US 978359 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. S. COOPER.
APPLIOATION FILED JUNE 27. 1910.
Patented Dec. 13,1910.
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. nueus'rus armena coornn, or Los oLrvos, CALIFORNIA.
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specimen of man ramt. Patented Dec. 13, 1910.
Application illed June 27, 1910. Serial No. 569,088.
To all whom it may concern.'
Be it known that I, AUGUSTUS STEIGER Coornn, a citizen of the United States, residing at Los Olivos, in the county of Santa Barbara and State of California, have in-V vented certain new and useful Improvements a in Cementing Wells, of which the following is aspecification.
My invention relates to the art of cementililg wells by which the surface water is cut o and it consists essentially in an improved method and a novel closure as the product of said method; said method and its product involving the use of sulfur, best applied in connection with asphaltum, as I shall hereinafter fully descrlbe.
My method, though embracing some of the general steps o the usual process of cementing with a fluid aqueous mass of 4Portland cement, differs therefrom in such essentials as are necessarily required by the employment of sulfurand asphaltum and these distinctions result not only in a change of the method in certain particulars but 1n decided advantages in the use of these materials, and in the closure formed by their employment.
These advantages are the objects of m invention, and they will hereinafter be fdilly demonstrated by reference to the accompanying drawings, in which are illustrated the several steps of my method, and the product thereof. A V
In these drawings Figure 1V is a sectional view of a well bore showing the initial location of parts and the beginning of the process. Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the condition of affairs when the sulfur and asphaltum are melted and ressure applied to drive lthe liquid mass up etween the casingandthe wall of the well bore. Fig. 3 is a similar view showing the lowering of the casing through the penetrableseal below, while the sulfur and asphaltum are still in a iuid state.- Fig. 4 is a view 4showing the condition when the sulfur and asphaltum are hardened and the closure completed. This view also shows that drilling has been resumed, and it also, illustrates the re-insertion of the hot water circulation when it is desired to remelt the closure and remove Y the casing.
down irmly to form a support or the c'asing. Upon the cobble-stones is placed a well packed body 3 of some material which, while penetrable to the casing, will form a seal around said casing against the passa e' into it of any liquid. In practice, what 1s known as bituminous sand rock, such as is often used for paving streets and sidewalks will serve the ur ose. To revent the heat, the n use o w ich I shall presently describe, from ail'ectin this sealing body I place on top of it a boy 4 of clay, adobe, or similar earth. The supportin cobbles 2, and the overlyin bodies 3 an 4, reach to the height in the re at which it is desired to effect the cementin or closure to shut off the surface Water. then lowered a casing 5 or string of casing and this is suspended above the surface.o the clay body 4 a few feet. From the surface of the well is let down into and through the casing a pipe 6 with a closed bottom which rests on the clay 4; and into this pipe and reaching nearly to its bottom is let an inner pi 7 the lower end of which is open. Sulfur 1n pieces about the size of an eggis then dropped down through the casing 5, forming a mass 8 resting on the clay 4 and rising 1n the casing around the pipe .6 to a properhei ht, I deem it best to use in connection Wit the sulfur, asphaltum 9. This is broken into pieces of about egg-size,wh1ch are drop ed into the casing on top of the' sulfur. lverything being now ready, a stream of water heated to, say 250 F., 1s passed down through ipe 7 and forced up through pi e 6, the clrculation bem indicated by t e arrows, in Fi 2. 'This w1ll melt both the sulfur 8 and t e asphaltum 9, and while in this liquefied state p ressure is applied through the top of the casm to the liquid mass and it is thereb force .out of the casing and up around 1t and fills the space between it and the wall of the bore as shown in Fig. 2; the asphaltum on account of its lesser specific gravity seeking the to of the liquid mass as shown, and 1t will ii l any cracks in the sulfur and revent leaks. 'Now while the sulfur and asp altum are still in liquid state and under pressure, the casing is lowered and by its own weight descends through the clay 4 and the seallng bituminous sand rock 3 until it rests upon the cobble sup ort 2, as shown in Fig. 3. Bein pass ack into the casing when the pressure nto the well-bore is Veo ioo
thus sea ed, the vliquid sulfur cannot 11G 1s relieved, vand the seallng body 3 is fully 'llotected from the heat by the cla body 4..
1e sealing kalso stops lany circu ation @of 'water between'the 'casing and bore, and the sulfur and asphaltum are not disturbed in.
hardening. `Now' the circula-ting heating me- -Y dium'is stoppedand thesulfur and asphaltum may be allowed to cool and harden in` i' coming brittle, when 'it cools.
. moved anddrilll-ing resumed through the casing, which resumption will, as shown in' Fig. 4, remove the clay, the bitumen and the rocks from'the inside of the casing. If. for any reason a mistakehas beenmade in the zone at which the bore should be cemented, t-he string of casing thus used isv not 10st,'for it may easily bef removed by 4 letting down the pipes 7 and 6 again, as
shown in Fig. 4, re'stablishing the circulation of the superheated water and thereby melting the cementing sulfur and asphaltum, whereupon the VVcasing'may be lifted; and, moreover, both the sulfur and vasphaltum may be recovered for use again, as upon Y remelting them,`they will drop down in the well. rlhis `is in decided contrast to the results of cementing a well with Portland cement, which is obviously permanent, resultingin a loss of both casing and the cementitious substances, if, as frequently happens, the judgment of the operator as to the proper zone of cementing is'at fault. 4
With the-Portland cement process, the work must be 'done hastily and,'th'erefore, with questionable precision, because of the quick initial set of the fluid aqueous mass, and, thereafter, one-must wait for two or three weeks for the final set of the cement before resuming drilling, during which delay the employees are usually drawing wages'.l Withmy process there need. be no undue initial haste for the mobilityv of'the melted substances is preserved as long as the liquefying heat is maintained, nor is there the-loss attendant upon a lon wait, because the sulfur and asphaltum w1ll, even under natural conditions. solidify in a day 'or' two; and this ,time may be abbreviated by artificial cooling. y
There yis a further advantage to be' noted in economy due to the fact that sulfur and asphaltum may be easily applied and may be recovered and used again, while Portland cement once used is wholly lost.
Another advantage of the use'of sulfur and asphaltum is that they will liquefy and between said casin y w ll-bore, and, finally, effecting the harden.-
hard'en even ifpetroleum be pnesent, whereas Portland cement is `kept from hardening p or setting by acsmall amount lof oil.; Sulfur and asphaltum will also liquefy and harden even if water be 'presehtibin excess,"-` Having thus -described my invention what I claimas new and desire to secure jby Letters Patent is-.
`1. The method of cementingawells to' ofl' surface Water, which cons A in. placing 1n the bottom of the well-bore" a foundation floy fill-ing; then vlowering into the bore a casingI with its loweropen end separated from-the lsurface of said found-ation; then supplying said casing with sulfur; then circulatmg through the casing a heat-in medium of a temperature to melt .the suliimthen when the sulfur is melted applying pressure sufficient to drive it out of the casin yand up 0` and the wa of the ing of the sulfur-by cooling.
' 2.v The method -ofcementing wells to shut off surface water, which consists in placing in the bottom of the well-bore a foundation filling; then lowering into the borea casing with its lower openjend separated from the surface ofsvaid foundation; thenfsupplying said casing `with sulfur; then supplying the casing withl -asphaltum resting on the sulfur; then circulating through the casing a heating mediumrof a temperature to melt.
the sulfur and asphaltum; then `when the sulfur and asphaltum are melted applying pressure-sufficient to drive them out of the casing and up between said casing and the wall of the well-bore;iand, finally, effecting the hardening yof the sulfur and `asphaltum by cooling.
'3. The method of'cementing wells to shut off surface water, which consists in placing in the bottom'of the well bore, a sealing body penetrable to the casingl but impervious l to liquid; then lowering into .the bore a casing with itslower open end separated from the surface of said sealing body; thensupplying said casing with sulfur; then circulating through the casino a heating lmedium of a temperature to mlt the sulfur; then applying pressure to the melted sulfur to drive it out of the casing and up between said casing and the wall of the .well-bore; then while the sulfur is stil-l melted, lowering the casingto cause its lower end to penetrate the seallng body.; and, finally, effecting the hardening of the sulfurby cooling.
4. Themethod of cementing wells to shut in the bottom of the well bore a sealing body penetrable to the casing but impervious to liquid; then lowering into the borea casing with its lower open 'end separated from the surface of said sealing body; then supplyingl volf surface water, which consists in placing with asphaltum above the. sulfur;
ing medium of a temperature to melt the -surfur and asphaltum; then applying pressure to drive the melted sulfur and asphaly ing said sealing body with a body of ma- 4 of the sulfur by cooling.
terial also penetrable to the casing, to form a rotection against heat for the sealing bo y; then lowering into the bore a casing with its lower open end separated from the surface of said protecting body; then supplying `said casing with sulfur; then circulating through the casin a heatin medium of a temperature to me t'the sul ur; then applying pressure to the melted sulfur to drive it out of the casing and up between vsaid casing and the wall of the well-bore; 'then while the sulfur is still melted, lowering the casing to cause its lower end to penetrate the sealmg body and its protecting covering; l and, -finally, effecting the' hardening 6. The method of cementing wells to shut olf .surface water, which-consists in placing in the bottom of the well-bore a; bituminous body penetrable to the casing to form a seal for said casing when lowered; then covering said sealing lbody with a' body of material also penetrable to the casing, to form a pro` tection against heat for the sealing body;
i then lowering into the bore aI casin wlth vvits lower open end separated from t e surface of said protecting body; vthen su plying said casin with sulfur; then supp ying the casing wit asphaltum above the sulfur; then circulatin t rough the casing a heating medium o a temperature to melt the plu 'walof the bore.
sulfur and a haltum; then a l in ressure to driveslthe melted sulfuiparid shaltum out of the casing and up between said casing and thewa-ll of the well-bore; then while the sulfur. and asphaltum are still melted, lowering the casing7 to cause its lower end to penetrate the sea in body and its protecting coverin and, nally, eiecting the hardening of t e sulfur and asphaltum by cooling. 7 A closure for well-bores to shutol' sur-l face water, comprising a casin in the bore, a surrounding sulfur-plug an a surrounding asphaltum-plug on top of the sulfursaid plugs cementing the casing to the 8. A closure for Well-bores to shut olf surface water, comprising a casing in the bore; a sealing body surrounding its ower end and closing the space between it and the wall of the bore, and an overlying sulfur plug surrounding the casing and cementing it to the wall of the bore.
9. A closure for well-bores to shut oil.' surface water, comprising a casing in the bore; a sealing body surrounding its ower end and closing the space between it and the wall of the bore, an overlying sulfur plug surroundin the casing and cementing it to the wall ofgthe bore and an asphaltum plug overlying the sulfur-plug.
10. A closure for well-bores to shut of surface water, comprising a casing in the Y bore; a bitumen seal around the lower end of the casing; a heat-protecting body above said seal; a sulfur-plug surrounding the casing and cementing it -to the wall of the bore and van asphaltum plug overlying the sulfur- Plug- In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specication in the presence ot' two subscribing witnesses.
AUGUSTUS STEIGER COOHER.
D. S. BRAN'r, M. P. HOURIHAN.