US 972966 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
- M. L. WILLIAMS.
INTERNAL GOMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLIOATIQN iILBD 11111.21, 1907.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
VlllIllIlll/lll 1111/11/11 u ull-u M. L. WILLIAMS.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLIGATION FILED umm, 1.907.
Patented Oct. 18,1910.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
MARTIN L. WILLIAMS, 0F SOUTH BEND, INDIANA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented oet. is, ioio.
. Application led January 21, 1907. Serial No. 353,223.
To all whom it may concemf Be it known that I, MARTIN, L.V WILLIAMS, a citizen of the United States, residing at South Bend, St. Joseph county, State of Indiana, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following isa specification. i
This invention relates to improvements in internal --combustion engines, and refers more specially to an improved multiple cylinder two-cycle engine. i
' Among the salient objects of the invention are to provide an engine in which each power cylinder has associated therewith a compression cylinder, and the pistons of each associated pair vof cylinders are so timed as to coperate in a peculiar and novel manner; to provide a construction inlwhich the main parts of the engine rotate, and the rotation of the cylinders is made tov effect a suitably timed movement of the pistons of the compression cylinders through the connection's of the latter with relatively fixed parts, to provide a construction'in which a centrally disposed crank-casing constitutes a gas-supply chamber common to the intakes of all of the compression cylinders; to pro'- vide a construction in which the pistons of both the power and compression cylinders constitute the movable members of thevalves which control the motive-fluid passages leading into and out of said cylinders; to provide a construction in which the out stroke of the piston of each compression cylinder creates a partial vacuum in said cylinder which, when the intake port is opened,
induces the prompt filling of the cylinderwith a fresh charge; to provide a construction in which the piston-rods of the several power pistons are connected with 4a single common crank, the cylinders are radially and equiangularly disposed, and the firing is effected at a definite point in therotation of the group, whereby the propelling impulses occur in regular succession and are uniformly effective; and, in general, toprovide improvements in the arrangement and co'nstruction of the-parts contributing to the productionof a simple, economically constructed, and eiiicient engine.
The invention consists in the matters hereinafter described and more .particularly pointed out inthe appended claims; and will be more readily un broken line erstood by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:` Y s Figure 1 is a' partly vertical'section, on I-I-of Fig. 3, of a preferred embodiment of the invention; Fig. 1a is a detail view of one of the circuit-closing members Aof the ignition system; Fig. 2 is a broken-away vertical section taken on broken line II-II ofFig. l; Fi 3 is a vertical section on broken line II III of Fig. l, omitting the fixed frame; Fig. 4 is a detached view of the-mechanism for actuating the compression or auxiliary pistons; Fig. 5
is a Vertical section of an engine in which the v arrangement of the compression cylinders is modified; and Fig. 6 is a vertical section on broken4 line VI-VI of Fig. 5. l
Referring first to Figs. l to 4 inclusive, illustrating the preferred constructionz'l is a suitable base or bed-plate, provided with two bearing-stands 2 2, which sup ort the non-rotatable crank-shaft 3, which 1s keyed to its bearings as shown at 4, 4. All other parts of the engine revolve about this shaft 3, Witli'the exception of a fixed cam member 29, to be described.
The principal frame members of the revoluble part of the engine are, the crank-casing 6, the compression-cylinder casting 15, and the cam-chamber 8; said several castings being bolted together as shown. These members are mounted on the shaft 3 through the medium of several antifrictionbearings 9, 10, 10. Preferably the two latter are positioned at or near the respective sides of the crank-casiiig, and the third bearing, at or close to the opposite end of the engine.l The power may be taken from the engine at any of several different points: for example a pulley surface is provided at 11, and if a larger pulleybe desired such ulley may be secured to the part 11 or to tlie end face of the chamber 8. As shown, 'a sprocket-wheel 12 is keyed upon the projecting portion 11.
The power cylinders, 14:, are bolted to the crank-casing 6, extend radially therefrom, are equidistant from each other, and are preferably odd in number, as shown. Associated with each power cylinder 'is a compression cylinder 15, in which is provided a piston for forcing the' gas into the associated power cylinder as hereinafter described. In the preferred construction these compression cylinders are arranged parallel to and equidistant from -the shaft 3, and are cast` in one piece, which includes a transverse web 16 an end-plate 17 secured to the power cylinders 14, and the hub-like portion -boxes) 22 need not be offset nor staggered, asi they may be connected to the crank elther 1nv the manner shown in Fig. 2k or that shown in Fig. 5, whereby the piston-rods 21 will all be in the same plane. Preferably they are vconnected to'a disk 23, mounted rotatably on the crank.
The motive Huid is conducted into the' chamber formed-by the crank-case and hereinafter termed the crank-chamber, throu h a bore 24 in the shaft 3. From this cham er,
a plurality of ducts 25'lead to the respective compression cylinders 15 and enter through the sides thereof. AEach compression cylinder communicates with its associated power cylinder 14 by. a duct 26, the position-of which is determined by the length and the stroke ofthe vpower piston 19. The ducts 26 are formed in chambers 26 shown in Fig. 3, which chambers may be cast-with the end plate 17 common to the power cylinders. That end of the duct communicating with the power cylinder, at 26, is the induction port of this cylinder.
27 is the exhaust port, which is located slightly nearer to the outer or closed end of the cylinder than is the induction port. The exhaust ports discharge rearwardly, that is to say, in directions opposite to that of the en es revolution.
escribing now, the mechanism for chargingthe power cylinders at each reciprocation oftheir pistons, I prefer to construct said mechanism as follows: Upon the (fixed) shaft 3 is secured the hub 28 of a circulary cam, which in the present instancetakes the form of a disk 29, whose plane is lnchned from the perpendicular to the axis of its shaft. In the periphery of the camdisk is turned a continuous ball-bearing groove 30. Mounted on this periphery is what is in effect, an internally-grooved ro'- tatable ring, though in practice it is desirable to make the same in three or more annular parts 31, 31, 32, as shown, which vided heads 37, thus forming ball-and-socket may be removed from and replaced upon the cam-disk 29-and the inter osed ring `of balls 33. This ring, compose of the separable annular sections, is provided 'with a plurahty of equally-spaced spherical knobs 34, held by stems of less diameter, as shown, there bein a knob for each of the compression cylin ers 15. The pistons 35 of 'said cylinders are connected by their eonnectin rods 36 with said knobs, respectively, vby d1- joint connections. The piston-rods 36 are socket joints.
connected to their pistons by cross-pins 39.
It will be understood that when the cylinders are revolved, the cam ring 31-32 will 4be carried around upon the cam 29 and will describe a rotary wabbling movement. The cam ringl is propelled and the pivotjoints 39 of t e piston rods are relieved of such strain as may be caused by the reac- .tion ofthe camdisk upon the-ring, by means of radially-slotted guides 38 straddling said rods. As shown in Fig. 1 these guides 38 are cast integral with the chamber 8 that incloses the cam. 38 indicates one face of the radial slot throu h which the uppermost -piston-rod 36 exten s.
' ers. It follows that each of the compression pistons 35 will thus bereciprocated once by each revolution of the engine.. Owing to the circular form and inclined position of the cam 19, two opposite points thereof (marked a and b) are closer to the shaft, perpendicularly measured, than the'two points at 90 degrees therefrom; hence as the pistonrods 36 are carried around they will be radially oscillated, which motion is provided for by the piston pivots 39 and the ball-and- The latter are-necessary on account of the twisting or wabbling motion imparted to the cam ring by its rotation upon the cam-disk. The piston-actuating mechanism above described will operate with a minimum degree of friction, and for that lreason is preferred by me.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the non-rotatable shaftl 3, cam `29 and power crank 20 form reaction members to reciprocate the power and compression pistons.
In order to so time the reciprocations -of the compression pistons that they do not exactly coincide w1th those of the power pistons, the compression cylinders are shown as staggered with res ect to the power cylin-4 ders, and with this construction the ,camdisk 29 will be set as shown, with its extreme points a and b practically in the same longitudinal plane as the axis 0f the crank 20, whereby the strokes of each compression escribed. It
compression cylinders may be more nearly in radial register with the power cylindersmay in fact be arranged exactly opposite the same and the same timing effected by adjustment of the angular position of the cam-disk 29 'with res ect to the crank 20, to correspond with the a tered positions 'of the compression cylinders.
It will be observed in Fig. l that the iiiduction port 26 of the power cylinder 14 is not directly opposite t-he exhaust port 27, but is located slightly nearer 'to the exhaust end ofthe cylinder. The power stroke of the piston carries its outer end beyond the eX- haust port 27 and opens the induction ort 26; then the initial return movement of the piston closes first the induction port and then the exhaust port. This operation, in connection with that of the compression piston- 35, will new be described.
The gas or vapor being supplied through the bore 24 into the crank chamber 6, enters the induction ports 25 of the compressionl cylinders 15. The engine is started by hand or otherwise until an explosion occurs in one of the power cylinders. During the initial rotative motion of the engine, the Compression piston 35, by its backward movement, creates a partial vacuum within its cylinder, as its duct 26 is at this time closed by-tlie power piston 19. At the end of its backward stroke the piston uncovers its induction port 25 and a charge of gas rushes int-o the compression cylinder through this port.'
The piston 35 moves forward, first closing said port, then compressing the charge In the meantime the power piston 19 has been moving inwardly-.2'. e'., toward the exhaust end-and when near the end of its stroke uncovers the exhaust port 27 and, before the saine is' fully opened, starts to open the inj duction port 26. The compressed gas I" rushes through said port into the power cylinder before the compression piston has quite completed its stroke; the power piston starts back, .closing first the induction l .port and then the exhaust port, and thereafter compresses the charge. The ignition then occurs and the following combustion of the charge drives out the piston, as described hereinafter. During the very short interval when. both ports 26 and 27 are partly open, the incoming charge simply takes the place of the spent charge and assists iii exhausting it, but is prevented from'mixiiig therewith to any seriously detrimental extent by the deflector 41 carried by the piston.
The cycle ofoperations just described takes `place in each pair of cylinders 14 15in succession, and the reaction of the crank 20 upon the powerpiston-rods 21 causes the entire frame including the cylinders to rotate around the shaft.` It will be under- ,"stood that each power cylinder will be charged with fresh gas under compression at each reciprocation, and everyv out stroke of the piston will therefore be a power stroke.
One of the principal advantages offered by this engine is the absence of valves andofthe complex mechanism incidental thereto.
Another advantage 4arises from the absence of a fiywlieel, none being required,l owing to the mass and hence the inertia of there- ,from each other, thes 4system for this engine: the same comprises r-evoluble primary 'and secondary circuiti close'rs mounted on the engine, sparking plugs located one in each power cylinder in circuit with the secondary circuit-closers,
an induction coil having primary and secoiidary windings, and the usual battery and interrupter. The construction as shown in Fig. 1 is as follows: A metal ring 42, provided Awith a number of contact-lugs 43 -equal in number to the power cylinders, is
fixed upon the shaft 3 and insulated therefrom. A wire 44 connected to this ring forms a part of the primary circuit. Mounted on and electrically connected to the adjacent rotary portion of the engine frame, isV a wiper 45, adapted to form coiitact with each lug 43 in succession as the engine rotates. The circuit is. through the frame of the engine, thence `by a wire, 46 to the primary coil, interrupter, andbatt'ery (not shown). The circuit-closers for the secondar lcircuit consist of a circular series of equal y-spaced contact-pieces 47, carried by and insulated from the crank-casing and equa-l in number to he power cylinders. One terminal of each.'` sparking plug 48 is connected bya wire 49. to the corresponding contact-piece 47 the; other plug-terminal being connected to the frame of the engine. As the engine rotates, said contact-pieces pass in succession a fixed circuit-closing member 50 which is shown as held by and insulated .from the standard 2. I` prefer that this member 50 be so adjusted as not to be actuallyl contacted by the revolving pieces '47, but to stand very close thereto so that the air-gap will be exceedingly'short. By this arrangement the wearing away of the parts that would. result from rubbing.
contacts, 'may be obviated The wires 51 and 52, from member 50 and frame respectively, form parts of the respective secondary circuits. The secondary circiiit-closers are so adjusted as to close the circuit through the sparker of each cylinder at the instant when its piston arrives at the proper point of its compression stroke. The primary circuit is open, except during the instants of sparking, in order to Save battery power.. i
Either the wiper, or the contact ring, of the primarycircuit may be adjusted circuinferentially .to properly advance or retard the sparking point.
By the peculiar construction of the power cylinders and the arrangement of the sparking plugs therein, I obviate a trouble very common in gas engines, namely, interference contacts being alsov with sparking caused by the flooding of the plug contacts with lubricating oil, thrown thereon by the rapidstrokes of the pistons. This'exposure of the spark-terminals to the 5. oil in ordinary engines is due to their position in the cylinders. My improvement consists in forming the ignition end of the cylinder with a laterally extending chamber, 53, the radially inner wall of which is drilled and tapped to receive the sparking plug. Thus, when the plug is in position, as shown in Fig. 1, its contact points are out of alinement with the piston, and centrifugal force keeps the oil from flowing to the spark plug.
that of the iguiting means, has already been described.
As hereinbefore stated, the construction and arrangement of the compression cylinders may be Varied from that shown in Fig.
1. For example the axes of said cylindersmay be radial, as shown in Fig. 5. In this construction the compression-pistons are ac- 25 tuated 'from a second crank upon the crankinto the crank chamber, from which the severa'l ducts or ports 56 lead to the respective .35 .compression cylinders 57, entering about mid-length thereof. The compression-pistons 58 are actuated by a crank 59 of shaft 54, and the power pistons 60 in the power cylinders 61 are actuated by a crank 62.
'v 40 The outer end of each compression ,cylinder 57 is connected to the adjacent power cylinder 61 by a duct 63 which terminates inthe induction port 63 of the power cylinder and the eductioii port of the compression cylinder, respectively. As alsoV shown in Fig.. 1,
the exhaust'portv 64 is slightly offset longitudinally of the cylinder relativelyA tothe induction port, f or the reason hereinbefore described. The compression cylinders are here vset in angular alinement with 'the power cylinders, and for this reason it is'desirable that the two cranks 59 and 62 be set, not exactly opposite or 180 degrees from each other; be-
^ cause, were the cranks opposite, the compression piston would start to return at the same time the associated power piston started on..
its return stroke, thus failing to effect -the transfer of the full charge t9 the power cylinder. The correct timing of the compressingstrokes in the auxiliary cylinders may therefore be effected by setting the auxiliary crank 59 ahead of a position directly opposite the power crank 62, as indicated in Fig. 6; so as to 'effect a slightly following movel 65 ment of the compression pistons. The oper" The operation of the engine, includingl Anovel coperation of associated power and compression cylinders set forth. herein may be carried into effect in a construction in which the cylinders are stationary. and'a crank-shaft is actuated therefrom in the more usual manner.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a gas engine, a circular series of power cylinders, a circular series of. compression cylinders, a centrally disposed fixed reaction shaft, a piston in each of said several cylinders and operative connections between euch piston and said shaftwhereby said pistons are all caused to move in definite timed relation with each other, the compression cylindci's being arranged with their axes substantially parallel and the exhaust ends of the several power cylinders arranged adjacent to the compression ends of the respect-ive corresponding compression cylinders, ducts 4connecting the several power cylinders with their corresponding compression cylinders and terminating in ports in the power cylinders controlled by the respective pistons therein, said conipres'sioncylinders being each provided withan induction port, a source of gas supply common to all of the compression cylinders, and means for igniting the charges in the power cylinders in regular succession.
2. In a gas engine, a circular series of power cylinders having their axes substantially radial to a\common center and their exhaust .ends radially inward, a circular series of associated compression cylinders having their axes parallel with each other and their compression ends respectively adjacent to the corresponding exhaust ends of the power cylinders, a piston in each of said several cylinders, a fixed reaction shaft centrally disposed relatively to the power cylinders and provided with' a reaction crank,
piston'rod connections between said crank and the several pistons of the power cylinders, a reactionA cam disk xe'dly mounted opposite the ends of the several'compression cylinders and operative piston rod connections between said cam disk and the several pistons of said compression cylinders,ducts controlled by the power' pistons connecting the compression ends of the compression cylinders with the adjacent ends ofthe corresponding power cylinders, a gas supply iss -lar member mounted for rotation upon said cam, piston rod connections between the chamber common to all of the compression cylindcrs,and means for igniti'ng the charges in the power cylinders in succession whereby the reaction of the. power pistons upon said shaft imparts a relative rotation between said shaft and cylinders. i
3. In a rotary gas-engine, a circula-r'series of power cylinders, an associated circular series of compression cylinders, a'. piston in each of "the respective cylinders, the exhaust end of each power cylinder being adjacent to the compression end of the associated compression cylinder, each associated power and compression cylinder being provided with a connecting duct,` and each compression cylinder being provided with an induction port, an' eccentrically disposed reaction crank to which the power pistons are operatively connected, a reaction cam mounted opposite the ends of the compression., cylinders, an annucomprcssion pistons and said annular member, and suitable guides for said piston rods.
l. In a rotary gas-engine,a circular series of power cylinders, a circular series of associated compression cylinders, a piston in each of the respective cylinders, an eccentrically disposed reaction crank to which the power pistons are operatively connected, a circular -am-disk mounted opposite the ends of the compression cylinders, and inclined from a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the engine, an annular member mounted to rotate upon said cani-disk, piston-rod connections between said annular member and the respective compression pistons, and suitable guides for said piston-rods. i
5. In a rotary gas-engine, a circular series of power cyllnders, a circular series of assotons of the compression cylinders, and suitable guides forsaid piston-rods. v
6. A rotary gas-engine comprising an axial non-rotatable shaft, provided with a crank, a crank-casing revolubly mounted upon said shaft and havin a gas chamber, A a series of radiall -dispose power cylinders 'carried upon sai crank-casing, a compression-cylinder casting secured to the power cylinders and comprising a series of compresslon cylinders the, axes of wluch are parallel to said shaft, a second casing sei cured to the compression-cylinder casting and havinor a bearin u )on the shaft, istons e l .plurality of revolubly mounted cylinders arranged in pairs, each pair comprising a power cylinder and a compression cylinder andpistons therein, a port in the side of eachA power cylinder, the compression end -of the compression cylinder benig arranged Vto communicate with the exhaust end of the power cylinder through said port, which is controlled and normally closed Vby said power piston, -said compression cylinder belng provided with an inductionport opening through its `side in the vicinity, but inside of the limit of the` suction stroke of saidV compression piston, and controlled by s aid piston, a source of gas supply connecting with the induction o rts of the compression cylinders, and suitaEle operative'connections between the pistonsof the pair of cylinders whereby theyV are'inade to move in timed relation. l
8. A rotary enginev comprising a plurality of revolubly mounted cylinders arran ed in pairs, each pair comprising a'power` cy inder and piston therein and a compression cylinder and a piston therein each of sald comression cylinders being provided with an lntake, the compression end of the compression cylinder being arranged to communlcate with the power cylinder through a'controlled port normall closed by the plston of the power cylin er but timed to open when 'the ower piston is in the vicinity of the end of) its out or power stroketand a centrally disposed crank casing constltutlng a gas sup ly chamber common to all the 1ntakes of t e compression cylinders.
' MARTIN L. WILLIAMS.
THOMAS E. MORRISON,- WILLIAML. KIzER.