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Publication numberUS978368 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 13, 1910
Filing dateMar 6, 1909
Priority dateMar 6, 1909
Publication numberUS 978368 A, US 978368A, US-A-978368, US978368 A, US978368A
InventorsHoward Grubb
Original AssigneeHoward Grubb
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for sighting objects from protected positions.
US 978368 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Patented Deo. 13, 1910.


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` APPLICATION FILED MAR. 6. 1909. y 978,368. Patented Dec. 13, 1910.





V APPLIUATION I'ILED MAR.6,1909. 978,368.` Patented Dec. 13, 1910.



.978368 i Patented Dec..13, 1910.



Patented Dec. 13, 1910.




` Application led March 6, 1909. Serial No. 481,715.

To all lwhom tt may concern:

Be it known that l, Hoiviiiio Gnt, knight, a subject of the King of Great llritain and Ireland, residing at Rathiniiies,

Dublin. lieand, have invented Improve-I .ments in Apparatus tor 'Sighting ObJectsI `For this purpose the device or instrument embodies a. series of prisms or reflectors and lenses, or prisms and reectors and lenses,` and is so constructed that by manipulation of an appropriate part, the said prisms or reflectors or both and the lenses can be arranged in a system or combination .which Will permit' the instrument at one time tobe used as a telescope and changed in a practically instantaneous manner into a system or combination for use at another time as, what Will `for `brevity be hereafter called, a eriscope or vice versa.

` The e ect of manipulating the device or instrument so that it is changed from one luse to another, may in some cases alter the i' point of vision of the observer butin such 4an instance the .eye piece or multiple eye the change aforesaid.

pieces used or are mounted in a carrier whichautoniatically alters in position with U The invention consists in various novel features of construction and in various com'- 45-ibinations and arrangements of parts all as .hereinafter more particularly described :ind

pointed 'outin the claims. i

In the accompanying .illustrative draw- `ings, Figure 1 is a front elevation `and '2a vertical section on the line A A'of Fig. 1, withP parts removed showing one construction of instrument embodying tlieinveiition, the instrument being in the condition for use asa telescope. Fig. 3 is a cross `section taken on the line B- B of Fig;I 1.' Fig. 4 is' a viewsiinilar lto Fig. 2 but with the parts altered-in position.l to enable the instriinient to be used as a periscope. Figs..

5 and 6 are views corresponding to Figs. 2 and 4 respectively showin@ another construction of instrument according to the inveii4 tion. Fig. 7 is a part elevation and part central vertical sect-ion of a further moditied forni otl instrument arranged for Vuse as a telescope, Fig. 8 is a rear elevation of the upper portion of the instrument, Fig'. 9 is an inside elevation o f part of Fig. 8

'reiiioved, Fig. l0 is a view corresponding to Fig. 8 after removal of the part illustrated in Fig. 9, Fig. 11 i s a horizontal section taken adjacent to the pivotal axis of the supplementary object glass, and Fig. 12 is a partial view corresponding to Fig. 7,show' ing the movable parts of the instriiiiient in altered positions. Fig. 13 is a part sectional elevatioii of a further modification and '.Fig. 14 is a plan of part of Fig. 13.

The device or instrument shown iii Figs. l to 4 inclusive comprises a tube a (intended to embrace any appropriate composite tubular structure) which, in the case of say a barbette protected gun, is or may be connected to the ordinary' sight mounting of the latter, and extendfivertically to a suitable height above the barbette. At the upper end of this tube a, which is of a diameter siitlicieiitl to allow of the use therein of anappropriate telescopic objective I), 'is mounted a right angled prism c, with, in this case, a reflection in a vertical plane, which can, if desired, be variously directed by turning the said tube about its longitudinal or other axis in any usual way. At the lower end ofthe tube o and arranged Within acarrying box l to onelside thereof, may beeitlier a single prism with twoiiiternal Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Dec. 13, 1910. 'I

reflections, or, as shown, two prisms e, f with one reflection each, in a horizontal4 plane, which, together with the prism c at the upper veiid .of the tube and :i similar prism g, with a single reflection in .a vertical plane, adjacent to the prism or prisms e, f, fulfil, when in the position shown in Figs. 1,2 and 3, the conditions of anioi'dinary prismatic eye piece adapted-in con- 'junction with the intei'medi'ately disposed object glass 1;,m'prodiice an image upon one h of a pair of what areherein termed Wire plates li, li); mounted on the lfacer d1 ofthe y prism box I at the lower end of the ltube a,

where it' is viewed by an ordinary positive eye piece fz', the whole constituting a sighting telescope giving erect images. The expression wire plate Vis intended to embruce any suitableisupport for interseetingv filaments such as :ire variously employed in sighting instruments. The tower prisin g 'is ."ii'pzihle of being moved about the artis of .the tube a relatively to the. prism or prisms e, I say through en sngle'oit 180, so that .the nuage can he directly other h1 oi the pair o'wire plates, es will.

"ormed upon the be ltpparent from liiv. et, the iict of changing the position of the inovziiile prism, g

- ject vg ject glass 5 andthe' u ,per prism c and to' use in iront of tlie'upper' prismjso es. to

to the periscopi'o combination, and which servin'p4 also to interposea ,supplementary oi ess y between the lower-or main obbring e periscopic nozz e into position for adaptv the instrument for use as e lperiscope (Fig. 41)... w i

. In the rexariiy iie,'the lower movable prism g is mounted within e. tube m rotatable with in the `main tube a and vezitending.suili-cicntly -far to carry the telescope' objectglass a circular or. segmental externally .toothed'rack n. and an internally' screw threaded collar nl. The supplementary' object lglass j pertaining serves, as heretofore, to vrender the rays 'issuing from it parallel or nerly parallel to each other, is -hinged to the outer or main tube a of the device or instrument, as at'j,

so that it can" he moved into operative posi-, .tion within and across the tube a, or be fold- -ed buck intoaii inoperative position within.'

a pocket aldesigned for its reception, while vthev periscopic nozzle k, which is or vmay be -yn'ovidech as: usual, with a short focus 0i' iiewfoi'ming lens k und a'condcnser 7a2 on which an image of. the View is it'ornied,.1s

' mounted upon a hood or cylinder 0 capable ot' heilig rotated on the outer or' main tube a and provided with a window 01 which occupies a position opposite tol tlie` upper prism c when the periscopic nozzle is not'in use, s ee Fig. 2. rihis hood or cylindenp serves as a cover to keep dust or Water/out of the instrument.. The inner tube mof the instrument is provided With means, such asa .spindle m1, which passes through the bottom ofthe prism. box fl atthe lower 'end of the.

outer or main tube a and carries a handle m2 by-which it can be turned, the motion of rotation serving to impart axialniovenient to anut p which'is vexternallyscrejv threaded to engage the internal screw thread' of the colla-r nl before referred to. This nut 1f isv prevented from .rotating by the engagement ofa fork 721 thereon with a spindle g having two'pinions g2g?, one of which, viz.' Q1, en-V gagesthe'exteriorly toothed rackn and the other, viz; q2, .an internally toothed rack 0?'. formed upon the'rota-teblehood or cylinder o of the instrument," rThe arrangement is lsuch that as the inner tube 'm isrotated, the nut p .controiled thereby causes ineens, such as im angle piece-p? .with which it is prov offense vided, to effect movement, through a suitable iinger, j?, of the supplementary object glass 'y' for the peiiscope, to place the sameinopl erative .or inoperative position at the Same time that the rack iin-d'. pinion 'arrangement edects corresponding positioningot' the periscopic nozzle 7r. With vsuch an instrument three eye pieces z .ot various powers might be employed hinged to' a carrierr1so that they ca n be iridividimllybrought into use either whenthe instrument is being used as a tele' sco e Fi s. l end 2 or as ai erisco e Fie.`

el), the 'carrier r1 being mounted to slide -inY guides r2 helow the wire plates It, i of` the prism hoi; (Z and provided with e; rack S-engagedghy a pinion sf vugliionthe spindle m1 of the inner tube m so that' when,changing4 the' voptical combination, the 'center :it which any eye piece z' can be placed, is altered from one wire plete/t or h1 to the other.

ift-he usel ot multiple eye pieces be con?` sidered iindesirableon nccountot the time. occupied in changing'from one-to another, e singleeye piece in the form-ot apancratic day eye piece t, such es shown in Figs. 5 and- 6,iney 4be employed.,1 with automatic adjust-ff nient for focus with varying powers, as coinnionly -used'in gun direct'ingtelescopes. In

this case, as theeyepiece t re-inver'ts the images, it is' necessary that the position of the lower movable prism g andthe position of the eye piece Currier t1 'shall be reversed as compared with vthe prism and eye-piecey position shown in the. previous example, so that the light Irays fromf-'an Vobject 'being sighted will be. transmitted directly into the eye pieceif when the instrument is usedns a telescope. (Fig. 5)-, and .transmitted indirectly by the inverting prism or prisms@ when used as a' periscope (Fig. 6), all' as will be apparent from an inspection ofFigs.

5 and 6.

According to a further inod'ication, wherein a pancratic eye-piece is employed. the erecting prismatic arrnngement e f shown at the lower end of the instrument in Figs. 5 and G may be dispensed with and a-set of small erecting prisms c1. be subf stituted in front oi: the view forming lens ing shown provided for this purpose with a rack m3 operated from the spindle/m1 lnst'eadl of' throught-he gear wheels m4.- nount'ing the hood `carrying the -periscope nozzle-to rotate upon the upper end othe tube,;i`t may be arraugedto slide endwise -thereti'njso that the pcriscopic nozzlecan 4be hroug t 'opposite toV the-upperprism or ist ',-moved away from this position, as may be mentary object glass and connections.

In the constructional example of a modification of the arrangement last referred to, shown in Figs. Y to 12 inclusive of the drawings, a as before, is the main tube, the telescope object glass, c the upper prism, g the lower prism,` which latter is stationary, and t the pancratic eye piece. ,ln this respect the telescope combination (Fig. 7) is the same as that described with reference to Fig. 5 except that the wire `late is not incorporated in' the eyepiece lint ,is fixed in the nozzle l? into which the evepiece is screwed. The wire plate may thus Vbe said to be fixed in position with regard to the eyepiece. Wvhen a periscopic view is dcslred, a negative lens combinatmn u 1s arranged in front of the upper prism c, the cell of the lens combination being'secnred to a sliding plate u1 which is slotted at u2 and arranged to move in guides n3 formed in a front plate u detachably fixed to the hood o which, in this instance, is stationary.

01 is the glass window of the hood 0. o 1s a pinion the .pivot of which 1s carried by the front plate u, and 'v1 is a rack mount- -ed upon the sliding plate 'at for operating the pinion o. o2 isa segmental rack engaging the pinion o and secured to the pivot of?,A the supplementary object glass j. The inner tube m of the instrument in lieu of being rotatable is mounted to slide longitudinally within the tube a being, for this purpose, provided with a rack fw engaged by a segmental rack w1 adapted to be moved to a definite angular extent by a handle 21,2 having a spring controlled locking catch ac3. The sliding plate u1 is provided with a driver u/ engaging a slot in the tube m, so that movement of the said tube m is transmitted to the sliding plate u1. a? is a slot in the tube a to permit the driver n.5 to operate, and m2 are cut away portions in the tube my to permit it toclear the supports of the object glass 'o and the supplementary object glass .j as the latter moves into and out of' its pocket fr.

The use of a negative lens combination such as u results in the formation of a virtual image instead of the actual image of a positive combination and obviates the necessity 'of employing inverting prisms, the arrangement being such that when the handle w2 is lowered from the position shown in` Fig. 7 to the position shown in Fig. 1Q, the sliding plate al is correspondingly elevated to bring the lens combination u in front of the prism c, At the same time, the rack o1 has rotated the pinion 1,' and caused the segmental rack o2 to move the supplementary object `glass j .from its pocket a into its position across the tube a.. lf desired, a wiper comprisingl say a strip y/-of india-rubber or other suitable material, mounted a holder 11/1 that has a handle y2 and is mounted to slide in guides "y" may be arranged in front ofthe front plate u so that by moving it up and down between the limits indicated by Figs. 7 and 1Q. the window 01 in the hood Io can be cleaned if it becomes wet or soiled. yt' is a sprinpr catch by means of which the wiper can be held in its uppermost position i'f required. ln this example it. will be seen that every portion of the optical combination which constitutesv the telescope iS rigidly and firmly attached to the instrument and incapable of movement one with respect to another and all thc movable parts in which there might be a possibility ot' mechanical loss or error in position are used only in connection with the naked eye viewing condition of' the instrument, which is therefore particularly applicable for sighting purposes.

The instrument is constructed in an almost air tight manner and can be desicc'atcd bc't'ore assembly of the parts to avoid any possibility o'tE internal dewing.

'What I claim isz- 1. Sighting apparatus comprising optical elements and means lfor arranging such elements in different. orders to enable the apparatus to be used at one time as a telescope and at another time as a periscope.

2. Sighting apparatus comprising stationary optical elements common to a telescopic optical system and to a periscopic optical system, movable elements for completing the periscopic system and means for alternately bringing the said movable elements into and out of operativev relationslLip with the stationary optical elements. y

3. An instrument for sighting obJects from protected positions, comprising a tubular structure having a view orifice at its exposed end and a viewing orifice at its other end, a reflecting prism opposite each of said orifices, a telescopic objective between said prisms, a supplementary object glass adapt.- ed to be brought into an operative position between the telescopic object glass and the prism of the view'orifice and to be moved into an inoperative position. a lens carrier adapted to be brought opposite the prism of the View orifice and to be removed therefrom, and means for simultaneously bringing the supplementary object glass into the operative position andmoving the lens can Erier opposite the View orifice of the tubular from protected positions, comprising a tubu lar structure'having a View orifice atits exposedeiid and a viewing orice at its Other end, a reflecting prism opposite each of said orices, a telescopic objective be tween said prisms a supplementary object` glassy adapted to be brought into an operative position between the telescopic objectv glass and the prism of the `View orice and to bemoved into an inoperative position, a' lens carrier adapted to be brought oppo site the prism-'of the view oritice and tobe removed therefrom, aY pancratic day eye piece disposed opposite the viewing orifice,

and means for simultaneously bringing the supplementary object glass into the opera` tive position' and moving the, lens carrier opposite the View orifice ot the tubular. structure and for simultaneously moving these parts into the inoperativepositions.

5. An instrumentfor sighting objects from protected positions, comprising a tubular structure, a .Second "tubular `structure Within the other ,tubularistructure a telescopic objective mounted Within the inner struct-ure so thatit cannot move endwise, means at theexposed end of the outer structure for reflecting light rays to the viewing end thereof, 4an eye piece at the viewing endof such structure, means or'reliecting light rays `from the interior ot' the instrument into the eye piece, `a carrier movable.

vwith respect to .the ray reflecting meais at( the exposed end of the instrument, a lens combination on Stich carrier, a supplementary object glass between the telescopic objective and the rayretlecting means at the n exposed end of the instrument, means for producing relative movement b'etweeiithe inner and outer tubular structures, and

.means whereby said'inoveinent simultaneously moves the lens combination and sup-v pleinentary object glass into or out of opera-I 56* tive relationship with both ot the said ray reflecting means.- f

G. An instrument for sighting objects from protected positions, comprising an outer tube having'a view: orilice atA its exposed end and a viewingorifice at its other end, a reflecting-prism opposite each of said orifices, a telescopic objective between said prisms, a tube longitudinally movable within the outer tube; means tor moving the v inner tube, ,a guidecarricd by the outer tube,

a carrier movablein said guide, a negative lens combination .mounted von said carrier, 'a supplementary object glass between the telescopic yobjective and ,the prism of the view orifice, means connecting said carrier to -theinnertubetso 'that'it moves in unison i leveeee therewith, and means upon the' carrieritor moving the supplementary object glass into position Within the inner tube simultaneously Y with advancement of the negative lens coniy bination into position opposite the View' orice. i

7. An instrument for sighting objects from protected positions, comprisingr an outer tube having ,a View orice'at` its ex- Within the outertube; means for moving the' I inner tube, a guide carried by the outer tube, 'a carrier movablefin' said guide, a. negative lens combination mounted on said carrier, and adapted to bepositionedin front of tlievvie'w.'` orifice when the instru;

lment is used as a telescope, a supplementary object glass between the telescopic objective and theprisin of the vieworitice, means connectimgl said carrier to the inner tube so that it moves in unison therewith, and means upon the carrier for moving the supplementary object glassA into the said housingy when the inner tube is operated'to remove the negative lens combinationv from-its posin tion opposite the vievv'oriice'in the 'act of converting the instrument into a telescope.

8. In an instrument for, sighting objectsl from protected positions, a tubular structure having a view orifice at the exposed end of the instrument, a glass window protectingsuch orifice and means for W'iping said Winl dowfrom Within the protected position.

9. An 'instrument for sighting 'objects fromv protected positions, comprising en outer tube having al -View orifice at its eX- posed .end and a viewing orifice at its other end. a reliecting prism opposite each of said. orifices, a telescopic objective .between said prisms, a tube longitudinally niovuble with- -fin such outer tube, araclt on 'the inner tube, 'a pinion mounted on the outer tube-engagingr said rack, a. handle outside the outer tube for operating` the pinion, a guide adjacent to the view orifice, a carrier movable in said guide, means connecting said carrier' to. l

tlie inner tubes?. neontive lens combination mounted upon -the carrier, a 'supplementary object ,glass between the telescopic objective and prism 'at they view orifice, a liousiiip` to one side of the outer tube. to'receive the snppleinentary object- .,qlass, a toothed segment connected to such object glass, a mov able with the carrier aforesaid and :i pinion rotatable about a stationary 'for trans mitting 'motion frein the rack ot' the carrier to the toothed-segment ofthe supplementary 4object glass.

.10.` An instrumentv :for sighting objects orifices,

from protected positions, comprising an outer tube having a view orifice at its exposed end and a viewing orifice at its lother end, a reflecting prism opposite each of said a telescopic objective betwcensaid prisms, a tube longitudinally movable within such outer tube, a rack on the inner tube, a pinion mounted on the outer tube engaging said rack, a handle outside the outer tube for operating the pinion, a guide adjacent t'o the view orifice, a carrier movable in said guide, means connecting said carrier to the inner tube, a negative lens combination mounted upon the carrier, a supplementary object glass between the telescopic objective and prism at the view orifice, a housing to one side of the outer tube to receive the supplementary object glass, a toothed segment connected to such object glass, a rack movable with the carrier aforesaid, a pinion ro` tatable about a stationary axis for transmitting motion from the rack of the carrier to the toothed segment of the supplementary object Glass and a pancratic day eye piece disposed at the viewing orifice of the instrument.

Signed at Dublin this lFebruary 1909.

HOWARD .GRUBR vWitnesses:

Rpiimoy R. GRUBB, FREDK. E.4 LADD.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2437032 *Aug 9, 1945Mar 2, 1948Edward K KaprelianVariable field range and view finder
US3463567 *Dec 12, 1966Aug 26, 1969Leitz Ernst GmbhPanoramic telescope
US4621893 *May 17, 1985Nov 11, 1986The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmySatellite optical scan device
US5128803 *May 7, 1991Jul 7, 1992Wegmann & Co. GmbhCombat vehicle with a hatchway in its armored roof and including a system of periscopes
US6604316 *Sep 16, 2002Aug 12, 2003Bryan A. CusterOffset attachment for use with a firearm scope
Cooperative ClassificationG02B23/08