|Publication number||US948541 A|
|Publication date||Feb 8, 1910|
|Filing date||Mar 23, 1908|
|Priority date||Mar 23, 1908|
|Publication number||US 948541 A, US 948541A, US-A-948541, US948541 A, US948541A|
|Inventors||Clyde J Coleman|
|Original Assignee||Clyde J Coleman|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (42), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
G. J. COLEMAN.
HEAT INSULATING WALL.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 23. 1908.
Patentmi 'UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
CLYDE J. COLEMAN, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Feb. 8, 1910.
I Application filed March 23, 1908. Serial No. 422,817.
To all whom it may concern.
Be it'kuown that I, CLYDE J. COLEMAN, a
citizen of the United States, residing at the borough of Manhattan, city of New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Heat-Insulating Walls, of which the following is a. specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, forming part thereof.
My invention relates generally to heat insulation and relates particularly to the heat insulating Walls of refrigerator cars, household refrigerators, cold storage buildings and the like, and the objects of my invention are to secure a high degree of heat insulation together with simplicity and inexpensiveness of construction, and also to secplre a certain amount of flexibility in the we s.
Other objects and advantages will appear from the following description.
My present invention is related in a. general way to my former invention which is the subject of my application for Letters Patent Serial No. 397,071, filed October 12,
1907, for heat insulation; and this present invention is also generally related to two other of my inventions for which applications for Letters Patent are executed on even date herewith and filed in the Patent Ofiice contemporaneously herewith as Case 2 and Case 3. My other inventions aforesaid all employ inclosed vacuum spaces, in combination, as a part of the heat insulation. The high efliciency, as a heat insulator, of the vacuum per so has been long known, but prior to my said inventions no practical means have been found of embodying inclosed vacuum spaces in a heat insulating wall of any considerable extent or expanse.
My-present invention is directed to producing a highly effective heat insulatin wall of any desired size or dimensions and of any desired thickness and having the requisite flexibility and embodying inclosed vacuum spaces in its construction as a principal part of the heat. insulating means.
To these ends my invention includes an assemblage of 'vacuum-inclosing globules having the interstices between the globules filled with low heat conductive material.
My invention also includes an inclosed wallspace filled wit-h a plurality of globular units or bodies each inclosiug a vacuum space, the interstices between such globular units being completely filled with low heat conductive material.
My invention also includes, more specifically, a construction in which the interstices are filled with cement which embeds the vacuum units and forms with them an integral flexible structure or mass.
My invention further includes the specific construction or formation of the vacuum units themselves.
My invention also includes several details of construction and other advantageous features as will hereinafter appear.
I will now describe my invention with reference to the accompanying drawings and'will thereafter point out my invention in claims.
Figure 1 is a plan view of a wall in course of construction, the filler for the interstices not having yet been applied. Fig. 2 is an elevation of a complete wall with portions broken away. the arrangement of the vacuum units being slightly modified. Fig. 3 is a transverse horizontal section of the wall illustrated in F ig. 1, the section being taken on a plane passing centrally through the vacuum units of a horizontal layer. Fig. 4 is a detail view showing an enlarged central section, through the sealing tip, of one of the vacuum units. Fig. 5 is an enlarged elevation of one of the vacuum units, showing their globular form.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, separated or spaced wall portions 1 and 2 are provided, of which 1 may be considered as the outer wall portion or siding and 2 as the inner wall portion or ceiling of any heat insulating wall, for example, of a refrigerator car or of a cold storagebuilding or co1npartment, and may be of any suitable material, such as wood. The wall portions 1 and 2 are adapted to serve as supports for an interposed heat barrier or heat insulat ing mass. Such heat barrier includes an assemblage of small globular bodies .or globules 3 each inclosing a vacuum space. In J'E igs. 4 and 5 of the drawings these vacuuminclosing globules are shown as about of the full size in which they may be made in the actual practice of the invention.
The vacuum-inclosing globules 3 fill the intervening space between the supports 1 and 2, and are assembled in such space in a compact mass. The arrangement of the globules relatively to each other should be.
is even more compact. In Fig. 2 the sixaround-one arrangement is retained in one direction, shown as the vertical, but in the other or transverse direction the globules are vertically ofl'set from'each other a distance equal to half the diameter of the globules, thus permitting the vertical layers of globules to come closer together in a transverse direction, that is, in the direction of the thickness of the wall. This is the most compact arrangement of the globules at present known to me. In Fig. 2 side supports 4: and 5 are provided corresponding respectively to the similar supports 1 and 2 in Figs. 1 and 3. In practice the globules 3 would simply be poured into the space between the supports 1 and 2 (or 4 and 5) and would naturally arrange themselves in the most compact manner. -However, the distance apart of the supports, when such distance is comparatively narrow, would be calculated or predetermined so as to permit of the best arrangement of the globules. When such distance or space is wide compared to the size of the globules then no care in this respect is necessary.
The distance between the supports determines the thickness of the heat insulating wall which of course can be anything desired according to the particular requirements of the case. In the drawings the distance or width of space between the supports is shown as sufiicient to accommodate three vertical layers (or layers in substantial parallelism with the plane of the wall) of the vacuum-inclosing units or globules 3. In both of the arrangements shown, namely,
that in Figs. 1 and 3 and that in Fig. 2, the
vacuum-inclosing globules 3 overlap or break joints one with others in all directions, particularly in directions transverse to the wall. To secure the closest or most compact arrangement the globules 3 should be of substantially uniform size as shown in the drawings.
A low heat conductive filler 6 is provided for fillin the interstices between the globules 3. he low heat conductive filler 6 may be composed of a suitable cement, as indicated in the drawings. An excellent cement for the purpose is composed of ground cork and shellac varnish.
In constructing a heat insulating wall first the vacuum-inclosing globules 3 are poured in or otherwise arranged in the s ace between the side supports, as shown in F ig. 1. After the globules 3 are in place, the cement filler Each of these globules 3 comprises a presv sure-resisting shell 7 (Fig. i) composed of vitreous low heat conductive material, glass being a suitable substance. As the glass shell 7 is exhausted of air it is a requisite of manufacture that it be provided with a sealing tip. To protect this sealing tip from breakage it is sunk beneath the circumferential surface of the shell 7 and is shown as extending outwardly from a de ression having a shoulder or rim surroun ing and protecting the sealing tip. To further protect the sealing tip from injury the de ression is completely filled with a plug or lling 8 of suitable cement which completely covers and protects the sealing tip, the outer sur-' face of the plug 8 bein flush with and conforming to the circum erential curvature of the outer surface of the glass shell 7 The shell 7 and the filling 8 are inclosed by a continuous or imperforate cushioning sheath 9 composed of low heat conductive material and adherently secured to the outer surfaces of the shell 7 and filling 8. The cushionin sheath 9 may be of any suit-able materia and may be a film of soft rubber which may be applied by dipping the globules in rubber cement. The function of the sheath or film 9 is primarily to cushion the globules 3 from each other and to prevent breakage. Also it assists in the heat insulation by lessening conduction of heat from globule to lobule at the" single points of contact. so it assists in imparting flexibility to the heat insulating wall as a whole. The glass shell 7 is silvered on the inside, to prevent radiation of heat across the inclosed vacuum. The silvering could be on the outside of the shell 7 if preferred, or on both sides.
In heat insulating walls of considerable size, as when embodied in buildings, where the Walls are subjected to wind pressure and other strains, and also in the case of refrigerator cars, the walls of which are subjected to twisting and bending strains, considerable flexibility and pliability of the heat insulating walls is a requisite of the construction and must be provided for, when vacuum inclosing heat insulating units are employed, in a manner to avoid breakage of such units.
In my invention the globular form of the vacuum-inclosing units combined with the flexible character of the cement filler for the interstices and the cushioning of the vacuum units one from the other, provide a heat insulating wall which will not be damaged by bending and twisting strains.
It is obvious that various modifications may be made in the construction shown and above particularly described within the principle and scope of my invention.
I claim 1.- A heat barrier comprising an assemblage of globular bodies each inclosing a vacuum space, and a flexible low heat conductive filler filling the interstices between the globules.
2. A heat .barrier comprising globular bodies of substantially uniform size, as sembled in'compact relation and each inclosing a vacuum space, and a flexible low heat conductive filler filling the interstices be tween the globules.
3. A heat barrier comprising an assemblage of globular bodies each inclosing a v vacuum space, and cement of ground cork and shellac varnish filling the interstices between the globules and embedding and uniting the globules ina pliable mass.
4. A heat barrier comprising an assemblage of globular bodies each inclosing a vacuum space and having a shell of pressureresisting material and provided with a cushioning sheath for the shell, the globules being assembled one in contact with others, and a low heat conductive filler filling the interstices between the globules.
5. A heat insulating wall comprising spaced supports, vacuum-inclosing globules filling the space between the supports, and flexiblelow heat conductive material filling the interstices between the globules.
6. A unit for heat insulating construction comprising a pressure-resisting shell inclosing a vacuum space,and a cushioning sheath adherently secured to the outside of the shell.
7. A unit for heat insulating construction comprising a pressure-resisting shell inclosing a vacuum space, and an imperforate cushioning sheath inclosing the shell and adlierently secured thereto.
8. A unit for heat insulating construction comprising a globular pressureresisting shell inclosing a vacuum space, and a cushioning sheath inclosing the shell.
9. A unit for heat insulating construction comprising a globular pressure resisting shell inclosing a vacuum space, and an imperforate. cushioning sheath inclosing the shell and adherently secured thereto.
10. A unit for heat insulation comprising a vitrous shell inclosing a vacuum space and provided with a depression and a shoulder surrounding the depression, and also provided with a sealing tip extending outwardly from the bottom of the depression, whereby the sealing tip is protected by the shoulder.
11. A unit for heat insulation comprising a vitrous shell inclosing a vacuum space and providedwith a depression and also provided with a sealing tip extending outwardly from the bottom of the depression, A
and a cement filling for the depression and covering the sealing tip to protect the same from injury. I
12. A unit for heat insulation comprising a substantially spherical vitreous shell inclosing a vacuum space and provided with a depression and a shoulder surrounding the depression, and a sealing tip extending outwardly from the bottom of the depression and adapted to be protected by the shoulder.
13. A unit for heat insulating construction comprising a substantially spherical vitreous shell inclosing a vacuum space and provided with a depression and also provided with a sealing tip extending outwardly from the bottom of the depression, and a cement filling for the depression and covering the sealing tip.
14. Aunit for heat insulating construction comprising a substantially spherical vitreous shell inclosing a vacuum space and provided with a depression and also provided with a sealing tip extending outwardly from the bottom of the depression, a cement filling for the depression and covering the sealing tip, and acushioning sheath inclosing the shell and the filling.
15. A unit for heat insulating construction comprising a substantially spherical vitreous shell inclosing a vacuum space and provided with a depression and also provided with a sealing tip extending outwardly from the bottom of the depression, a cement filling for the depression and covering the sealing tip, and a film of soft rubber inclosing the shell and the cement filling and adherently secured in place.
16. A'unit for heat insulating construction comprising a vacuum-inclosing vitreous shell having one of its surfaces provided with silvering for reflecting purposes, and a cushioning sheath inclosing the shell and adherently secured thereto.
17. A heat insulating Wall comprising spaced supports, globular vacuum inclosing bodies filling the spaces between the supports, and a cement composed of ground cork and shellac varnish filling the interstices between the bodies to unite the bodies into a substantially continuous pliable mass.
18. A heat barrier comprising an assemblage of vacuum inclosing bodies, and a pliable cement filler filling the spaces between the bodies and uniting the bodiestogether to form a substantially continuous pliable mass.
19. In a heat insulatingwall, a. heat barrier comprising frangible :vacuum-inclosing globules arranged adjacent one with another, cushioning means interposed between the globules, and low heat-conductive material filling the interstices between the globules.
In testimony whereof I aflix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
CLYDE J. COLEMAN,
WM. ASHLEY KELLY, BERNARD (30mm.
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|Cooperative Classification||F25D23/065, Y10S264/06, F25D2201/14|