US 974087 A
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A. MQLOW. CHARGE FORMING ARRANGEMENT FOR USE IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND TUB-BIKES.
APPLICATION FILED JAN.9,1909.
Patented 0011.25, 1910.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
'FJIQL I A.M. LOW. CHARGE FORMING ARRANGEMENT FOR USE IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND TURBINBS.
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8 J i3 304 A 5' 6 A. M. LOW. GEAEGE FORMING ARRANGEMENT Eon USE IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND TUBBINES.
' v APPLIQA-TION III- ED J' AN .9, 1909.
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. ilitirl/f/ I nu UNITED strains Parana: OFFICE.
ARCH IBALD MONTGOMERY LOW, OF LONDON, ENGLAND.
CHARGE-FORMING ARRANGEMENT iron usE IN INTERNAL-GOMBUSTION, ENGINES 1 AND TURBINES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Oct; 25, 1910.
Application filed January 9, 1909. Serial No. 471,424.
To all whomii may concern:
Be it known that I, ARGHIBALD MoN r GOMERY Low, a subject of the King of England, residing at Brook Green, London, VV., in England, have'invented certain new and useful Improved Charge-Forming Arrangements .for Use in Internal-Combustion Engines and Turbines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention comprises improved charge forming arrangements for use in internal combustion engines of that class which comprises a chamber or chambers traversingor contained within the combustion space of the cylinder or within a member in con1munication therewith or a part heated by the exhaust gases from the'cylinder, in which chamber or chambers the fuel is gasifie'd and from which it is passed to the cylinder.
The invention consists in the novel features and combinationsof-parts hereinafter described and specifically pointed out in the claimsand includes means by which the gas generated may be mixed with steam or air or other gasor gases before or after passing to the cylinder to form explosive mixtures of various compositions according to requirements. Exhaust heat from the cylinder can be used alonewithout thatof the combustion space by notinserting the chamber or chambers in the cylinder, or the heat of the 1 combustion space alone without that of the exhaust may be used, and the admixtures of steam and vention.. e
The invention is adapted for use with various kinds of engines including turbines and, for eithersolid,liquid or gaseous fuels but is primarily intended for the former for example in the formof coal dust, alone or mixed with other solids, coke and the like.
A construction of engine particularly adapted foruse with,coal.dust as fuel is shown in the accompanying drawings in which- Figurel is-aside' elevation of a horizontal engine embodying my improvements. Fig. 2 is an-end elevationjwith parts in section; Fig. 3 is-a sectional plan view on the line 3.3 of Fig. 2. Fig. 4 is a sectional detail ;view on-an enlarged scale of the combustion headof the cylinder-and the exhaustbox;
containing the fuel gasifying elements.- Fig.
I 5 is a section on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4. Fig.
air are not essential'to the in- G is an enlarged sectional detail view of the fuel feeding device and Fig. 7 is a sectional 'view showing means for agitating the fuel in the container.
1 designates the engine cylinder, 2 the I quirements. Mechanicalor other forms of valves may also be used for closing the open" ends of the tubes 5 or equivalent chambers or they-may be left open if desired. The.
opposite ends ofthe tubes 5'trav'erse a box 8 into which passes the exhaust from the cylinder 1 through the exhaust valve 9, this box having a discharge or outlet as at 10*.
After traversing the box 8 the tubes extend into a-recptacle 10 adapted to receive the fuel which is fed into the'ends offsaid tubes w by means such as worms 11. The spindles 12 of the saidworms arecontained within tubes 13 in such a; manner as to make a tight joint with the Wall of the fuel receptacle and carry at their ends friction disks 14 adapted to be driven at the desired speed by co-acting diskslfi mounted on a verticalv shaft 16 driven as by belt and pulley gear 17 18 from-the fly wheel or-crank shaft 19 by bevel gearing 20. j The speed of the wormsmay be varied by .adjusting' 't-he position of the disks -15'to, or
from the centers of the disks 14:; by axial" movement of the shaft 16 as by means of the lever and hand wheel 21,22 respectively. I
for feeding the fuel and for operating the 'feed mechanism, or the fuel maybe fed by gravit y alone-if convenient; In the case of liquid tr gaseous fuel. the engine itself requires little'oi' no modification'but the worm feed gear-would be .dispensed-withand appropriate devices'for feeding such liquid or gaseous fuel to the tubes would be furnished in lieu thereof. b
Any other convenientmeans; may be used Means for the introduction of steam or air orboth to the tubes 5 are provided at a convenient point. In the drawing these means comprise a pipe 23 leading from the cylinder jacket 3 and-entering the tubes 5 at 25 and. provided with a controlling cock 24 for the control of steam, and said pipe may be extendedas shown in Fig. 2 and provided with an air cock oi valve in any convenient manner. The steam may also be obtained from any other convenient source. The steam or air can be admitted to the tubes 5 either separately or together or may be completely shut off if desired, and controlled either automatically or by hand. If, as in the construction illustrated, the steam is supplied from the cylinder jacket a relief valve 26 is used to relieve any excess of pressure. The steam may also be'supplied from a separate source or be produced by exhaust heat. Pipes 27 lead from the tubes 5 into an extension 28of thevessel 7 for conveying the gas or mixture from said tubes to the inlet valve 29 through the pipe 30, any grit or other undesirable solid matter being at the same time deposited in the vessel 7. The
gases may also be cleaned or cooled by separate means if found more suitable. A controlling cock 31 is provided in the pipel3U and this cock may be adapted to admit air at this pointif desired. Each of the pipes 27 is provided with a cook 32 by which certain thereof may be cut out of action when required if working with a light load or for any other purpose connected with the working of the engine. 33 designates the igniting device of the engine and 34 the exhaust valve-stem which may be operated by the arm 35 from the cam 36 mounted on shaft 37 through gearing 39, 40 from the crank shaft. Fig. 7 shows means which may be employed for agitating the fuel in the receptacle 10, comprising a spring pressed rod 40 working in a guide 41 and carrying arms or beaters 42, the projecting end of said rod being operated by a cam 43 on a shaft 44 driven by any appropriate means.
In its operation the engine can work on practically almost any cycle. Taking as an example the Otto or four stroke cycle with the use ofanthracite coal, the engine is started in the ordinary manner until the tubes 5 are sufliciently heated.to gasify or otherwise change the fuel. The feed worms 11 are now operated and the fuel fed into the tubes 5 and passed along same till itreaches the-box 8 heated by the exhaust from the cylinder. At this point or from this point for some further distance into the tubes the fuel will be decomposed or gasified, the gas being sucked by the piston or driven by its own pressure into the pipes 27 to the inlet valve through the vessel 7 and pipe 30 as previously mentioned. Car bon residues continue to be fed along the tubes 5 and come in contact while in a heated state with steam or air or both as the case may be, introduced at 25, thus forming water gas, producer gas, or both which also passes away through pipes 27.
The engine may thus be run on coal gas alone or a mixture of coal gas and water gas, or coal gas and producer gas, or coal gas, producer gas and water gas, and other gases can be introduced if desired.
By using coke in lieu of coal, by varying the speed of fuel feed and by introducing steam or air or both into the tubes or equivalents the gas supplied to the cylinder can be varied and its quantity readily controlled.
Theengine based on the above principle is exceedingly safe as the volume of explosive gas and hot fuel present is extremely small, so that danger from fire or explosions is avoided. The engine for marine and other purposes is very much safer than steam as no fire or pressure boiler exists.
The engine can be run on almost any gas depending on the fuel used, and with each fuel'thereis a large range in the type of gas to be used. The quality and quantity can also be regulated with extreme case. With each fuel the point at which air, steam or both is admitted to the chamber can be varied to produce various combinations and compositions of gas. The temperature of the generating chamber can be varied so as to convert into volatile gas, all bye or waste products (if any), with the exception of a small quantity of ash thus avoiding cleaning troubles as the fuel is forced through the tubes or chambers. Each generating tube can be arranged so that it can be removed and cleaned while the engine is in motion: and for light loads, one tube or any number can be operated as desired. Preignition is avoided, since the gas in the combustion head can be cooled as desired by increasing the amount of cooling effected by each tube inserted in said head so as to absorb the heat by varying the feed within limits and by varying the quality of the gas by regulating the proportion of water gas or steam. Theengine can thus be run at a high cylinder temperature and low gas temperature, which is the ideal condition for efliciency without risk of preignition, enabling a greater range of pressure to be attained in the cylinder. In this way a large amount of the heat usually wasted in the exhaust and jacket is used in the generating chamber. An overload can be met and sustained in the case of bituminous coal, for example by wholly or partially cutting off air and steam from the tubes and running the engine on coal gas and air.
In the claims whichfollow the term cyl inder is held to include the casing of a turbine or the like or the equivalent of the cylinder in other types of engines.
I am aware that h as beenpreviously proposed to impart heat to fuel by meansof the exhaust heat from the cylinder .for assistance-in gasifying said fuel and no claim is broadly made to this feature buta gas generating chamber, traversing said combustion chamber, means. for feeding fuel to said generating chamber, aliquid seal into which one end ofthe generating chamber extends, and means for; conveying the gas generated in said latter chamber to said cylinder.
2. In charge forming'means for use inin-- ternal combustion engines and turbines, the
combination with a cylinder of a combustion space in communication therewith, a chainher through which the exhaust gases from said cylinder pass, a gas generating chamber traversing said combustion space and exhaust chamberfmeans for feeding fuel to I said generating chamber, a liquid seal into which one end of the generating chamber extends. and means for. conveying the gas fromsaid generating chamber to said cylinder.
3. In charge forming means for use in internal combustion engines and turbines,
the combination with a cylinder of a combustion space in communication therewith,
avpluiality of tubular gasgenerating chambers traversing said combustion space, means for feeding fuel to said generating chambers, a vessel containing liquid into which one end of saidgenerating vessels extend,
and means for conveying the gas from'said generating chambers through the liquid containing vessel to said cylinder.
4. In charge forming means for use in internal combustion engines and turbines, the combination with a cylinder of a combustion space in communication therewith, a' gas generating chamber traversing said combustion space means for feeding fuel to said generating chamber, a liquid seal into which one end of the generating-chamber extends, meansfor conveying the gas generated in the generating chamber to the cylinder and controllable means-for the introduction of a gas of different composition to the generating chamber.
5. In charge forming means for use in internal combustion engines and turbines, the combination with a cylinder having a water jacket, of a'coinbustion space in communication with said. cylinder, a gas generatbustion space in communication therewith, a plurality of tubular gas generatingchambers traversing said combustion space, means for feeding fuel to said generating cham-- gas of different composition to said generinternal combustion .engines and turbines,
thecombination with a cylinder'of a combers, a vessel containing liquid into which one endof each of said generating chambers 0 extends,- means for conveying the gas gener-' ated' in said latter chambers, through the liquid containing vessel, to the cylinder, and controllable means for the introduction of a 'ating chambers.
7. In charge forming means for use in internal combustion engines and turbines, the combination of a gas generating chamber, a fuel receptacle into which said generating chamber extends, devices adapted to feed the fuel from said receptacle into the generating chamber and variable speed mechanism for operat-ingi'said feed devices.
8. In charge forming means for use in interna-l combustion engines and turbines, the combination with a cylinder of a combustion space in communication therewith, a gas generating chamber traversing said combustio'n'space, devices for feeding solid fuel into said generating chamber, variable speed mechanism for operating said feed devices, and means for conveying gas from said generating chamber; to the cylinder 'aforcsaid.
, r 9. In charge forming means for use in iiiternal combustion engines aiidt'urbiiies, the I combination with a'cylinder of a combustion space in communication therewith, a plurality of tubular gas generating cha n bers traversing said combustion space, a fuel receptacle into which one end'of each of said chambers extends, devices adapted to feed fuel from said receptacle into the generating chambers, variable speed mechanism for operating said feed devices, a vessel containing liquid into which the other end of 7 each of said generating chambers extend, separate controllable gas conduits from each 'of said generating chambers to said liquid containing vessel, and a gas conduit between said vessel and the cylinder aforesaid.
1O. In charge forming means for use in internal combustion engines and turbines, the combination with a cylinder of a.combustion space in communication therewith, a plurality of tubular gas generating chambers traversing said combustion space, a fuel receptacle into which one end of each of said chambers extends, devices adapted to feed fuel from said receptacle into the gengas of different composition into each of crating chambers, variable speed mechasaid gas generating chambers.
nism for operating said feed devices, a vessel In witness whereof I have signed this containing liquid into Which the other end Specification in the presence of two wit- 5 of each of said generating chambers exnesses.
tend, separate controllable gas conduits from each of said generating chambers to said i liquid containing vess l, a as conduit be- \Vitnesses:
tween said vessel and the cylinder aforesaid A. J. HADDAN, l0 and controllable means for introducing a A. HARE.-
ARGHIBALD MONTGOMERY LOW.