US 974133 A
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E. GATHMANNl INGoT MOLD. l PLIUATIONI'ILED JUNE 30, 1910. 974,1 33; Patented Nov. 1,1910.
EMIL GATHMANN, E New Yoan, N. Y.
Specification of Letters iatent.
Patented Nov. 1, 19150.
To allwhom 'it may concern:
Be it known that I EMIL GATHMANN, a citizen of the United tates, residing in the city, county, and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Ingot-Molds, ing is a specification. My'invention relates particularly to molds for ca sting steel ingots, but it .may be used in connection with molds of other kinds. l
In my U. S. Patents No. -921,972 of May 18', 1909 and No. 940,386 of November 16, 1909, Ihave shown molds for castingsteel of which the followingots in which provision" lsvmade for ac-l celerating heat radiationand thus favoring the cooling of the molten mass to a greater extent at the bottom and lower part of the mold than at the upper part thereof, whichupper part isprovided with means for.l conserving the heat-of the adj acent molten mass within the mold.v By those improvements the formation of pipes and blow holes '1nthe ingot was greatly reduced.
According to my present invention I have rovided a new way of conserving `the heat 1n the upper'part of he ingot and of accelerating the absorption or'radiation of heat' in of the mold, anda reverse 'the neck to the the lower part thereof. This I accomplish by giving to the mold chamber la tapering formation from the bottom orhase thereo upward and outward to t ward and'up'ward taper from thebase of top thereof. By this construction,- the mol-ten metal 'as it shrinks` will n remain in close contact-w1th the lower part f In the accompanying drawings, shows a vertical central with an ingot therein..
of the mold while the upper partof the molten ingot will shrink away from the walls of the ingot and thus an insulating airspace will be produced which will asslst in conserving theI heat of the-ingot in its' u-pper portion. Y l" Figure l section through an ingot -mold embodyin ig. 2' showsx a trans- 2-42 of Fig. L. Fig.
verse section on -3 shows a modified way of forming the lower portion'ofjthemold.. n f The mold is divided vertically into two sections A', and A whilrhavean interlock-- ing connection with 'each 'other as shown 1n- Fig. 2. Any suitable devicesmay be em'- loyed for holding the sections in place, such evices being well known in Application' mea June 3o, 1910. serial No. 569,731.
e base ofthe neck. taper, 21.6., an in-.
:andinwardl-y to the' topof the. neck.'
'which materially assists-.rin
preferably greater in this art 'andare not illustrated.4 rThe. mold sections may rest on a stool C or the base ofthe mold may be formed -as indicated in Fig. 3. Except, as to the shape. ofthe mold chamber, the mold is similar to those shown in my former patents, z'. e.',j'theI lower part of the mold is constructed to favor heat upper part or-neck is reduced in thickness-to conservev the heat of the ingot.V Preferably, as shown in .my former patents, the lower portion of the moldis provided with ribs a radiation whilethewhich, `as shown in Fig. 1, extend. horizon-V tallyaround the outside of the mol'd,but` they may be otherwise arranged. AThe walls. of the neck B are thinner than the walls of the body ofthe mold foi-fthe purpose describedin my for-mer patents.
The heavier walls of the body ofthermold prevent any. material outward. expansion and enlargement of the ingot mold. chamber as-they remain comparatively cool and. th-us. insure relatively close contact with the hot ingot walls,T whereas the thinner walls of through. and expand more readily thus. enlarging. the upperpart of the ingot chamber and providing a relatively larger clearance or air space about the upper part of the hot ingot walls. The materialof inner mold walls throughout 'their entire length are constructed., is
y the necked-in upper-portion B are heated l' which the a metal" such as f cast iron which absorbs heatrapidlyaxid expands considerably upon rise o sion is obtained between the. upper an lowery walls ofthe mold. 1
The mold chamber, as shown, .is-nadie to taper fron its' lower endzupwardly. and .outwardlyto ther-line g--g at the-base of the neck andfrorn this line `it tapers upwardly this construction after the metal is teerned intothe moldy app ingot duri-ng its shrinkage remains- 1n close contact with the walls ort the mold, while .the u per' part of the molten in ot as itshrinksraws away frornthe wa ls of the mold and thus an airspace isformed preventing the The ratio-.of taper is the upper -partof the mold than the lofwer part thereof. I. preradiation of heat.
temperal 'ture whereby'a differential rate of expan '*i By.
roxima-tel-y 85% of the ,"v
fer to employ aftaper 1n*4 the upper inwardly inclined part of the mold walls of at least\ -three times as much taperper unit of vertical height as the taper employed for the lower side walls of the mold so that the interval or air space between the ingot and the walls of the mold will increase considerably during the cooling of the ingot. As approximately 85% of the ingotr remains in actual contact with the mold during the cooling or setting, the radiation of heat or heat is materially promoted while the cooling of the upper part of the -ingot is materially retarded by the surrounding lm of air which, fied, is a very poor conductor of heat.
In the case of ingots of large diameter or those cast of alloys in which the sidewise shrinkage is excessive in order to insure close contact of the lower side walls of the ingot with the corresponding'inner side walls of the retaining mold, I may construct the stool C with a removable center piece C which is adapted to be slightly lowered to compensate for the sidewise shrinkage, or if desired it may be constructed to be shifted sidewise or entirely removed soon after the ingot has been cast while its central portion is still iiuid but after its outer lower portion and side walls have been solidified. This lowering or shifting of the partly solidified ingot insures a good contact and thus better heat transference to the mold of the lower portion of the ingot` and at the Same time increases the air lilm at the upper side walls of the ingot. Instead of lowering the central supporting portion of the Astool or shifting the same sidewise means may be employed to bodily raise the mold from the stool soon after teeming of the ingot and after its oute'r lower portions have solidified. This would Igive the same result, z'. e1, close, firm contact of the lower v,side walls of the ingot with the mold.
In place of the ribbing for the cooling of the lower side portions of the mold water spraying or induced or forced air currents might be used to accelerate the cooling of this portion of the mold.y A
In my application for Patent N o. 579,690, filed August 30, 1910, I have claimed a method of casting ingots consisting in pouring the molten metal into a mold, producing an air space between the upper inner walls of the mold and the lupper part of the hot ingot while keeping the lower part of the ingot in close contact with the walls of the mold chamber while the solidification of the ingot is in progress.
I claim'as my invention:
1. An ingot mold the upper part or neck of which retards the radiation of heat from the ingot Lo a greater extent than the lower part and the inner wallsl of which forming and deiining the ingot chamber, taper upwardly and outwardlyffro'nri yits base, and then upwardly and inwardly toward its top, the material forming said inner walls being rarey of the mold being metallic both for the outwardly and inwardly tapered portions.
2. A longitudinally divided lmetal ingot mold the upper part or neck of which retards the radiation of heat from the ingot to a greater extent than the lower part and the inner walls of which forming and delining the ingot chamber taper upwardly and outwardly from its lower portion, and then upwardly and inwardly toward its upper portion, the said outwardly and inwardly tapered portions of the mold walls being integrally formed.
3 An upright metal ingot mold the upper part or neck of which retards the radiation of heat from the ingot to a greater extent than the lower part the inner walls of which -forming and defining the ingot chamber taper upwardly and outwardly in its lower part and then upwardly and inwardly at its upper part, the taper of the said upwardly and inwardly inclined part being more than three times as great per unit of vertical height as the taper of the said lower inclining walls.
4. An upright metallic ingot mold the upper part 'or neck of which retards the radiation of heat from the ingot to a greater extent than the lower part the inner walls of which forming and defining the ingot chamber are formed by tapering side walls, the taper of the upper inwardly inclined part of the said inner wallsbeing more than three'times as great per unit of vertical height as the taper of the lower upwardly inclinedside wal s.
5&An ingot mold, the inner walls of Vwhich forming and dening the ingot chamber taper upwardly and outwardly from its base and then upwardly and inwardly relatively to thetaper of the lower portion of the chamber, :the walls of said chamber being thinner atthe upper portion than at the lower portionthereof whereby said upper walls are made to expand more readily than the lower walls.
means for promoting heat absorption from the ingot, and the chamber of which tapers upwardly and outwardly from its base, and means at the upper end of said mold for conserving the heat of the upper part 'of the lingot and which has a chamb'er thaty tapersupwardly and inwardly relatively to the taper of the chamber in the, lower part of the mold.
7 A metal mold for ingots provided with `ribs for promoting heat absorption`from the ingot, and the chamber of which tapers upwardly and outwardly from its base, means at the lippen end of said "mold for the ingot and having a chamber which tapers upwardly and inwardly relatively to the taper of the chamber in thelower part conservingthe heat of the upper portion of n i of the mold, in combination with means for lowering the in bination with `a tapers ot relatively to the mold after it has partially solidiied.l
8.. A metal mold the lowerl part of which is provided on its exterior suriace with ribs to favor heat radiation while the upper part or neck. is constructed to conserve heat,` an the chamber of 'which mold tapers upwardly and outwardly from its base and then upwardly and inwardly to its top.
9. A metal mold the chamber of which tapers upwardly and outwardly in comstool, the central portion of which supporting theingot is removable while the outer portion continues to support the mold.
10. A metal mold the chamber of which .upwardly and outwardly from its base and then upwardly its top, in combination with porting the mold and ingot, the said stool having that ortion which supports the in- 'got adjustab e for independent movement whilepthat portion which supports the mold remains fixed.
'tapers upwardly and outwardly and inwardly to la stool sup 11. A metal mold the chamber from" its base and then upwardly and inwardly toward its top, in combination. with a stool supportinfqgf the mold and the ingot, the said mold havin that portion the side wa ls of the ingot adjustab e for independent movementl while the portion of the stool which supports the ingot remains Xed. l
12. A metal mold the chamberof which tapers upwardly and outwardly from its base and then upwardly and inwardly to the top, an outer portion upon which the mold rests and an inner portion upon which the ingot is adapted to' at irst rest but which is removable for the pur ose of lowering the ingot in the mold whi e it is cooling.
In. testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name.
. EMIL -GATHMANN Witnesses:
ANNA M.I HOFFMANN, H. L. CADMUs.
in combination with a.stool\having of 'which which supports