of a special form of the cutting tool. Fig. 11 shows the arrangement of several such cutting tools in one tool-slide. Figs. 12 and 13 show a side view and plan respectively of a tool-slide with rotating upper part. Fig. 14 shows a hewing apparatus with an adjustable tool, and Figs. 15 and 16 show, to a larger scale, a side view and plan respectively of a tool-slide with an adjustable tool. I

The arrangement illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 shows two carriages, one of which, 1, moves on rails 3 at the lower part of the working face to be hewn down, the other, 2, on rails 4 at the top of the working face and both parallel to the latter. The carriage 1 supports a framing, to the corner point 5 of which is hinged a link 6. The carriage 2 likewise supports a framing to which is hinged, at the point 7, a link 8. The links 6 and 8 carry the rigid guide-rail 9 for the slide 10. The rigid guide-rail 9 consists of a lattice-girder the length of which is somewhat greater than the height of the working face to be hewn down, and is provided with guides, or the like, for the slide 10. The rigid guide-rail 9 is raised and lowered by the two rope or chain tackles l1 and 12 its ends swinging around the points 5 and 7 by means of the two links 6 and 8. These two links 6 and 8 are of equal length, in consequence of which the guide-rail 9 is guided parallel to itself, that is to say, it remains always parallel to its original position. In Fig. 1 the two extreme positions of the rigid guide-rail 9 are shown, the lower extreme position being shown in full lines, the upper in dotted lines. When the guide-rail 9 is of great length it is held by two sliding supports 13 and 14 which are hinged to the framing of the carriages 1 and 2, and grasp the guide-rail 9 at the side turned away from the working face, by means of sliding shoes 15 and 16. The slide 10 guided on the rigid guide-rail carries, by means of rollers 17 and 18, a chain or band 19 furnished with picks or cutters. This consists of one or more endless chains carried side by side around the rollers 17 and 18, which chains are provided at regular inter-- vals with cutters 20. An electric motor 21, or other suitable engine, turns the roller 18. The slide 10 is iiXed to an endless rope 22 which is led over rollers 23 and 24 at the ends of the guide-rail 9 and can be moved by a Windlass placed on the carriage 2. By means of this rope the slide 10 is moved up and down at pleasure on the guide-rail 9.

On the lower carriage 1 is arranged a bucket-chain 25 which runs over three sprocket wheels 26, 27, and 28. The front sprocket 28 is placed at the connecting point of the link 6 with the rigid guide-rail 9. The bucket-chain consequently adapts itself to every movement of the lower end of the guide-rail 9. Each bucket of the bucketchain is furnished with a cutter so that it can take away, when the bucket-chain revolves, the hewn-down material. The link 6 forms at the same time the bucket-guide for the front part of the bucket-chain. The rear sprocket-wheel 26 of the bucket-chain is driven by any suitable motor. The buckets of the bucket-chain 25 empty themselves, in passing over the rear sprocket 26, and pour their contents on to an inclined plane 29 which delivers them to a traveling band 30 connected to the carriage 1 by means of a carrier 81. This traveling band 30 throws its contents into a hopper 32 movable to and fro on the carrier 31, not wholly shown in the drawings, from which hopper the maof the working face.

terials fall into the wagon 33 of a transportrailway 34 which conveys the material to the place where it is to be operated upon, or to the store.

The above described apparatus operates as follows :Assuming that the carriages 1 and 2 with the whole apparatus are standing at the end of the working face which is to be hewn down, and the guide-rail 9 in the position shown in dotted lines in Fig. 1. The slide 10 stands at the top of the upper edge of the working face to be hewn down. The cutter-chain 19 is set in motion by its motor 21 and the bucket-chain by its motor. in this chain 19 may penetrate to a certain depth into the working face to be hewn down, which depth is dependent upon the nature of the materials to be operated upon. The slide 1.0 is now moved downward on the guide-rail 9 and the material that stands opposite the cutters is loosened thereby. The loosened material falls down the working face and is received by the buckets of the bucket-chain 25. When the slide 10 has reached the lower end of the guiderail 9 it *ill have hewn down a strip of the working face corresponding to the working width of the cutter-chain 19 and of the whole height Then the carriages 1 and 2 are simultaneously pushed forwariil a distance equal to the width of the out just 1 ade, while the cutter-chain 19 and bucketchain continue to work and loosen the material opposite to them. The slide 10 is now again drawn up to the upper edge of the working face while it continues to her: down the material in front of it. W hen the slide 10 has again reached the top of the working face the carriages 1 and are again pushed forward by the width of a cut, and the slide 10 is again moved downward. The process is continued until the whole working face has been hewn down to the depth of the cut. The guide-rail 9 is then lowered by slackening out the tackles 11 and 12 so far that the cutter-chain 19 and the bucket-chain can penetrate afresh to a definite depth into the working face, and the above described movements of the apparatus are repeated. As the bucket-chain 25 reaches close up to the lower end of the rigid guide-ra" 9 it hews out mechanically the part of the working face at the foot of the apparatus, which has not been reached by the cutter-chain.

W hen the rigid guide-rail 9 reaches the position shown in full lines in Fig. 1 it is, after completion of its last proposed cut, drawn up into its highest position, and the rails 3 and 4 are, with the entire apparatus, moved so far forward that the cutter-chain 19 comes again close to the working face. The above described operation is then recommenced. But the revolving cutters and their guidance on a rigid guide-rail allows of the apparatus hewing each separate part of the working face instead of working the whole thereof uniformly. if, for example, there occurs in the brown coal to be won a horizontal seam of loam or the like, the slide 10 may be clamped to the guide-rail 9 at the height of the seam of loam and then by moving the carriages 1 and 2 on their rails 3 and 4 the seam of loam only will be hewn out, so that it will not be mixed with the brown coal when the latter is hewn down. When the part to be separately hewn runs obliquely, the slide 19 and the carriages 1 and 2 are moved simultaneously in the required directions. position of matters the cutter 29 of the cutter [is the cutting tools rotate they can begin and end the cut at any required position on the working face.

Fig. 3 shows a somewhat different arrangement of the upper carriage of the apparatus. In this case the upper carriage carries on its framing a circular segmental guide 36 for the upper end of the rigid guide-rail 9, the radius of which guide 36 is equal to the length of the link (3. This guide also allows, jointly with the link 6 a constrained parallel guidance of the guide-rail 9.

Figs. 1, 5, 6, 7 and 8 show another modifi cation of the invention. The special feature in this arrangement is that the carriages 1 and 2 are erected on special under-carriages rotatable against the undersides of the carriage frames, so that the carriages can be taken around sharp curves in the rails 8 and 1.

The carriage 1 runs on two rails 3. On each rail run three bogie-frames 37, each free to turn independently of the others. The middle bogie-frames are also movable to slight extent at right angles to the direction of the rails. in this way the carriage 1 can be taken around very sharp curves as shown in Fig. 6. In Figs. 7 and 8 it is seen that the carriage 2 is erected on two bogie frames 38, which likewise enable it to pass sharp rail curves. The hewing apparatus is, by means of these turnable under carriages S7 and 38, in a position to hew down the working face at places where it has sharp corners and curves, without interruption or inconvenience.

In Fig. 9 is shown a shaft 39 turning in bearings, which shaft is caused to rotate byany s uitable means, not shown in the drawings. The shaft carries at its front end a disk 40 provided with cutters ll. In the drawing all the cutters are arranged in a circle near the edge of the disk. They may, however, be distributed in various positions on the surface of the disk. This tool is specially suited for penetrating into the working face. It has the advantage that it operates always with at least half of the cutters acting at one time as the slide moves along the rigid guide-rail 9. Several of the rotating cutterdisks 410 1na be arranged side by side in the slide 10.

Fig. 11 shows a case wherein two cutterdisks -40' are present. There are also in the same figure two other cutter-disks shown in by which the slide 10 is moved, depends for its direction upon the direction of rotation of the disks. It therefore, two disks, or other rotating cutter tools on the slide, rotate in opposite directions the strains exerted by the two tools act in opposition, and the rope is relieved from strain.

Figs. 12 and 13 show a special arrangement of the tool-slide. In this case the slide is divided into an upper part 42 and a lower part 43. The lower part 43 is adapted to ro tate on the upper part 42, and can be clamped thereto in any required position. Fig. 13 shows a position of the lower part 43 in which the cutter-chain 19 runs parallel to the rigid guide-rail 9, while in dotted lines is shown a position of the lower part 43 in which the cutter chain 19 runs at right angles to the rigid guide-rail 9. By turning the lower part 43 it is aossible to suit the direction of motion anc the width of cuttertool to the direction in which the seams to be hewn down lie, and in which the tool is to be moved over the working face. The kind of rotating tool that is to be carried by the lower part 43 be varied, for example, the two cutter-disks shown in full lines in Fig. 11, may be arranged on the lower part 43. According to the position of the lower part 43 a broader or a narrower strip of the working face can be hewn down.

In Fig. 14 is shown a hewing apparatus in which the forward movement of the tool toward the working face is effected in a manner different from that employed in the apparatuses shown in Figs. 1 and 4. in this case there is fitted to the carriage 1 a rigid guiderail 44, fixed permanently to the framing of the carriage 1, and is not supported by a second or upper carriage. That, however, is not the essential feature of this form of hewing apparatus, as the guiderail 44 may without departing from the nature of the invention, be connected flexibly to the carriage 1 and be supported by an upper carriage. The slide 45, movable on the rigid guide-rail carries a rotating cutting tool 46 which is driven by any suitable motor. This tool is movable on the slide in the direction of the shaft 47, so that it can be moved forward toward th working face while the rigid guide-rail remains stationary. A similar construction of the slide is shown in Figs. 15 and 16. The slide 45 carries, in this case, a movable part 48 on which the cutter-roller 49 is ournaled. This cutter-roller is rotated by means 01' an &

electric motor 50, with the help of a train of gearing 51, the chain 52 and the sprocket wheels 53 and 54. By moving the part 48 on the slide 45 the cutter-roller can be moved toward and away from the rigid guide-rail 44.

lVith the apparatuses shown in Figs. 14, 15 and 16 the hewing down of the working face is carried out in the same way as with the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. Only at the parts where, in the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, the rigid guide-rail 9 is raised and lowered by means of the tackles 11 and 12 the cutting tool 46, or the cutter-roller 49 is moved for ward or backward. This apparatus has the advantage of greater simplicity, not only in the construction but in the manipulation, for it is not necessary to move the heavy guiderail 9 every time for producing the forward movement.

Numerous modifications may be made in the apparatuses described without departing from the scope of the invention. It is especially indill'erent what kind of rotating cutting tool is employed in the slide. As the drawings show it may he a cutter-disk, a cutter-chain, or a cutter-roller, and yet other forms may be used. t is also unimportant in what way the frame of the hewing apparatus is constructed. The constructions shown are only given by way oi example.

I claim:

1. An apparatus for hewing minerals in open workings, comprising a rigid guide rail, a slide movably supported and guided on said rail, a rotating cutting tool carried by said slide, and independent means {or supporting and adjusting the upper and lower ends of the guide rail.

2. An apparatus for hewing minerals in open workings comprising a rigid guide rail, a slide movably supported andguided on said rail, a rotating cutting tool carried by said slide, independent means for supporting and adjusting the upper and lower ends 01" the guide rail, and means ior constraining the guide rail to move parallel to' itself.

3. Apparatus for hewing minerals in open workings in which a bucket-chain is com bined with the lower end of the rigid guiderail for the tool-slide.

4. An apparatus for hewing minerals in open workings having a bucket-chain connected with the lower end of a rigid guiderail for a tool-slide, in which the connecting links for the -movement of the rigid guiderail are so arranged that the deepest position is reached when the guide-rail has completed its forward movement.

Apparatus for hewing minerals in open 6. Apparatus for hewing minerals in open workings in which the carriages carrying the 1 rigid guide-raii 01 the tool-slide are mounted upon rotatable under carriages.

7. A tool-slide for hewing apparatus with several rotating cutter-tools two of which rotate in opposite directions to one another.

8 A tool-slide for hewing apparatus which consists of an up er part having a lower part arranged rotatably and adjust-ably thereon, which lower part carries a rotating cutting 5 tool. E

9. Apparatus for hewing minerals in open Workings having a tool-slide moving on a rigid guide-rail and carrying a rotating out- 15 ting-tool VVhiPh can be fed forward from the slide.

In. Witness whereof'l have hereunto set my hand in presence of two Witnesses.



Referenced by
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US2762141 *Jul 1, 1952Sep 11, 1956Tourneau Robert G LeExcavating machine
US2867046 *Dec 20, 1954Jan 6, 1959Baer Steel Products IncCanal wall trimmer
US3904244 *Aug 20, 1973Sep 9, 1975Haspert John CMethod and apparatus for mechanized seam mining
US7192093 *Apr 22, 2005Mar 20, 2007Placer Dome Technical Services LimitedExcavation apparatus and method
US7556319 *Mar 20, 2007Jul 7, 2009Blasters Technologies, LLCApparatus for resurfacing concrete
US7695071Oct 15, 2003Apr 13, 2010Minister Of Natural ResourcesAutomated excavation machine
US8016363Dec 29, 2009Sep 13, 2011Eric JacksonAutomated excavation machine
WO2005106137A2 *Apr 22, 2005Nov 10, 2005Jim FriantExcavation apparatus and method
Cooperative ClassificationE21C27/24