US 959068 A
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i To all whom it may concern:
UNITED sTA'rEs PATENT oFFioE.
WILL IAK ANS YL PHILLIPS, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, ASSIGNOB T0 RHEOLITE COMPANY, OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN, A CORPORATION OFWISCONSIN.
OOIPOSITION 0]? MATTER AND METHOD OF IKAKZNG TEE SAME.
Be it known that I, WILLIAM ANsYL PHILLIPS, a citizen of the United States, residing at St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, have invented a certain new and useful Composition of'Matter and Method of Makin the Same, of which the following is a fu 1, clear, and exact specification.
This invention relates to a composition of matter and its methods of production more especially designed for use as an electric conductor, and where conductors of high resistance are required, as, for example, in
resistance boxes, or rheostats, or electric heaters, and the invention has for its primary object to provide an improved composition of matter of the described character which will be eflicient and lasting.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved composition of matter of the described character which will be practicably indestructible by the electric current, and which also is capable of resisting the destructive efi'ects'of fire, water, and the action of the atmosphere. The described material is also very hard and firm, and capable of resisting many acids. These qualities adapt the material for a variety of uses aside from electrical purposes;
With these ends in view, the invention consists of certain features of novelty which will now be fully described, and then more particularly pointed out in the claims.
This improved composition of matter consists primarily of calcium and a metallic conductor, such, for example, as iron or lead in varying proportions, fused and melted together. The calcium in the form of lime or any of its various compounds or salts is used as the non-conducting material, and is mixed with the metal preferably when the metal is molten and boiling. The preferred metal is iron or lead, which may ,beused either singly or together, but it is found that nearly, if not all, of the common metals may be used, such as copper, tin, zinc and the like.
' In attempting to combine and fuse the calcium or lime compound with the metalllc element, it is found very essential to make use of an element to promote the fusion or combination of the metallic element and the calcium or itscompound. For this purpose, either one or more of the following elements may be employed: sulfur, phosphorus, tel- Specification of Letters Patent. Application filed September 12, 1907. Serial No. 392,484.
Patented May 24, 1910.
' lurium, selenium and arsenic. It is also found that a salt of the metallic element may be employed to accomplish the same purpose as the sulfur, phosphorus, tellurium, selenium or arsenic.
In the preferred manner of carrying out the invention, the metallic element employed is first heated or reduced to a molten state, and the calcium or lime compound, to which has been added a given amount of either one or more of the elements above enumerated, as sulfur and the like, for promoting the fusion .or combination of the materials, is added, after which the whole is stirred or puddled until a homogeneous mass has resulted, when it is ready to pour into molds or be wrought into shape by mechanical means,
. as the hammer, after partially cooling. The
metallic element to be employed may be in the form of oxids, sulfids, phosphids, tellurids, selenids, or arsenids, or other salts, in either their natural or artificial state, to which, in their molten form, the calcium or lime compounds may be added, in which case there will be no need of adding the elements enumerated for promoting fusion or combination, as the sulfur, phosphorus, tellurium, selenium, arsenic, or the saltsof the metal or metals employed, except, possibly, when oxidsofthe metals are used, or other salts not enumerated alcove.
It is sometimes desirable to melt the metal- I powdered metallic element or oxid or salt of the same may be mixed with powdered calcium or lime compounds, to which may be added, if desirable, the required amount of the element for promoting combination or .fusion, as already described. It is sometimes desirable to add to the calcium or lime co1npounds a quantity of refractory substance, as fire-clay, slate, and the like. The whole is then intimately mixed and pressed into any desired shape, after which it is heated to the fusing point of some of the ingredicuts but kept below the fusing point of some of the more refractory substances, as the fire clay, in order that the material may not break down or lose its form. The addition of the refractory non-conducting material, as fire-clay or slate, greatly increases the fusan element adapted to together.
ing point of the compound, and is, for many purposes, found a desirable addition to the calcium or lime compound. For this urpose, in addition 'to refractor clay or s ate it is found that talc, silica and compounds of silica, alumina and, ma esia, or, in fact, any non-conductor of e ectricity' that will bear a temperature of 1500 Fahrenheit without deterioration may be employed.
Since themetallic element serves as the conductmg material and the calcium or the lime compound is the non-conductor, the resulting material ma be given any desired quality of conductivit by varying the proportions of the in clients.
In 'practicingt e invention, it is found that iron in the form of iron pyrites forms a convenient and economical metallic element, and likewise carbonate of lime furnishes the calcium or non-con'ductin material in a convenientand economical orm. Sulfur is a convenient and economical material for use with these last mentioned materials as the element for promotmg fusion or combination.
Claims coverin a composition containin iron, carbonate 0 lime and a sulfur fluxan method for 'making'the same have been allowed inmy-application No. 481,542.
What I claim is:
1. The herein described composition of matter containin a metal, calcium and sulfur, melted and used together.-
2. The herein described com osition of matter containing a metallic e ectric conductor, calcium, and an element ada ted to promote fusion or chemical combination, all melted and fused together.
3. The herein described com osition of matter containing a metallic e ectric conductor, anon-conducting metallic salt, and remote fusion or chemical combination, al melted and fused the metal or the calcium, and an element adapted to promote fusion or chemical combination, melted and fused together.
7. The herein described composition ofmatter containing a metallic electric conductor, calcium, a substance more highly refractory than either the metal or the calcium, and sulfur, melted and fused together.
8. The herein described composition of matter containing iron, carbonate of lime, and sulfur, melted and fused together.
9. The herein described composition of matter containing iron yrites, carbonate of lime, and sulfur, melted and fused together. 10. The herein described method which consists in mixing a metallic element with calcium and fusmg them together in the presence of sulfur.
11. The herein described method which consists in mixin a metal, calcium, a substance more higlfiy refractor than either the calcium or the metal on fusing them together in the presence of an element adapted to promote fusion or chemical combination.
12. The herein described method which consists'in mixing a metal, calcium, a substance more high y refractor than either the calcium or the metal, an \fusing them together in the presence of sulfur.
13. The herem described method which consists in mixin iron and carbonate of lime and fusing t em together in the pres- I once of sulfur,
14;. The herein described method which consists in mixin iron pyrites with carbonate oflim'e an sulfur and subjecting the same to a degree of heat sufiicient to melt.
and fuse the materials to ether.-
15. The method of ma 'ng the herein described. com osition-of matter 'which consists in'mixmg together a metallic electric conductor, a non-conducting metallic salt and an element adapted to promote fllSlOll or chemical combination of .the said conductor and salt, and subjecting the mixture to'the'action of heat until melted'and the elements thereof fused to ther.
In testimony whereof have signed my name to this specification, 1n the presence of two subscribingD itnesses, on this 4th day of September A. .1907. I
WILLIAM ANSYL PHILLIPS.
, Onas. H. SEEM, Y A. L. Srnmxm.