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Publication numberUS960421 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 7, 1910
Filing dateJan 25, 1908
Priority dateJan 25, 1908
Publication numberUS 960421 A, US 960421A, US-A-960421, US960421 A, US960421A
InventorsAugustus W Sibley
Original AssigneeHerring Hall Marvin Safe Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Interchangeable-key lock.
US 960421 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



Patented June 7, 191.0.


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960,421 Patented. June 7, 1910.



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APPLICATION FILED JAN. 25, 1908. 960,421 "Patented June 7, 1910.




Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented June '7, 1910.

Application filed. January 25, 1908. Serial No. 412,631.

To all whom 'it may concern:

Be it known that I, AUGUSTUS W. SIBLEY, of Hamilton, in the county of Butler and in the State of Ohio, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Interchangeable-Key Locks, and do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a front elevation of a portion of a safe deposit door having my lock applied thereto; Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the lock removed from the door; Fig. 3 is a rear elevation of the lock of Fig. 2; Figs. 4, 5 and 6 are sectional views taken respectively on the lines 4 4, 5-5 and 6-6 of Fig. 2; Fig. 7 is a front elevation of the lock with the cover plate removed; Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 7 with the guard plate for the master tumbler removed; Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 7 with the master tumbler and its stump plateremoved; Fig. 10 is a front elevation of the lock, showing only the casing and the bolt; Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 8, a key being shown in position for setting the stump plates; Fig. 12 is a section on the line 12-12 of Fig. 11; Fig. 13 is a view similar to Fig. 8, showing the master key operating the master tumbler; Fig. 14 is a view similar to Fig. 13, showing the bolt retracted by the depositors key; Fig. 15 is a section on the line 15-15 of Fig. 14; Fig. 16 is a rear elevation of the lock, showing a cylinder guard in place; Fig. 17 is a horizontal sectional view of Fig. 16,'showing the cylinder guard in place, the tumblers being omitted; Fig. 18 is a perspective view of the cylinder guard; and Fig. 19 is a plan view of the master key, the depositors key being shown in plan in Fig. 12.

The object of my invention has been to produce an interchangeable key lock, that is, one which can be set for any one of a variety of keys, which shall be simple in construction, which will be so accurate that it will only operate when a key of exactly the same shape as that for which it has been set is used, and to provide such a lock with parts requiring the use of a master key; and to such ends my invention consist-s in the interchangeable key lock hereinafter 4 specied.

While my invention is capable of use for other purposes, I have illustrated its application to a lock for a depositors box in a safe deposit vault, the lock requiring the use both of a master key, retained by the safe deposit company, and of a key retained by the depositor. The lock is so constructed that it can be set to operate with any one of a very large number of depositors keys, and when so set will not operate with any other key than the particular one for which it is set.

While I shall describe that embodiment of my invention which I consider best adapted for practical use, it is to be understood that my invention is capable of embodiment in many different forms, and that the form chosen is only used for illustration.

In Fig. 1 is shown a wall 10 of a safe deposit vault and a door 11 closing a compartment therein, the door having one of my locks 12 secured to the inside thereof, there being two bosses 13 and 14 for key cylinders which extend through circular holes in the door.

The lock consists of a box-like casing 15 whose open side is closed by a plate 16 secured in place by screws 17. A bolt 18 extends through one of lthe walls of the lock casing, the bolt, as illustrated in Fig. 10, consisting of a head 19 and a plate 20, the latter having slots 21 and 22 formed therein, the slots engaging pins 23 and 24 respectively, which are fast in the bolt casing. The bolt is guided by engagement of the slots with the said pins and by engagement of the head with the casing. A series of tumblers is mounted upon some part relay tively immovable to the casing, and a series of stump plates is mounted upon the bolt so that before the bolt can be retracted the tumblers must be adjusted relative to the stumps. While the tumblers might be mounted upon other parts, have found it simple and convenient to mount them upon the pins 23 and 24. Heretofore, so far as I know, tumblers have always been pivoted. My tumblers preferably have a purely right line motion, for reasons which I will later point out. As shown in Fig. 9 each tumbler consists of a plate 25 having slots 26A and 27 which receive and are guided upon the pins 23 and 24 respectively. Each tumbler is normally depressed by a spring 28,

whose Vshank is pinched or lorazed Ain .a vslot in the tumbler in the usual way, the f-reeend of the spring bearing Aalgggainst the look casing. The forward edge of the tumbler (that opposed to the stumps) is provided with a slot 29 which is adapted to receive .the

stump. Both the forward edge of the tumbler Vand the l end of .the stump are roughn ened or provided with teeth in order that the stump may not enter the slot unless thev slot is at exactly the same level as the stump.

As show-n in Fig. `9, each stump 30 Iis integral with a plate 31,-fthe plate having a slot 32 which xreceives pins y33 'and `134 (or other form yof guiding projections) mounted lupon v the bolt. Each stump plate i-s provided with a --spring 35 secured thereto vin .a imanner similar to the Vsp-ring'son the tumblers, each spring '35 engaginga pin 36 on the bolt, so that-they tend to depress the stumps.`

' to the plates v`In order to ho'ldfthe stu-mp plates Yin position after they have been adjusted vfor a new key, any desired -means may Ibe used. 'That which @I have @found convenient consists of a plate 37 (Fig. 7;), the plate having jholes lthat are adapted lto receive the pins`133 and so tl-iat the platey is immovable relative yto the bolt, Vand a" screw 38 (see Figs. l5 "and '16) which is vmounted in lthe 3boltand threaded into the plate l3 7. the yscrew 38 is unscrewed,

the stump plates can iloe adjusted, and when it is screwed up it clamps the Vstump plates against *the bolt 'by drawing i'the Vpla-@Q37 toward the bolt. In lOrder Vto operate the tu'mblers and -to reciprocate Vlthe bolt, a key cylinder 39 V(see Figs. '1, 2 land "8) lis provided, the inner gend ofthe cylinder having bearing in a circular hole v`the Iback plate ofthe lock, and the 'outer -end of the cylinder having bearing 'by means of two disks' similar to the disks 40 and 4l formed thereon in acylindricafl boss 44 *formed in the 'cover plate -of the lock. The "key )cyliny der .is provided with afs-lot -43 :(Fig, 111) which is adapted to receive both the ldepositors and the master llkey. AIt is also vprovided with a l-ug44 (Figs. 8, 9, 11, 12 and,

, which, `=by engagement with a notch 45 in `the 'bo'lt pla-te is adapted to throw theV bolt.

The Ebolt plate is also Ycut away at 46 and 47 Vto permit motion of the lug 44 before and 4after 'the Ibolt has been thrown.

@In order to guide Ya key der asetting the stump plates, la key `.cylinder 4 8 .(.see pan V-ticu-larly Fig. 5) is mounted in the lock in erated by the depositors key, a master tumbler 50 is mounted upon the pin 23 {Figsg 8,111, '13 and'l4). Thetumbler is provided with a heart-.shaped slot '5l by which it engages the 1pin123; that is, theupper wall of the lslot has Va teat 52 formed at the middle of its len;gth'thusfin effect forming a notch or recess at each side vof thefteat. Thefmast-er tumbler' rest-s at its lower edge `upon the pin 24, and it is provided with a slot 53, that is adapted to receive a stump 54, the stump for convenience being formed upon the plate 37. Above the slot -53 is a somewhat rounded nose 55, while the forward edge of the tumbler kbelow vthe slot is pro vided with teeth to engage with teeth or other form of 'roughening formed Yon the stump. I preferably inter-pose a thin plate 56 between the master tumbler andthe cover pla-te of the lock, 'the plate being ,mounted upon the pins 23 and 24. Y

In the Aoperation of that Jform of Ymy lock which I "have ifllustrated, the part-s in their normal posit-ions are ,as shown in Fig. '7, namely, Vwith the bol-t in itsv 4forward or locked position and with 'the tuinblers Vin their lowest positions. For theV purpose of setting the lock for `a particular vkey, the screw 38 is loosenedby means -of a screw driver so that the vstumps are free to descend to Vtheir lowest posit-ions under the action of their springs. rPhe articular -depositofis keyY to be used, such vor instance-as .the -key 57, Fig. `12, is inserted into the cylinder 48 in a horizontal position. The key is then turned one-quarter of .a lturn to the vertical position of Fig 11, and the various :steps of its'web engage with the under `edges of the stumps, raising them Yagainst the stress of their springs, as shown in Figs. ll and 12. The screw 38 is then-tightened t-oc'la1n] o the stumps Vin adj-usted position. `Ffllie depositors key is then returned to horizontal position and withdrawn from the .cylinder 48. 'To un-lock Vthe Iloc'k, ythe master ikely, such as that illustrated in Fig. 19, is inserted in the key cylinder 39 in horizontal position, and is thon turned lone-quarter off ya turn 'to vertical position, and "by itsengagementwi'th the beveled lower l'edge .of themaster :tuinbler (Fig. it raises such .tumbler from the position of Fig. l1 fto the position .of Fig. 13, in which its 4slot -is fopposite :the cor.-

. respondin" stump. Jrhe :engagement .ofthe key with t e beveled lower edge hasia stendency to force the tumbler forward, and the tumbler rides forward as soon as it has reached the proper level, the rounded nose of the tumbler aiding in this action. The tumbler goes forward to the position of Fig. 13, in which the teat 52 has slipped forward of the highest portion of the pin 23, and therefore tends to hold the tumbler in its forward position. The master key is then returned to horizontal position and removed from the cylinder. The key 57 is then placed in the cylinder in horizontal position and is turned one-half revolution rearward. As the depositors key turns upward, the steps in its web engage the lower edges of the tumblers and raise them against the stress of their springs until their respective slots are exactly at the level of the corresponding stumps. By this time, the lug 44 on the key cylinder has engaged the slot 45 in the bolt, and the bolt begins to move rearward, this motion being permitted because the stumps exactly register with their corresponding slots. As the bolt moves rearward, the master stump 54 strikes the bottom of the slot in the master tumbler and throws the tumbler from the position of Fig. 13 to the position of Fig. 14, in which the teat 52 is to the rear of the highest portion of the pin Q3. In order to throw the bolt forward to lock the door, it is only necessary to turn the depositors key from the position of Fig. 14 one-half turn. This motion causes the lug 44 to engage the slot 45 in the bolt and throw the bolt forward, and it also causes the stumps to be retracted from their respective slots in the tumblers, when the tumbler springs will throw the tumblers to their lowest positions, in which they are out of line with their respective stumps. The master tumbler being held in its rearward position by engagement of the teat with the pin 23 is released from its stump as the stump passes to the position of Fig. 1l, and the master tumbler drops to the position of Fig. 11.

In order to prevent any use of the forward key cylinder except in the presence both of a representative of the safe deposit company and of the customer, the key guard illustrated in Figs. 16 to 18 may be used. Such key guard consists of a disk A58 mounted upon the end of a shank 59, the shank being of proper shape to fill the slot in the cylinder 48. The end of the shank 59 has a thread 60 upon which a thumb nut 61 may be screwed to fasten the key guard in place. As the thumb nut is on the inside of the door it can only be gotten at when the door is unlocked and that requires the use of the master key.

It will be observed that my lock has among others the following advantages: Considering that it is adapted to be set for any one of a large number of keys, and that it requires the use both of the depositors key and the master key, the lock is exceedingly simple. As the tumblers have a straight line motion instead of swinging about a center, their stump-receiving slots are always horizontal, and it is evident that with a given degree of accuracy in the key and tumblers, the stumps can be made to fit the slots in the tumblers with greater nicety than would be possible if the tumblers were pivoted; so that the danger that the lock will be operated by a key for which it is not set is lessened. The safety of the lock in this regard is rendered still greater by the use of the stumps, which are always horizontal.

It is obvious that various changes can be made in the above illustrated construction which will be within the scope of my in- -vention, and I desire not to be limited beyond the requirements of the prior art and the terms of my claims.

I claim:

1. In an interchangeable key lock, the combination of a series of adjustable stumps, means for fastening said stumps in adjusted position, a corresponding series of tumblers, and mechanism for permitting the engagement of both said stumps and said tumblers by the same key.

2. In an interchangeable key lock, the combination of a series of stumps, means for directly engaging and operating said stumps by means of the key to which the lock is to be set, and a corresponding series of tumblers.

3. In an interchangeable key lock, the combination of a series of stumps, a series of tumblers, a key cylinder for permitting a key tooperate said tumblers, springs adapted to move said stumps in one direction, another key cylinder for permitting a key to move said stumps in the opposite direction, and means for securing said stumps in adjusted position.

4. In an interchangeable key lock, the combination of a series of stumps, springs adapted to move said stumps in one direction, means permitting a key to move them in the opposite direction by direct engagement with the stumps, and means for securing said stumps in adjusted position.

5. In an interchangeable key lock, the combination of a series of adjustable stumps, a corresponding series of tumblers, and two key cylinders, one to permit engagement of said stumps by a key, and the other to permit engagement of said tumblers by the same key.

6. In an interchangeable key lock, the combination of a series of adjustable stumps, a corresponding series of tumblers, two key cylinders, one to permit engagement of said stumps by a key and the other to permit engagement of said tumblers by the same key,

apnings for moving said stumps in .opposiJ All) stumps in .adjusted position. v Y

:7. an ,interchangeable key loek, ,the

oom-bimttion .off a series :ofadjnstaxbvle stumps,

a corresponding seriesio'f .ftmnblers, two :key cylinders, ,one .to :permit engagement ,of said stumps by .a key and the 4other to :per-init en: gngenient off (said ztmnialers .rby fthesame vkey., springs ffor mowing stumps :opposition to said key, andmeans tor-seeming said stumps inadjnsted position, said means `eem.- prising Ksere/vv secured to .the Sparzt upon Whieh ,said stumps are mounted and a plate adapted :to :be A#forced said stumps by said screw.

'18. In an interchangeable ikey look, .the combination rorf Aa Leasing, a fbolt, a series of stumps mounted :to slide :ufpon :said Vlbolt in `a direction transverse -fto :its movement', mean/s permitting lthe engagement of stnmps by a key, springs tending to ome said stumps against said key, and a Screw and plaie mounted upon Asaid bolt on 'opposite s idesof said .stumps .te :fasten :the stumps Vto thel'loolt in adjlnsted position.

'9. an interohangeable key '-flook, vthe combination of -a easing, a bolt, -a yfser'ies of adjustable lstumps mounted nponithe bolt, pins on the casing, a series of itnnib'lers mounted on Said loins A-o-r operation by a given ikey, and a tumbler mounted ufpen r`one off said fpfins :for operation by -a Iseooinl key.

'10. 'In an interchangeable -keyfloclg Lthe combination of a casi-ng, a bol-t, ra seriesof stumps adjustably mounted on the bolt, a corresponding series of 'ff/umblers for opera tion by a given Aikey', Ya pi-n on -theY easing, a mantel tumbler having a slot to reeeive Said pin, `a spring tending to oree one Wall of sai-d .slot againstsaid vjoin, a teat formed on said y.Wall oir said slot, said tumbler havinga Stump reeeiving slot, a-lso having a A*key .aange-a engaging edge so shaped @that the oree saidivall against said pin, Isaid tum.-

bler `:having a stump receiving slot and .a projecting nose at :the sideof said slot,l said tumbler alsohaving a A:beveled 4edge athzut is adapted Eto be engaged'by its key, whereby Said tunrkler may be raised liby its ykey -to engage the stu-mp in its slot,sfthereby`-moving salid-teatto theetomvardside oE said pin, fand whereby .said firsbmentioneel key `ina-y then be used tofthrovvtlhe bolt, ,so that said stump by striking said tumbler shall throw teatto-the'V` rear side of said pin so fthatvnpon the vonvvard movement ofthe "bo'lt said tumb'ler --sha'ill be disengaged from its stump.

zlf2. In an interchangeable `key ilook, the combination `oi veasing, a bolt, a series of stumps adj-ustahly amounted on said bolt, -a series olf Jtumble-rsV adapted to -be operated "by a -depositors key, a nmaster vtumbler superposefd upon said first Ymentioned series of tumblerfand a plateYfilnmovatble relative rto the tumbler-s and interposed bet-Ween til-1e master -tnr-nbler and said' first-mentioned series of iumblers. f

fIn testimony that I claim the foregoing have hereunto set my hand.

, AUGUST-Us *iv emmer. Witnesses Y J.` BUCKER, C. 'SLAYBACL y

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3250100 *May 25, 1964May 10, 1966Vittorio CornaroLocking device for vaults, particularly hotel safety deposit boxes
US4462230 *Aug 18, 1982Jul 31, 1984Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc.Changeable safe deposit lock with slidable clamped fences
US4580424 *Nov 7, 1983Apr 8, 1986Sargent & Greenleaf, Inc.Single lever, double changeable safe deposit lock
US5195342 *Feb 5, 1992Mar 23, 1993Louis WernerFor a door lock
US7823425Apr 23, 2007Nov 2, 2010Elbee Pty Ltd.Cardlock mechansim
Cooperative ClassificationE05B35/12