US 945859 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P. H. NEUBERGER.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 27, 1907. RENEWED DBO. a, 1909.
945,859, Patented Jan. 11, 1910.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
anoeufoz F. H. NEUBEEGER. 7
BUILDING BLOCK. APPLICATION IILED JUNE 27, 1907. RENEWED D150. 8, 1909.
945,859, Patented Jan. 11,1910. 3 SHEETSSHEET 2.
FRANKLIN H. NEUBERGER,
Application filed June 27, 1907, Serial No. 381,152. Renewed December 8,
To all whom it may concern:
Be itknown that I, FRANKLIN H. NEU- BERGER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Jeffersonvill'e, in the county of Sullivan and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Building-Blocks, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to building block-s, and it has particular reference to hollow building blocks molded or manufactured from cement, concrete, arious compositions of a plastic nature containing cement, clay, or other suitable material.
One object of the invention is to provide a block for building purposes which shall be light, thus savingm'aterial, and at the'same time exceedingly strong and durable, and, owing to the peculiar frame structure, so air spaced as to render it practically frost proof as well as fire proof, and of such construction as to prevent moisture from penetrating the wall in the construction of which said blocks are employed.
A further object of the invention is to provide a block which may be easily and quickly set in a building wall structure; each block being provided with dowels or projections and with corresponding countersinks or recesses adapted for engagement with those of adjacent blocks to prevent lateral displacement of the blocks when laid in courses; thus enabling the blocks to be readily laid in proper alinement.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved block of the character described whose frame work shall be of almost uniform thickness throughout, thus v w L producmg a uniform vertical strain or presemployed in he manufacture of the block sure of weight throughout the entire Wall structure.
Further objects of the invention are to simplify and improve the construction and operation of this class of devices.
With these and other ends in view which will readily appear as the nature of the invention is better understood, the same consists in the improved construction and novel arrangementand combination of parts which will be hereafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings has been illustrated a simple and preferred form of Specification of Letters Patent.
' accordance Patented Jan. 11, 1910.
1909. Serial No. 532,936.
invention itbeing, however, understood that no limitation is necessarily made to the precise structural details therein exhibited, but that changes, within the scope of the invention may be resorted to, when desired. a
In the drawings-Figure 1 is a perspective view of building block constructed in with the invention. Fig. 2 is a pep'spective view showing the block in inverted position. Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view taken longitudinally through the lock. Fig. 4 is a plan view showing several blocks laid in a course at the corner of a wall structure and illustrating the construction of one form of a corner block. Fig. 5 is a view similarto Fig. 4 but illustrating a modified constructionof the corner block. Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view showing several courses of the blocks arranged to break joints midway of the length. Fig. 7 is a top plan View showing several courses of the blocks arranged to break joints at a distance from their ends equal to one-fourth the length of the block. Fig. 8 is a perspective view showing a modified construction of the block whereby it is adapted to be used as a chimney flue.
Cor-responding parts in the several figures are denoted by like characters of reference.
The improved building block which is generally designated A. may be pressed, molded, or otherwise suitably shaped or formed from cement, clay or other suitable plastic material; it being understood that the said block, subsequent to molding, may be subjected to burning or to any suitable hardening or finishing process.
It will be understood that the material or decorated in any suitable manner to imitate carved or roughly hewn stone or the like; such results may be readily obtained by the use of proper-mold plates.
The body of the improved block iscomposed of two longitudinal vertical side walls alterations and modifications kinds of natural I 1, 1, which are integrally connected by a web 2, 2, said web being in the shape of a double cross of the peculiar XX-shape which will be clearly seen and understood by reference to the drawings, or composed of pairs of obliquely disposed vertical walls centrally intersecting each'other. The crosses constituting the web are to be of regular or uni form size and shape; and the thickness of the walls constituting the web is preferably approximately equal to that of the side walls of the block; thus producing uniformity of strength and ability to assist strain throughout the structure of the block.
By the peculiar XX-shaped web in conjunction with the vertical side Walls it will be seen that each block is formed with a central rhomboidal, or approximately square aperture 3, and with four vertical apertures or air spaces 4, 4, of isosceles triangular shape; two such triangular air spaces being formed intermediate each end of the block and the central aperture or air space 3. Each end of the block moreover has a vertical triangular recess or indentation of a size and shape equal to one-half of the central quadrangular aperture or air space; said recesses or indentations which are designated 5, 5, serving, when the blocks in the construction of a wall are placed end to end, to form air spaces of a size and shape corresponding with the central apertures 3, as will be readily seen by reference to Figs. 4 and 5 of the drawings. A wall structure may thus be formed of the improved building blocks possessing in an eminent degree the qualities of regularity and uniformity which are necessary to insure the best results with regard to strength, stability, and ability to resist the deteriorating influences of heat, moisture and sudden changes of temperature as well as vertical strain.
A further and extremely important advantage of the peculiar form or structure of the block, which has been just described, resides in the facility with which the said block may be molded or formed of lastic material, and in the facilitywith which by employing triangular core blocks of various dimensions, building blocks having side walls and webs of various thicknesses may be formed or produced. This is regarded as 'an important advantage for the reason .that I am thereby enabled in many cases to employ blocks of special light construction,
thus saving weight and material with 'most advantageous and satisfactory results.
The ends of the block, that is to say, the
. edges constituting the ends of the side walls,
are provided with vertical grooves 6 which may advantageously be of semicircular form as shown in the drawings; said grooves serving, when-the blocks are placed end to end, to form vertical channels for the reception of mortar, as shown at 7; thus forming lock joints whereby the blocks will be firmly united and held against lateral displacement. To furtherpromote this end, and for other reasons to be presently set forth each block is provided upon one of its meeting faces with integral dowels or projections 8 extending from the middle of the crossshaped webs, and upon its other meeting face with corresponding recesses or indentations 9 adapted to receive the dowels or projections of proximate blocks; said dowels or projections and recesses or indentations being preferably of rectangular shape and the recesses being sufficiently larger than the projections to admit of the placing therein of a small quantity of mortar whereby the parts will be firmly united; these dowels or projections and recesses or indentations, in addition to firmly uniting the blocks against lateral displacement serve an important function in that they serve as guides enabling the blocks to be laid in courses breaking joints midway of their length with the utmost regularity and accuracy and in an easy and convenient manner, thus producing a neat and sightly result.
The inner face of the block, meaning thereby the face which is exposed upon the inner side of a wall or structure composed of the improved blocks, is striated, corrugated or roughened, as shown at 10 in such a manner as to enable plaster to adhere to the blocks direct; by thus constructing the blocks, laths may be dispensedwith in the interior finish of a structure composed of the blocks, thus lessening the expense and reducing the danger of fire, as well as producing a more permanent and satisfactory finish than would otherwise be possible.
For special use at corners of wall structures, there are provided specially constructed blocks, which have been illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5 of the drawings. The corner block illustrated in Fig. 4, and which is designated A is provided with a solid end wall 11 which is formed in the constructing the block by filling with the plastic material used in the manufacture thereof one of the terminal recesses 5; one of the side walls is provided, adjacent to the said solid end wall, with a gap or opening 12 communicating with oneof the apertures 4 which latter may thus be placed contiguous to one of the terminal recesses 5 in a block A of an adjacent wall course disposed at an angle to the block A one side wall of the latter is provided with vertical grooves, here designated 6, adjacent to the gap or opening 12 and registering with the grooves ti in the adjacent block A for the reception of the mortar locks 7. Under this construction, when the blocks are laid, the aperture 4 with the gap or opening 12, and one of the end readily understood;
jecesses 5 of an adjacent block will combine to form an aperture of a size and shape aproximating that of the apertures 3 which 1t exceeds in size only by the gap or opening 12. illustrated in Fig. 5 designated A, differs from the block A only in that the end wall is provided with a triangular vertical aperture 13, which, necessarily, is of smaller dimensions than the triangular apertures 4 but by the presence of which the weight and strength of the block is equalized throughout. These corner blocks may be very readily produced by slightly modifying the molds used in the construction of the blocks, and without involving the use of special machinery or additional expense.
In Fig. 8 of the drawings has been'illustrated a specially constructed building block, here designated A which differs from the block A only in that it is provided with a semi-circular channel 14, adjacent to one of the meeting faces, and connecting the inner side wall with the central quadrangular aperture 3; this block, when matched with a block having a mating semi-circular channel or with blocks having grooves combining to form such a channel, will serve for the reception of an ordinary stove pipe, and the The corner block central quadrangular spaces or apertures of r the blocks employed in a wall structure may thus be utilized as a chimney flue,
The manner of using the improved building block, as well as the advanta es derived from the use thereof will be readily understood from the foregoing description when taken in connection with the drawingshereto annexed. 7 When courses of blocks are laid breaking joints midway of their lengths, the central quadran ular apertures of the blocks in one course Wlll meet or match with the apertures formed by the terminal recesses in the meeting ends of the blocks of the adjacent courses, as will be clearly seen in Fig. 6 of the drawings; and a wall structure will thus be formed having quadrangular fiues extending from top to bottom; likewise the triangular apertures 4, 4, of the blocks in the several courses will be disposed in registr with each other; and the wall structure will thus be formed with triangular flues extending from to to bottom; all of said fiues forming dea air spaces which are well known to be peculiarly efiective in excluding dampness and in resisting changes of temperature.
It will also be seen that the webs of the blocks will be uniformly superposed, thus forming a structure of great strength and ability to resist vertical strain. Lateral displacement of the individual blockswill be resisted and prevented by the mortar locks between the meeting ends of the blocks, and
the dimensions of and which is especially as will be integral X also, to a large extent, by the presence of the interenga ing dowels or pro ections and recesses or 1n entations in the meeting faces of the blocks.
To provide for the breaking joints at the proper places, it is intended to manufacture special blocks which will be formed by dividing the blocks A into halves or quarters n the transverse lines 15-15, 1616, and l7-17 appearing in Fig. 3 of the drawings; by the provision of these special block sections, a wall may be built with mathematical accuracy in which the courses break joints at half or quarter-length of the blocks- In the latter case, the central quadrangular apertures 3 of the blocks in one course will connect with the triangular aperture 4 of the blocks in the adjacent courses, and when this construction is carried out a wall structure will be formed in which the air spaces communicate from top to bottom and from end to end, thus providing to some extent, for the circulation of air. This construction will be clearly understood by reference to Fig. 7 of the drawings.
This improved building block may not only be easily manufactured at a moderate expense, but it possesses in an eminent degree the qualities of strength, lightness and durability. The shape is such as to enable the block to be conveniently handled and set in position; and it may be readily molded or formed in close imitation of more expensive building material.
I claim 1. A building block having double X- shaped webs with an approximately square core in the center, half square recesses at each end with joints formed at the extreme ends whereby a solid bond is made and having triangular apertures or air spaces at the outer sides or ends of the X-shaped webs.
2. A building block shaped Webs with an approximately square core in the center, half square recesses at each end with joints formed at the extreme ends whereby a solid bond is made, and havhaving double X- ing triangular apertures or air spaces at the outer sides or ends of the X-shaped webs, the centers of the webs having mortises and tenons formed on opposite surfaces.
3. A hollow rectangular building block comprising(spaced parallel side walls and an -shaped connecting web combining to form'a central quadrangular aperture, terminal recesses, and intermediate triangular apertures, said block having horizontal recesses formed in its inner faces.
4. A hollow rectangular building block comprisin integral -shapedconnecting web combining to form a central quadrangular recess and triangular apertures intermediate the central aperture and the ends of the block,
spaced parallel side walls and an one side wall of the latter being provided with a transverse gap or opening communicating with one of the apertures.
5. A hollow rectangular building block comprisin spaced arallel side walls and an integral X -shape connecting web combining to form a central quadrangular aperture and triangular apertures intermediate the central aperture and the ends of the block,
said block bein provided with a transverse 10 semi-circular c annel extending from one side wall to the central :1 erture.
In testimony whereof aflix my signature, in presence of two witnesses.
FRANKLIN H. NEUBERGER. Witnesses:
JOSEPH RAPP, HENRY A. MEYER.