US 975368 A
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J. F. MAKOWSKI.
CLIP AND STUDDING FOR FIEEPROOF GONSTRUGTIONS. APPLICATION FILED ABBA, 1910.
Patented Nov. 8, 1910.
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J. P. MAKOWSKI.
CLIP AND STUDDING' FOR FIREPROOP UONSTRUGTIONS. APPLICATION FILED 3.4, 1910.
975,368. Patented N0v.8, 1910.
aWmowjz' I Q I 3 f%% v or n a i JOHN F. MAKOWSKI, OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOB. TO THE PERFEC- TION STEEL STUDDING (20., OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Nov. 8, 1910.
Application filed April 4, 1910. Serial No. 553,167.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, J OHN F. MAKowsKI, a citizen of the United States, residing in the city and county of San Francisco and State of California, have invented new and useful Improvements in Clips and Studding for Fireproof Constructions, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to building constructions, and pertains especially to a clip and studding for fireproof partitions, walls, and ceiling structures.
The manifold'objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent hereinafter.
The invention consists of the parts and the construction and combination of parts as hereinafter more fully described and claimed, having reference to the accompanying drawings, in which- Figure l is a detail view of the interior of a room. Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a clip. Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view showing the studding and plaster. Fig. l is a perspective view of a nailing block. Fig. 5 is a detail perspective view of a lower clip. Fig. 6 is a detail view of an angle-bar. Fig. 7 is a detail view of an angle-bar with the end closed. Fig. 8 is a detail view of the angle-bars telescoped. Fig. 9 is a perspective view of the wall furring bracket. Fig. 10 is a detail perspective of a ceiling hanger.
In adapting the invention for fireproof partitions, I construct a stud consisting of a pair of angle-bars or angle-strips A suitably connected by the clips 2. In conjunction with this stud I may or may not employ nailing-blocks 3. The angle-bars A may be of any suitable size, length, and weight of material, but the manner of their disposition is important. In practice these angle-bars are rolled from comparatively light sheetmetal strips approximately one inch in width and one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness. If heavier or more powerful studs, or lighter studs, are required, then a different size and weight of angle-bar may be employed accordingly.
The angle-bars A are preferably placed with the apexes of the angles facing or adjacent to each other, and with the flared openings of the angles pointing outward, so that the edges of the angle-bars stand in approximately parallel planes and exposed to the lathing 4, to which edges the lathing is tied by suitable means. The angles are separated and maintained rigid and parallel by the clips, and the distance between the angles varies according to the width of the partition; the width of this space being determined by the length of the clips 2. These clips are of very simple construction, being cut from strips of metal of suitable lengths and slotted lengthwise at each end, as shown at 5, Fig. 2, to provide at each end of a clip a set of coacting bendable prongs 6-7 the prongs 7 being disposed between the prongs 6. These prongs are adapted to be bent in opposite directions to include V -shaped spaces into which the angle-bars A are placed, and then the ends of the prongs are clenched over the edges of the angle-bars. Preferably one of the central prongs 7 is bent to one side of the plane of the body of the clip 2, and the other central prong 7 bent to the other side of the plane of the clip 2. correspondingly the prongs 6 are bent in opposite directions before they are clenched over the angle-bars, so that when the bars and clips are assembled, one anglebar A will be supported on one side by a pair of upper and lower prongs 6, while the other angle-bar will be supported on the opposite side by a like pair of upper and lower prongs 6; the several prongs 6 acting in opposition to corresponding intermediate prongs 7 This alternate arrangement of the prongs on a clip gives rigidity to the finished stud. The number of clips used to connect a pair of angle-bars in making a complete stud will depend on the length of stud to be constructed. IVhen assembled, the anglebars stand back to back and with the central body portion of the clips 2 disposed in a plane which approximately bisects both angles. In conjunction with these clips and angle-bars I employ a special form of nailing-block 8 which practice shows to have many advantages. Each nailing-block has a length on one side of the stud equal to the width of the stud measured from the outer lips of the two V-ohannels A, between the lath H, Fig. 3, and has a tongue 3 to fit sidewise in between the channels; the connecting walls at the base of the tongue being flared, as at 3 to lit the taper of that side of the two angles A. To hold a block in place, it is transversely grooved on top or bottom, or both,'as shown at 8, so as to allow the block to be pushed down over the thin edge of a clip 2 or to allow a clip to be driven down into one of these grooves. These blocks are slipped in between the angle-bars while making the studs, and are prevented from coming off by means of the clips engaging in the grooves 8. The blocks may be put anywhere in the length of a stud.
The advantages of a studding construction of this sort are many. By using a V-shaped channel-bar, as here shown, and pointing l i the channels in opposite directions, with the clips at the apexes of the channel-bars, the wire lathing when laid against the sides of the studs bridges the opening in the angles, and when the mortar is applied to thelathing the mortar can enter the channels of the uprights to form a perfect bond. Heretofore in metal partitions the vertical members of the studs have generally been made of comparatively heavy, expensive channeliron, and with these channel-irons placed with their flat surface to the wire lathing. The result was that the bond. of the plaster ing in such places is broken in vertical lines, and itis usually along these lines where the studs come, that the plastering cracks. In my construction of angle-bar studs, the plaster can pass into the V-channels and fasten on to the back of the wire lathing where the stud comes, just as it does between the studs. Also by placing the angle-bars back to back, as here shown, the span of lath is reduced, affording greater stiffness to the lath. Also, by my construction of V-shaped channel-bars disposed back to back and separated from one another, the interior space in a 2 in. stud is increased approximately of an inch. Usually in a 2-1- in. stud where ordinary inch channels are used and placed so that the channels are at right angles to the connecting clip, the space between the channels is only one inch, which often is insufficient for the running of pipes, wires, etc., in the building. Furthermore, by my improved V-channel I construct the studding of one-half the weight of ordinary channel studding, thereby decreasing the cost, besides rendering the studding lighter and easier to handle and much more rigid. The rigidity given to my studding enables it to resist lateral pressure thrown against the partition. Heretofore the difficulty has been to get a studding which would not twist when subjected to lateral thrusts or strains. My studs are rigid and straight under all ordinary conditions of handling, and do not bend. With ordinary channel studs, the studs, being heavy, will bend considerably when lifted and set upright, especially with high ceilings, and such studs have to be braced to keep them upright and parallel, and prevent their buckling or bend-' ing while the lathing is put on. With my light, stifl' angle-iron bars formed in the manner here shown, they, need no such bracing, and they are stiff and rigid like a truss structure. Furthermore, thereis no need of splicing sleeves where two pieces of studding are put together, because my anglebars will telescope and interlock with each other, as represented at 9, Fig. 8. Also, this type of angle-bar stud permits the passing of the upper end of the stud through the ceiling without slitting the lath; a simple blow by a hammer on the end of the two angle-bars of the stud pinching the ends together to form a knife-like wedge, as represented at 10, which can be easily thrust up through the ceiling lath and support the upper end of the stud when erecting partitions. In order to support the studs in alinement along the floor in erecting partitions, the bottommost clip may be notched on its under side, as represented at 11, so as to straddle a channel-bar l2 nailed to the floor.
The nailing-blocks 3 of this invention are important features, since these blocks can be put 011 in the factory and the complete assembled stud with blocks in position sent out to the building wherein the partition is to be erected. Having the blocks already in place on .a stud prevents the stud being jarred or shaken out of alinement, as frequently occurs with the common type of studs in which the blocks have to be nailed on after the studs are erected. In this case there is no nailing necessary after the studs are set up. The blocks may be of any length and shifted to any position so as to adapt them to picture-molds, baseboards, and the like. The faces of the blocks are substantially flush with the mouths of the channels and with the lathing thereto attached, and as they project on each side of the plane of a stud they give a good offset to the stud where nailed to bucks for doors or frieze lights; the offset of half an inch or more, represented at 13, facilitates the lathing and the tying of the lath to the stud where it comes close to the bucks. In actual construction this is a very important feature.
In Fig. 9, I have shown the invention adapted for wall furring, in which a bracket 2 developed from the clip 2 is made to support an angle-bar A at one end, while the other end of the clip is slitted and spread out to form legs 6 which are nailed or otherwise secured to the wall or other suitable support. The ofi set of the furring supporting bar A from the wall is regulated by the length of the bracket 2. Nailing-blocks may be placed in behind the bar A and permanently held in place when the brackets 2 are nailed to the wall.
For runner-bars or furring supports in the ceiling, I may employ the same anglebar A gripped by the oppositely bent prongs of a hanger 2, the opposite end of the hanger being slitted, so as to embrace an I- beam or other overhead support 14. The disposition of the wall furring-bars A and of the ceiling runner-bars A with the open ing of the angle outward, afiords the same substantial support to the lathing and insures a good bond of the mortar, just as first described in connection with the partition construction.
In all of these cases of partition, wall or ceiling construction using a bar with V- shaped channels the mouth of the channel Y is exposed to and the edges of it support the lathing, so that the mortar, when applied to the lath, may pass in behind the latter and into the channel groove and become firmly anchored, so that there is a uinform key of plaster over the entire area.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Pat ent is- 1. In building constructions, the combination with a suitable metal lath, of a support therefor, said support including a channelbar with the mouth of the channel exposed to the lathing and supporting it, a supporting clip having oppositely bent prongs embracing the edges of the mouth of the channel, and a nailing-block fitting in behind the latter and held in place by a clip, and the face of said block flush with the lathing.
2. In building construction, a pair of channel-bars placed back to back and spaced from one another, a connecting clip having oppositely bent prongs embracing the edges witnesses.
of the channel-bars, and nailing-blocks inserted in between the clips and channel-bars, said nailing-blocks having their faces flush with the mouth edges of the channels.
3. In building construction, a V-shaped channel-bar, a supporting clip therefor, the clip having prongs bent to embrace the edges of the channel-bar, said clip lying in the plane of bi-section of the channel, and a nailing-block having a reduced end fitting in behind and supported against said channel-bar.
4. In building construction, a pair ofcV- shaped channel-bars placed back to back and separated from one another, connecting clips therefor, said clips lying in the plane of bisection of the channels, and nailing-blocks with reduced ends fitting in behind said channel-bars.
5. The combination with a pair of V- shaped channels placed back to back and separated from one another, of clips standing in the plane of bisection of the channels, each of said clips having oppositely extending prongs at its ends embracing the lips of the channel-bars, and nailing-blocks with reduced ends fitting between the angle-bars, and said blocks disposed between the angle-bars and held in place thereby by the clips fitting grooves in the blocks.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand in the presence of two subscribing JOHN F. MAKOWSKI.
CHARLES A. PENFIELD, PERCY R. STUART.