US 932766 A
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` Wi'msves D. DANIELS.
HBAVING PLUG FOR WELLS. APPLIUATIQN FILED snr'r. a,19oa.
Patented Aug. 31, 1909.
s. wAsm cation.
'narran STATES- DANIEL DANIELS, 0F LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.
HEAVING-PLUG FOR WELLS.
j specification bf Letters Patent. Application fired september' e, 190s.
Patented Aug. 3l, 1909. `Serial No. 451,620.
and has special reference to such a heaving plug asis used in preventing sand and other substances heaving or arising in well casings in oil and other wells. i I v @ne object of my invention islto provide a heaving plug which is readily adjustable so as to adapt it for use in different sized casings or to casings at any depth in the' well.
Another object is to provide'a heaving plug having sufficient strength and durafv bility for accomplishing its desired function, yet beingsuilicientlyfragile topermit ofits being broken with ease and being removed from the casing with despatch.l
Another object is to provide `aplug in which the principal parts are quickly. and cheaply formed, as by`casting, and can be readily assembled and then `held in a compact condition by the use of the suspending member.
The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention and form a part of this specifi- Figure 1 is a longitudinal,sectional view of a portion. of a casing with my improved heaving plug shown in side elevation inpo` sition therein. Fig.`2is a vertical, central, sectional view through the plug. ',Fig. 3 is a transverse, sectional view on =the line ma-asof Fig. 1. Figl is a Aperspective view of one of the gripping slips. Fig. 5 is a similar view of the framework` of the plug upon which said slips are mounted;
Referring more particularly `to `the drawings which are for illustrative purposes only and, therefore, are notdrawn to any particular scale, 1 indicates the bottom 'or base of the framework of theheaving plug, upon or to which are secured slip guides 2, having slips 3 reciprocally mounted'thereon;` Base 1 and guides 2 constitute an open work frame, said frame comprising bars extending upwardly fromV the base andseparated in such 'manner Vthat they may be readily broken by impact las hereinafter. described.
The base 1 is preferably circular and of a 4 less diameter than the diameter of the smallest pipe within which the plug is to be used, and preferably has its lower edge rounded or slightly curved, as' shown at 4, for entering a casing, such as is shown at 5. The guides or standards 2 are preferably angular in lcross section, as by making them dovetailed, as shown more particularly in Fig. 3,.
and each slipis preferably provided upon its `inner`face with a corresponding dovet'ailed groove-or recess 6, which extends from top `to bottom of the slip, whereby the slip is adapted tovbe reciprocally mounted upon or connected with the guides. Each slip is in the form of a segment and is of such a width that the full complementv of slips when in position upon the framework of the plug will substantially form a circle with suliicient space or di'stance between' the adj acent edgesof the slips to permit of the necessary movement of the slips toward and from each other to adapt them for use in Vcasings of-diiferent diameters. In the drawings four slips are shown, in which case each segment is a trifle less than the quadrant of acirclewith four spaces between their adjacent edges, but it is evident that a greater or less number of slips could be used by varying theirv length and also by properly constructing the framework for their reception.
The exterior of each slip is cylindrical and provided with circumferentially arranged teeth or-projections7-which are adapted to engage with and bite into the inner wall of the casing andtherebyprevent the upward movement ofthe plug. These teeth are preferably formed by recessing.` the ,exterior of the slip circumferentially its entire width, as shown at 8, although it is evident that they could be formed in any otherdesired manner.
In order to Secure the adjustability of the plug whereby it is adapted for use in casings of `different diameters, the slipA guides or standards are inclined Atoward, each other at the top, which `will cause the slips to be retracted or drawn in toward the center when they are moved to or toward the top of said` guides. By having the teeth 7 extend from the bottom tothe top of each slip the greatest amount of gripping surface isA secured, and to cause the points .ofthe teeth of the different slips to occupy a verticall plane or to be parallel with each other and with the inner surface ofthe casing, irrespective of the vertical position which t-hey occupy upon the guides, the slip, or at least that portion of it between the bottom of the recess 8 and the teeth 7, is made slightly triangular in cross section to correspond with the inclination or inward taper of the guides, as clearly shown in Fig. 2, and the guidesare made sufficiently longer vthan the length of the slips to permit of the required verticalmovement of the slips to secure the desired circumferential variation or adjustment.
VThe slips may be non-removably held upon the guides by means of a disk like top or cover 9 which is preferably of substantially fthe same diameter' as the base t, so as to cause the plug to move axially within the casing, vand it is adapted to rest upon the `when it is desired to remove the plug.
upper ends of the guides and can be locked A in engagement therewith in any desired manner, preferably by the suspending means which vis connected with the framework inV Vany desired manner. Y Y
In the drawings the suspending means 1s shown as an eye bolt l0 which is passed through ak perforation in the disk 9 and screwed Vinto a spider 11 that is connected -with the/upper ends of` the guides 2 and thereby holds them rigidly in position, yet permitting of the guides being made so small or fragile that they can be easily broken by a blow from abovefrom any suitable means A shoulder is formed upon the eye bolt, as by Y. meansof a nut 12, for engaging with the top ofthe disk 9V and forcing the disk down upon the tops of the standards. An additional spider 13 may be connected with the guides 2 intermediate their length for giving additional strength to the guides.
f yIn using arheaving plug as above described in oil wells and other places in which there isa quantity of sand or other sediment, the plug can be dropped or forced down the desired distance and released, when the Vpresto b eused Vin Artesian wells it is pre erably desirable, and in some-cases absolutelynecessary, to insert Vthe usual wooden plug into the Icasing directly in front of the bottom of the adjustable vplug above described, in which `instance the moisture will soon expand the wooden plug and cause it to. engage with the interior of the casing with sufficient pressure toprevent the passage of the water, while the engagement ofthe slips with the casing 'will .prevent the further movement of thel v bottom of the adjustable plug upward in case the pressure of the-water should force the wooden plug upward.
IVhen it is desired to remove the adjustable plug, any suitable object of suliicient Aweight is dropped or let down into the casing so as to strike the supporting mechanism, as the top of the eye'bolt, and force 1t downward and thereby break the top and also the cross head to which it is secured, the cross head being preferably located at a slight distance below the top so as to leave the top unsupported at that point and. thereby be the more readily crushed or broken when the shoulder or nut on the eye bolt is forced down against it. This will also break the standards or guides or leave them unsupported, so that they will be collapsed inward and will thereby release the slips from engagement with the interior 'of the casing, after which the pieces can be removed in any desired manner. The base and the guides thereon and the connecting parts constitute a frame of frangible material, and the construction being open, the said parts separately and collectively are more readily frangible by the dropped weight than would be the case with a frame or support consisting of av closed shell. A
Having described my invention, I claim:
l. In a heaving plug, a frame of frangible material and comprising a base and bars extending upwardly therefrom said bars being separated to adapt them to be crushed so as to fall inward, and slips mounted on said bars.
2. In a heaving plug, a frame formed of frangible material and comprising a base, upwardly and inwardly inclined bars eX- tending from saidbase, said bars being separated and forming guides, and slips reciprocally mounted on said guides.
3.' In a heaving plug,'a base, inwardly inl clined frangible guides thereon, forming in connection with said base an open frame, said guides being angular in cross section, andV angularly slotted slips reciprocally mounted on said guides.
al In a heaving plug, a base, inwardly inclined frangible guides thereon, forming in connection with said base an open frame,
said guides being dovetailed in cross section,
and a segmental slip reciprocally mounted on each guide, the inner face of said slip being provided with a slot arranged longitudinally thereof and dovetailed in cross section, and means for normally preventing said slips from becoming disengaged from said guides.
5. In a heaving plug, a disk klike base, angular guides projecting from the edge thereof inwardly and upwardly, a slip reciprocally mounted upon each guide, a top, and means for holding saidtop against the upperends of saidguides.
6. In a heaving plug, a disk-like base provided with inwardly and upwardly extend-` ing guides, slips reciprocally mounted on said guides, a top, and supporting means extending through and engaging said top and having a connection with the said guides for holding the top in engagement with the upper ends of the guides.
7. In a heaving plug, a base provided with inwardly and upwardly extending frangible guides, slips reoiprocally mounted onsaid guides, fragile means connecting the upper ends of said guides, a top on the upper ends of said guides, and suspending means extending through and engaging said top and engaging the said means connecting the guides for holding the top in position upon said guides. n
8. In a heaving plug, a frangible frame provided with inclined guides, slips reciprocally mounted on said guides, a top in engagement with the upper ends of said guides, and supporting means extending through and engaging said top and in engagement with said frame.
9. In a heaving plug, a base provided with inwardly and upwardly inclined guides,
slips reciprocally mounted on said guides, cruciform strengthening pieces connected with said guides, a top on the upper ends of the guides, and suspending means extending through and engaging said top and in engagement with the upper cruciform piece.
10. In a heaving plug, a base provided with inwardly and `upwardly extending.
guides, slips lreciprocally mounted on said guides, a cruciform strengthening piece connected with the upper ends of said guides and provided with a screw threaded perforation, a perforated top on said guides, and a screw threaded eye bolt extending through the perforation in the top and in engagement with saidl cruciform piece.v
12.'In a heaving plug, a disk like baseprovided with inwardly and upwardly inclined guides, slips reciprocally mounted on said guides, means connecting the upper ends of the guides, a perforated disk like top on the upper ends of said guides of substantially the same diameter as the base, and suspending means extending through the perforation of said top and screwing into the said means connecting the upper ends of the guides for holding said top in position.
13. In a heaving plug, a base provided with upwardly and inwardly inclined frangible guides, forming in connection with said base an open frame, said guides being angular in cross section, slips reciprocally mounted on said guides, the inner face of each slip being provided with a recess and adapted to lit upon said guides, said slip between the bottom of said recess and its periphery being substantially wedge shaped and the exterior being provided with shoulders, a top member and means for supporting said plug and connecting said top member to the said guides, said top member holding the slips against removal from the guides.,
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand at Los Angeles, California, this 28 day of August, 1908.
In presence ofw Louis W. GRATZ, FRANK L. A. GRAHAM.