|Publication number||US937587 A|
|Publication date||Oct 19, 1909|
|Filing date||Sep 17, 1908|
|Priority date||Sep 17, 1908|
|Publication number||US 937587 A, US 937587A, US-A-937587, US937587 A, US937587A|
|Inventors||David S Foster|
|Original Assignee||David S Foster|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
D. S. FOSTER.
APPLICATION nun SEPT. 11, 1905. 937,587, Patented Oct. 19, 1909. z SHEETS-SHEET 1.
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APPLIOATIOH FILED SEPT. 17 1908.
Patented 0011.19, 1909.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
wi/lwmwo law) $291 mtozwew Z To all whom it may concert:
DAVID S. FOSTER, OF SYRACUSE, NEW YORK.
Specification of Letterslatent.
Patented Oct. 19, 1909.
Application filed September 17, 1908. Serial No. 453,386.
Be it known that I, DAVID S. FosTER, citizen of the United States, and resident of Syracuse, in the county of Onondaga in the State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Aeroplanes, of which the following, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, is a full, clear, and exact description.
This invention resides in certain novel improvements in aeroplaneconstruction designed more particularly to solve the problem of direct ascension.
The primaryobject of the present invention is to provide simple and eflicient powerdriven means capable of effecting the afore said result, with the view of dispensing with the expensive and inconvenient appliances ordinarily employed for causing aeroplanes to take flight. It is well known to persons familiar with aeroplanes, that'it is the common practice to provide complex and expensive apparatus combined with a wheeledsupport upon which the aeroplane is mounted, said support being designed to be moved rapidly along the ground by hand or propelled by suitable power-driven means for the purpose of imparting to the aeroplane sufficient momentum to cause it to rise to such an elevation as to clear obstacles incident to its being propelled. The described method is not only expensive and unreliable but 1n some lnstances is not practical, for
the reason that the use of the wheeled-support obviously-requires a very large area of ground which must be flat and smooth and at the same time free from obstructions, and from the fact that in many locations a proper ground space can not be had.
Another object of my invention is to produce an-aeroplane which shall be simple and inexpensive in its construction, and to provide eflicient and reliable cooperating lifting-means and propelling-means which shall act reciprocally 1n such a manner as to render the aeroplane self-controlling to the extent that it will adjust itself under varying forces of the currents -'of air when in flight and thus maintain its equilibrium, and furthermore, the object is to provide a single manually-operated device for independently and conveniently re lating the act-ionsof the power-driven llfting and propellingmeans, in combination with a simple and convenient steerin -apparatus whereby the aeroplane can he e ectually controlled.
- Other objects of the invention will be apparent from the peculiar construction and arrangement of the component parts of the aeroplane hereinafter fully described and claimed and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
Referring to said drawings Figure 1 is a rear view of the aeroplane embodying my improvements; .Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view' taken on the dotted line -XX and showing the. general arrangement of the power-driven lifting-wheel and propelling-wheel, and the mechanisms for regulating their actions, and also showing the.
steering-apparatus; Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail side view illustrating more clearly the said mechanisms; zF-ig. 4. is a detail plan view of the two connected regulating-mechanisms; :and, Fig. 5 is an enlarged vertical secgriong l view taken on the dotted line Like numerals of reference indicate like parts in the several views of the drawings.
As an essentiol element my improved aeroplane embodies a dirigible body constructed preferably in the form of a biplane, indicated at 11 in Fig. 1. This bi-plane comprises a horizontal skeleton frame composed of light bars of any suitable form and material. In the present case the bi-plane consists of a rectangular boxlike structure comprising longitudinal top and bottom bars 22-, vertical bars '33, and transverse bars -4=-4 which may be united by means of bolts or rivets. The front and rear sides of the biplane are open and the top and bottom are closed by sheets of canvas or other materlal 5-5- suitably fastened to the said bars -22-. Intermediate of its ends the biplane is left open at the top and bottom as shown in Fig. 1, whereat it is provided wlth a car 6' for the person 'or persons in charge. This car depends from, the .aforesaid frame and may be of any suitable construction, but preferably comprises long vertical bars 77 fastened to the framebars 22 and connected at their lower ends by horizontal bars -'8'8- designed to support. a floor --9.
The lifting means of the aeroplane consists essentially of a horizontally-rotatable wheel comprising a hub -10- having'a set of pivotal blades -1l11-, said hub being secured :to the upper end of a vertical hol low shaft -12- journaled in suitable bearings 13-13 mounted in the frame. This shaft is disposed intermediate the ends of the bi-plane and at the center of its width and extends fromthe car above the top of the biplane. To the lower end of said shaft is secured a bevel-gear 1l meshing with a like gear 15 secured to the forward end of the shaft -16 of a suitable motor 17 mounted in the car in any convenient manner. The blades 11-1l of said lifting-wheel have pivotal connections with the hub l0 to permit of their adjustment to obtain the desired pitch to regulate the action of .the wheel as will be shortly referred to. The said lifting-wheel may be of any suitable or well known construction. The style of wheel shown is similar to that of a reversible propeller-wheel common to power-driven boats. However, it will be understood that in the present instance I do not contemplate reversing the action of the blades, but simply turn them to vary the pitch, it being obvious that the angle of pitch is never to exceed 45 degrees. The hub 10 is formed hollow as usual and is divided diametrically, the line 'of division being transverse in relation to the shaft l2 so as to provide a removable outer section, and at the line of division are provided the usual radially disposed openings -18l8 forming bearings for the stems '1919 of the blades.
The stems of the blades are provided with the usual cranks or levers -2020- to which are connected the outer'end of a longitudinally shiftable rod 21 extending through the hollow shaft 12. The 0pposite end of the rod is provided with a transverse pin -22- adapted to move in a longitudinal slot 23 in the shaft, and embracing said shaft is a sleeve 24.- provided with an internal circumferential groove or channel 25 engaged by the pin 22. By moving this sleeve upward and downward on the shaft the rod -2I is caused to actuate the cranks or levers 20'20 on the stems of the blades, where'- by the latter are turned soas to set them at the desired pitch. The construction and arrangement of the described parts being common in boat-propellers, further illustration is unnecessary.
Any suitable and convenient manuallyoperated mechanism may be employed for actuating the sleeve 24 for the purpose stated. A very simple actuating device is shown and consists of a vertically swinging lever 26 pivoted to the frame as indicated at 27 and connected to the sleeve by means of a rod 28.
The propeller-wheel comprises the usual hollow hub -29 and pivotal blades 3030. Said propeller-wheel is mounted on the horizontal shaft 31' connected to the shaft 16. '-'of the motor. The connecting the lever 26 and rod aforesaid liftingsleeve 32 sliding upon the shaft -3l,
the connection between said rod and sleeve belng the same as the connection between the aforesaid rod -21 and sleeve 24 employed for adjusting the lifting-wheel blades. The sleeve .32- is actuated by means of a longitudinally movable horizontal rod 33- disposed parallel with the shaft -3l and pivotally connected at one end to said sleeve as indicated at 34, the opposite end of said rod being provided with a suitable handle -35. In order that the blade adjusting mechanisms of the two wheels may be actuated by this handle -35, I provide the rear end portion of the lever 26 with a longitudinal slot 36 through which passes a transverse pin 37 securely fastened to the adjacent end portion of the rod 33, to which pin I apply the said handle as clearly shown in Figs. 3 and 4: of the drawings. By con- --34 in the manner described it is obvious that the person in charge is enabled by the single andle to independently and conveniently regulate the actions of the wheels. By thus regulating the actions of the wheels and providing a suitable steering-apparatus, the aeroplane can be easily and conveniently controlled in its and in its propulsion.
The steering-apparatus may be of various constructions and arranged In any manner ractical for the requirements. erred form of steering-a paratus however, comprises a rectangular-s aped box -38- composed of a suitable frame covered on its sides with canvas or other material and having its ends open. This box may be of any convenient size and it is supported at the front side of the frame of the bi-plane. To render this steering-box capable of directing the bi-plane in any deslred course, it is obviously necessary that it be permitted to be swung both vertically and laterally. Said box IOJGCtS from the bi-plane and is disposed at the center of the length thereof and it is preferably mounted on a bracket suitably secured to one of the frame-members. In the resent instance the bracket is of substantlally U-shape and comprises a'horizontal bar 39 and a pair of vertical arms 39" rigidly secured to or formed integral with the end portions of the bar, between which arms the said box is pivotally supp0rted,'as indicated at 40, to allow it to swing vertically. This bracket ascension and descension lbs The prealso comprises a vertical stem or shaft 41 depending from the bar 39 and mounted revolubly in a suitable bearing 42 secured to the frame of the bi-plane whereby the bracket may be turned to swing the steering-box laterally.
The stem 41 protrudes some distance below the bearing 42 and is provided with a longitudinal slot 43 through which passes a rod 44:- disposed parallel with the steering-box and connected'at its forward end to the corresponding end of.
the box, the rear end of said rod' being provided with a suitable handle 45 for operating it. The rod, when moved forwardly and rearwardly, causes the forward end of the steering-box to be raised and lowered. When the handle 45 is moved sidewise the bracket is turned correspondingly, whereby the box is swung laterally. It is obvious that the turning of the bracket results from the engagement of the rod 44 with the slot in the stem 41-.
While the described. device for operating the steering-box is efficient, at the same time it will be understood that other means may be employed for the purpose.
- The operation of the aeroplane is as follows: Assuming the same to be resting upon the round, the person in charge places the han le -35- in such position as to entirely relieve the blades of the lifting-wheel and propeller-wheel from pitch, and then starts the motor in the usual and well known manner. Upon starting the motor, the operator moves the said handle 35 either up or down, according to the arrangement of parts, whereby the blades of the liftingwheel are given a partial or full pitch, as conditions may require, to cause the bi-plane to ascend. WVhen the desired height has been reached, the operator moves the handle -Z35- whereby the rod -33 and sleeve --32-'are caused to set the propeller-blades at the required angle or pitch, and-then raises or lowers the handle to actuate the lever 26 and thus shift the sleeve -24. on the vertical shaft 12-, whereby the pitch of the blades. of the lifting-wheel is decreased, which causes the bi-plane to travel forward, the direct-ion of travel being dependent upon the adjustment of the aforethat, when the blades of a lifting-wheel are given a partial pitch the revolution ofthe wheel will sustain the bi-plane, and if, when full pitch is given to said blades, a slight pitch is given to the blades of the propeller-wheel, the bi-plane will be driven forward and at the same time caused to rise. By the co-action of the two wheels, it will be seen that they will act reciprocally, i. e. the increasing of the pitch of the blades of one wheel proportionately decreases the power of the other wheel. By providing the described convenient and positive adjustment of the lifting-wheel and propeller-wheel, it is evident that the aeroplane canbe easily controlled so as to descend to the desired place upon the ground. What I claim is The combination with an aeroplane, of a motor mounted thereon, a suitably supported vertical rotary shaft extending above the aeroplane, mechanism transmitting motion from the motor to the said shaft, a liftingwheel mounted on the upper end of the said shaft, and having a set of pivotal blades, a horizontal shaft driven by the motor, a propeller-wheel secured to the horizontal shaft and having a set of pivotal blades, adjusting mechanism connected to the blades of the two wheels for varying the pitch thereof to. increase or decrease the power of the wheels, the two sets of blades being capable of independent adjustment whereby the increase and decrease of the power of one wheel will efiect a corresponding decrease and increase of powerin the other wheel, and manually, operated means for controlling the said adjusting mechanism to either independently or simultaneously change the pitch of the two sets of blades as set forth. DAVID S. FOSTER.
J. J. LAASS,
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