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Publication numberUS966078 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 2, 1910
Filing dateFeb 14, 1910
Priority dateFeb 14, 1910
Publication numberUS 966078 A, US 966078A, US-A-966078, US966078 A, US966078A
InventorsWalter H Bowman
Original AssigneeWalter H Bowman
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for testing soils and for other purposes.
US 966078 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



966,078. Patented Aug. 2, 1910.

'fl WITNESSES Q [{VVENTOR THE NORRIS Psrsns cm, wnsmucruu, n. c.




a citizen of the United States, residing at Dover, in the county of Stralford and State of New Hampshire, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Testing Soils and for other Purposes, of which the following is a specification.

The object of my invention is the provision of an apparatus especially adapted for use in testing soils to determine their relative porosities, the rate of flow of gases or percolation of water therethrough, their power to retain moisture, and for other ex periments.

The invention consists in certain novelties of construction and combinations of parts as hereinafter set forth and claimed.

The accompanying drawing illustrates the apparatus as used in determining the rate of the percolation of water through different soils; but part of said apparatus may be employed independently in performing other experiments.

Figure l is a perspective view of the apparatus with the parts assembled. Fig. 2 is a vertical section of Fig. 1 on an enlarged scale, the section being taken on line 11 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a top plan View of the lower adjustable support for the tubes. Fig. 4 is a plan View of the upper adjustable support for the tubes. Fig. 5 is a cross section of the tube on line :c-w, Fig. 2.

Referring to the figures, the letter A designates a cast iron base, in this instance of a disk shape, with a perforated boss B to receive the lower end of a rod or standard C which is firmly secured to the base at right angles thereto; D, the lower adjustable disk shaped support or holder for soil tubes having a perforated boss E provided with a set-screw F and a series of grooves G in the top surface of the body of the metal adjacent the circumferential edge and each in the shape of an arc of a circle, the said support or holder being adjustable and held in adjusted position by the set-screw relative to the rod which passes through its center; H, the top adjustable holder consisting of a flat casing with a perforated boss I, set-screw J, and a series of circular openings K extending around the outer edge of the holder; L, a tank with a socket M having a seat to receive the top end of rod C, and two pipes or tubes N N passed through one of the heads of the tank at opposite Specification of Letters Patent.

Application filed February 14, 1910.

Patented Aug. 2, 1910.

Serial No. 543,708.

sides thereof; 0, the soil tubes, each having a countersunk bottom P of cast metal, a tube or pipe Q at the bottom and a horizontal section of pipe R secured to the exterior surface of the tube near its top end by solder or otherwise and in communication with the interior of the soil tube by means of a hole S, the ends of the pipe R projecting each side of the hole S, as shown; T, a flanged wire gauze disk located at the bottom of the soil tube with the flange extended downwardly so as to leave an open space between the gauze and the countersunk bottom of the tube; and U designates short pieces of flexible tubing or rubber tubing passed over the free ends of the pipes R, coupling the same and forming with said pipes means for the passage of liquid from each soil tube to others adjacent thereto and thus maintaining a uniform height of liquid in all the tubes.

Special attention is directed to the construction of the bottom P of the soil tube, the upper surface of the same being corrugated and inclined from the circumferential edge downwardly to the tube Q, the top end of which projects approximately one-sixteenth of an inch above the top corrugated surface of the bottom. This construction insures that soil particles which might pass through the perforated disk will be held or retained upon the corrugated top surface and not pass out with the water for weighing. It also permits the free passage of air and water from every portion of the base of the soil column, even if the disk is placed with the flat surface downward.

The base and rod with the adjustable upper and lower holders constitute a rack for the support of the soil tubes and tank in their proper relative positions, the soil tubes being located within the holes in the upper adjustable holder and the lower edge of each tube being seated within a groove G in the lower holder.

In using the apparatus to determine the relative rates of the percolation of water through different soils, the soil tubes are first filled with the soils to be tested in a uniform compacted condition, as shown by Fig. 2 of the drawing, the tank is then filled with water, reversed and supported on the rod, as shown, with the open ends of the tubes N N located below the top edges of two tubes at opposite sides of the tank. The Water flowing from the tank passes by way of the rubber coupling tubes U to the other soil tubes and when the water rises to a uniform level in all the soil tubes so as to seal the ends of the tubes N N from the atmosphere the further flow or discharge of water from the tank will correspond to the amount or volume which percolates through the soil tubes and is discharged by way of the pipes Q into a flask or other receptacle beneath each soil tube. The quantity or volume of water which flows through a given soil in a given time can thus be determined. The apparatus or parts thereof obviously can be used for other experiments of a similar or different character.

lVhat I claim is:

1.. The combination in a soil testing apparatus, of a rack; a plurality of soil tubes supported by the rack; a tank with discharge pipes supported in a plane above the soil tubes with the said pipes located within oppositely disposed soil tubes and with their ends below the top edges of the said tubes; and means for coupling the soil tubes so a uniform height of liquid will be maintained in all the tubes.

2. The combination in a soil testing apparatus, of a rack with a vertical rod; a plurality of soil tubes supported by the rack; a tank with discharge pipes and a socket engaging the top end of the vertical rod, whereby the tank is supported in a plane above the soil tubes, the discharge pipes being located within oppositely disposed soil tubes and with their ends below the top edges of the said tubes; and means for coupling the soil tubes so a uniform height of liquid will be maintained in all the tubes.

3. The combination in a soil testing appa ratus, of a rack comprising a base, a vertical upright, a lower holder adjustably sup ported by the upright and having means for engaging and holding in position the lower edges of tubes; a top holder with holes to bodily receive said tubes adjustably supported by the upright; soil tubes supported by the holders; and means for coupling the tubes near and below the upper ends thereof so that a uniform level of liquid may be maintained in all the soil tubes.

4. A soil tube having a countersunk bottom, a tube extending from said bottom and in communication with the interior of the tube, and a tube with open ends secured between said ends to the side of said soil tube near but below the end opposite the bottom end and at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the soil tube and in communication with the interior of the said tube.

5. The combination in a soil testing apparatus, of a rack; a plurality of soil tubes supported by the rack; means near the upper ends of the tubes connecting the interiors of the tubes so water can flow from one to another; a tank supported by the rack and above the said tubes; and means for delivering water from the tank to the tubes, said means forming with the water discharged from the tank a seal whereby the flow of Water from the tank is regulated.

In testimony whereof I affix my signature in presence of two witnesses.


Vitnesses RALPH S. MARsH, CHAS. HILLs.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2697286 *Mar 11, 1952Dec 21, 1954Miller Elmer WApparatus for demonstrating, indicating, or comparing water permeability and erodibility of soils
US2733595 *Mar 5, 1953Feb 7, 1956 Ooooogogg
US2823540 *Jan 19, 1951Feb 18, 1958Patch Clara LApparatus and method for metering entrained air or gas
US2923148 *Oct 15, 1956Feb 2, 1960Iowa State College Res FoundatApparatus for measuring erodibility, run-off, infiltration and other physical properties of soil in place
US3070991 *Jul 2, 1959Jan 1, 1963Pure Oil CoSynthetic cores
US3329006 *Sep 11, 1964Jul 4, 1967Mo Selskokhozjaistvennaja AkadApparatus for the determination of coefficients of permeability and electroosmotic permeability
US4561289 *Sep 14, 1984Dec 31, 1985Marathon Oil CompanyPerforated end plug plate for testing core samples
US4573342 *Sep 14, 1984Mar 4, 1986Marathon Oil CompanyApparatus and method for the automatic porosity and permeability testing of multiple core samples
US4606227 *Feb 21, 1985Aug 19, 1986Phillips Petroleum CompanyApparatus and method for simulating diagenesis
US4649737 *Nov 7, 1985Mar 17, 1987Marathon Oil CompanyApparatus and method for automatic testing of core samples
US5133207 *Feb 14, 1991Jul 28, 1992Houston Industries IncorporatedApparatus and method for simultaneously testing the permeability of multiple core specimens
US5161407 *Oct 16, 1990Nov 10, 1992Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.Means and method of soil water desorption
US6138500 *Jun 30, 1999Oct 31, 2000Sca Hygiene Products AbMethod and device for studying the liquid accommodating properties of absorbent products
Cooperative ClassificationG01N15/0826