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Publication numberUS980480 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 3, 1911
Filing dateDec 17, 1908
Publication numberUS 980480 A, US 980480A, US-A-980480, US980480 A, US980480A
InventorsWilliam A. Bishop
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for the construction of buildings.
US 980480 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



4 SHEETS--SHEET 1 I! I Y U )mwmw Wi hwaoeo W. A. BISHOP.



Pmfientedd'an. 1911.




1 APPLICATION FILED DEG-17,1908. gm zwg Patented 3an.3,1911. 4 SHEETSBHEBT 3.

m 1 1 i :6? F f t 1. G J rww. I ,1 O O O O Q Z i 7 mw 1 W. A. BISHOP. METHOD FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDH IGS.


\ Patented Jan. 3., 1911.


3mm" for employ as part of my system, are arranged alsov the floor is similarly't'ormed, as well as fireproof envelop.

section on the line OFFICE.




Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented J an. 3, 1911.

VIIVII Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a vertical sec- Application filed December 17, 1908. Serial No. 467,981.

To all whom it may concern: Beat known that I, \ViLLi'Ait A. BISHOP, a

Citizen of the United States of America, residing at the city of Xewark, in the county i of Essex-and State of New Jersey, have inl vented a new and useful Improvement in] Methods for the Construction of Buildings, 1 of,which the following is a s ecification. l

My improved method 0 building construction contemplates. the employment of! standardizing features resulting in greater economy by reason of the'continuous reemployment of standard forms and also involves the use of standardized elements which act as -forms.

In carrying my invention into effect, I forms which to be clamped together a proximately at the floor line and around the supporting pillar and which by their means of adjustment.- afi'ord spaces for setting longitudinal molds or troughs in which I cast the concrete girders; as a part ofny system I block.

'portii'ig hooks the floor beams. Secondly I have evolved a method of forming supporting pillars which consists essentially of an exterior part made of component blocks or sections, constructed of high class fireproofing'concrete and pro vided with acentral opening around which is located metallic reinforce-pieces, prefer ably formed in the shape of rings, which blocks, or sections, when placed oneabove the other, will provide .a continuous central opening in which I mold-or cast my inte ral concrete supporting pillars of the building, the reinforcing rings becomingrexteri or rings to the said supporting pillars and the blocks, or sections, forming the outside finish and Referring to the accompanying drawings are 1 is a plan view .of a floor of a building, or the part of a floor of a building, made according to my invention.- Fig. 2 is a cross IIII Fig. '1. Fig. 3 is a perspective view of one of my improved bricks, or sections, which I employ in carrying my invention into cfi cct. iFig. 4 is a vertical section to a larger scale'on the line 1V--I\- Fig. 1. Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a metallic cylindrlcal'reinforce which I employ" at the floor junction; Fig. 6' a above the other. When one of t columns; is set in position upon a suitable. 'found'ation andprop'er'ly leveled, or squared,

plan view upon the-same scale asyFigI t. Fig? is a vertical section on the line.

tion on the line VIIIVIII Fig. 1. Fig. 9 is a perspective View of the clamping parts employed by me in carrying my invention into eli'ect. viewsshowing modifications.

In these drawings, A represents the exte rior shell or envelop of a hollow fire proof cement block, and B metallic reinforcing rings suitably spaced and embedded in .said

turned foot pieces and a vertical row of sup- D struck up therefrom are provided whiclnservc to" space the rings B properly formative state. \Vhen the rings B have been suitably placed and spaced in the spam"- ing hooks D of the strips 0, the cement is formed around same by a suitable mold, not shown, and the interior finish is formed flush with the interior faces of the strips C, the rings B being embedded in the cement shell or envelop A, These hollow fire proof cement blocks are made beforehand and are brought to the building ready-formed and hardened and ready -for use and it is a par't'of my system to devise and employ a series of sizes relating both to the exterior dimensions of the blocks, which, as aforesaid, is merely a shell, or envelop, but more particularly to the interior opening which provides 'means'for the reception of. he final and integral pillar E which pillar becomes the sup'ort proper of the building, or structure, t merely acting as a temporary support for the reinforcing rings and after the pi lar is properly embedded and set therein constituting a fire resisting shell. In carrying iny-iiivention intojefiec ,the exterior shell may be of any shape sofiar as its outside is concerned,- that is to say it'inay be square, round, or in anyiother shape that may be desired which may tend to increase its usefulness as aforesaid, or operate to lend artistic finish to thewholc; but it is to be understood that the pillar proper is the interior integrally formed piece 7 inforcing rin 's.: In Figs. t and 7 I show several of the e hollow blocks su ported, one

fiese hollow I proceed .to; ad ust' my sectimialclampin Figs. 10, 11 and 12 are details while the hollow block is in a 7 being constructed al- 8 e shell, 'or envelop eight sided,

Vertical spacing strips having outlot with the inctallie rea {devideto .bc placed'temporarily at tne top o the column which Sectional clamping device I employ for sustaining the irder forms 5 and floor units. It will be un erstood that when the column formed of hollow blocks is approaching the point where another floor or story is reached,.or to be reached, means must be )rovided for taking care of the said floor an its girders in order that a proper and satisfactory monolithic structure may be effected. I provide in this connection, molding or forming ieces which I term clam s and which are s mum to good advantage in perspective in Fig. 9 of the drawings. These clamps are sectional being formed of corner pieces F and intermediate or filling pieces G; the latter may be varied in width, or shape, as occasion may require as shown in Figs. 10

and 11. As I have shown it here, there are four corner pieces F and four complementary intermediate or'tilling pieces G. These parts are adapted to be shifted vertically i relatively to each other and to be securely locked when so shifted, as will be explained.

In the utilization of this clamp, I secure it tightly around the column formed as herein,

before described at the top thereof when saidcolumn has reached the height. of the succeeding floor or ceiling; If the pillar or column is in the interior of the building and the girders are to be supported from it in four different directions, the intermediate pieces G are to be lowered sufficiently to accommodate. the reception of these girders and are to be bolted tofche contiguous members F of the clamp accordingly. If the column or pillar isupon the side of the building and the girders are to be supported from it in three directions, the intermediate pieces G are modified in their position accordingly, and if the column or pillar is at the corner of the building and the girders are to be supported by the said column or pillar in only two directions, the clamp is so arranged that only two of the members G are arranged in their lower position; this will also be explained. Also in carrying my invention into effect, I utilize the members F of the clamp in such a manner that they can be adjustedto provide for the floor space. That is to say, they can be lowered to an extent corresponding to'the depth of the cement floor to be employed; this will'also be explained; but the clamp as awhole, with its method of adjusting its members. lends itself to the depth and thickness of the girders, to the depth of the floor and also adapts itself in other ways as will be explained. In carrying my invention into effect also I employ a system of struts H which serve to support these clamps in their proper position and which. are intended to be kept in place uutil f the clamp has served its purpose and is ready for removal. Referring to Fig. 4, these struts are shown in position. They maybe made of any suitable material. and are .in

! tended to be used over and overfigain u on floors of the same height without modi cation of their dimensions. At the upper end of the struts H I provide beveledwedges I, J. These beveled wedges facilitate the re moval of the struts u on the top of which they are mounted and provide an aid for leveling the column clamps F, G. As before stated, these column clamps F, G are to be employed when the girders and floor are to be constructed and they are placed at the.

top of the particular pillar or column and are extended to at least. the depth of the girders as shown in Fig. 4, the clamps proper F, and the filling pieces G being adjusted and bolted securely together according to the number of girders radiating from the particular point or pillar and making allow-- ances also for the depth of the floor as may be required and as will be explained. When theclamps are adjusted to their roper position and securely. bolted, the gir or forms or troughsK are placed in position thereon. These latter are formed of metal and rest in the pockets provided. by the open spaces shownin Fig. 9, and extend from one pill'ar or column to another and they are adapted to receive the plastic cement which is to form the girder and to retain and su port t e same until it is properly set and ried. Such-aigirder is shown. as M. When the girder is properly-set and dried, and at any i time thereafter, and upon the removal of the column clamp, the trough K can betaken away leavin the girders ro er com lete and exposed These troughs K hre prov ided with right angle reinforcing corner K at the bottom and with ri ht angle edges N extending at right angles t erefrom which ledges are intended to support the floor forms, 0. These floor forms 0 may be made of lates any suitable material and are arranged to extend from girder to girder, string ieces or form supports P being employed mtermediate of the girders which extend along and at the bottom ofzthe bea'm formin grooves R. These grooves or channels traverse the floor space at proper intervals and are arranged-between units or'sections of the floor forms. Downwardly extending edges Q of the fioor units restupon the vany adjusted position. In order to provide ,ride means for securely locking theparts to l l l l forms for the upper part of the girders of the outer walls. plates K are secured to corner clamping pieces I, by means of bolts passing thi one-h the holes S. A cement strut oot block is shown at'U. Reinforcing rods are shown at Y and X. At. \V 1 show a "fpet-L-d section of metallic reinforce which {amt-s in skeletonv form and which is employed within the clamp form's;

When the first floor is completed, the struts on the second and succeeding floors are footed on the previously made concrete block of the same thickness, as the proposed tloor. This block ests on thetopof the column clamp and remains in and becomes part otthc lloor itself. it is provided with a groove or corrugations on its sides to prevent its slipping through the finished tloors after the column clamps are remm'ed. \Yhen the forms are in place, the reinforcing rods shown may be employed or any system of reinforcing f or both floors and girders may be placed inthe forms in the usual manner.

The special section of the block reinforcing placed in the mold formed bytheicolumn clamps may act as the anchorage 'for the girder reinforcing ro'ds the latter being fastened to the reinforcing rings to keep them (the rods) in position. hen the hollow block columns aretilled with concrete and tamped and when the line of the bottomofthe girders is reached, the concrete is continued over girder and beam forms up to the top of the floor level and the entire floor is smoothed and floated as the work advances, the process being continuous from one end or side of the lmilding to the other. -\Vhen one fioo'ror 7 section thereof is sutlicicntly set to hold its own weight, the forms are removed 'rom below by knocking out the strut wedges and removing the struts and unbolting and removing the..colunin clamps, thus allowing the girder and floor forms to be lowered and removed. They may then be used again on the next floor or part of the same floor, or in another structure. y i .The column clamps are preferably made of cast iron ith the joining surfaces machined or ground true. gether by ordinary machine bolts. corner pieces are interchangeable and 'suitable for any size column in conjunction with filler or side pieces of suitable width. These tiller or side pieces may be made of yarious widths to suit different size columns or may be in two or more unit sections bolted together-side by side. They may be raised or lowered in relation to the corner pieces so as to provide for different depths of girder. The column clamps are of such dimensions as to allow the same length girder forms to he used throughout the buildintr. allowance bring made of a variation of column diameter of 20. This is necessary owing to the They are held a to-. The

the entire floor, filling floor,"

fact that the column sometimes decreases in diameter as the building progresses upward.

The girder forms forshort spans may be made of wood but I prefer to make them of sheet metal reinforced with angles or other suitable shapes. For long girders they may be under-trussed to prevent sagging. They may be of any depth within the range of the column clamps (and these may be made of any depth) being adjusted by meansof the unit rows of bolt. holes on even centers. girder forms maybe of any width up to -l less than the side of the square column. A narrow girder may be built with a large column by usingsu'itable filler blocks along.

rest in the clamps. The floor and floor beam forms may he of either wood or metal and of suchwidt'h and length (preferably units) as to be easily handled. They may be made close fitting at the top to make an even thickness floor or beams may be formed between them if desired. The column blocks are made ofdense rich fire resisting concrete and the reinforcing rings are cast in them when made, the rings being suitably spaced by means of the metal strips C carrying the spacing hooks D- The rings being endless .weight of metal used. I haveshown them circularin form but they may beof any sec; tion, round," square. flat or twisted. The corner column and intermediate side column blocks are made with the slight indentations .A' on the two adjacent and opposite sides respectively to. form an anchorage for the curtain walls. The curtain walls may be cast as a monolithic slab in place or built up of brick, stoneyterracotta or cement blocks or may be of wood or metal'or stucco. T he) may be placed in position as the work advances or the entire skeleton fran'ie may be The side the ends of the girder forms where they,

give thegreatest tensile strength for the completed and curtain walls erected after such completion.

pillar proper.. is considered, the concrete in the hollow block itself beingonly for fireproofing. for carrying reinforcement and for form purposes, no reliance being placed on the blocks for bearingstrength (although it is obvious that they would have certain bearing capacity) except to support the forms during erection, the entire mass of bearing concrete being inclosedwithin re-- inforcing hoops; this type of columnhas the greatest bearingcapacity per square unit of cross section, 1

The square column clamps asshown in plan view Fig. 6 aresnitable for any colable filler or side pieces G, but it is o Vious that. the hollow blocks and the column clamps may be made of any shape se tion jthe "reinforcing hoops that is to. say, the

umn' of'rcctangular section by u'singfiuitumn forms are nee ed. The floor forms bemg for the most'p'art a collection of units they may be use may then be re-used as the work advances,

desired, round, oval, fluted or fancy. The i blocks whenerected into a column form a clear open form to receive the concrete,- making it easy to throughly ram or-tamp the concrete in place and avoiding all chances of the concrete not filling the entire column solid. The blocks may be .laid up with .cement joints, or allowance may be I made for shrinkage in the column by laying them up loosely and pointing up the joints after the entire concrete mass has set and shrunk. They may be made absorbent or non-absorbent as desired to suit the mixture to be placed within. They may be made 'on the job or in the factory and carried in stock for quick work. They may be made of any mixture desired and of any exterior finish within therange of concrete construction. One advantage of my method herein described is speed in ercction-no waiting for a floor and columns to get strong enough to carry the erectin forms for the next floor; all weight of t 1e first and succeeding floors being carried on the columns themselves and the sup orting struts. No coland of practicall indestructible material, over and over again on differentjobs until worn out. The column clamps and'girder forms being of iron and steel are practically everlasting and may be re-used indefinitely. No sup ortsareneeded for floor or. 'irder forms, the whole being carried by co umns and struts. The-clamps and forms may be removed as soon as the concrete will bear its own weight and they the number of forms uni'tsbeing proportioned'to the speed with which it is desired;

The column blocks imperfect covering is eliminated. They may be subjected to heavy pressureduri'ng process of manufacture if desired.

The difliculty of getting concrete mixtures to flow perfectly around column reinfrcement when such concrete ispla'ced in wooden forms and the ditiiculty of etliciently tamping same is well known and it is of comvmon occurrence in reinforced concrete conf struction that. when the "woodentot-ins are removed it is found that the concrete has J not entirely covered the reinforcement nor filled the forms. It is then necessary to l plaster up these holes and deficiencies when finishing the columns. My reinforced c'oncrcte block columns avoid all this and present a finished surface when-erected, \Vith the block method the architect. engineer and owner are certain that the reinforcement is l in its proper place,'.is accurately spaced and thoroughly protected, as blocks may be ini having struck up hooks D to car 1 weight of metal used. 'This-is'not of reinforcement'is as the greatest banding strength is obtained inn. given weight of metal, and the tendency of the spiral to loosen and unwind when the outer shell is burned 01f, crushedor other,

ith the wood wise removed is well known. When this co 1 cars with the spiral wound reinforcement it is obvious that the column reinforcement is useless.

With thisblock type the entire outer fire proofing shell 'may be removed b any.

lfbe a that of columns constructed in any. other manner. Where great compressive stren h is required and the space limited e metal spacers holding the reinforcing rings may be made of a continuous or pipe'li'ke iece C t e tin or band B as shown in Fig. 12. his t of greater strength than a concrete lled metal pipe as the endless bands'or rings may be perfectly welded (which is notalways possible with pipe) and the metal so distributed to get the greatest efficiency for the ossible with pipe. A great. advantage of this latter method over a solid pipe would be that in case ofshrinkage of the concrete by settin 1 or compressing under a load, the sectiona reinforce pipe would remain an integral part of the whole and would compress with the concrete and still give it the same reinforcement as it had before, whereas the solid ipe would be com elledto assume the whole load with the liability'to buckle. In addition to the foregoing advantages, the concrete fire resisting outer shell is firmly'held in place another adi'antage over placing concrete around the bare pipe.

I. have shown a broken section of column block illustrating reinforced rings in place, also form of spacer used, both skeleton and lbs by the reinforcing rings or bands which is continuous or pipe. I also show details of the cast iron column clampswith reinforc ingfbrackets. unit spaced bolt holes and one sidefilleror side piece. v v

These unit forms may be varied to' suit individualtaste or varying loads. different size girders'fctcx The' reinforcing rings in concrete blocks may be spaced any distance sequence or acts is necessary, or at least deon ceilixrs and maybe of any section metal, they ed not be round. but I show them round its that gives the greatest strength. The fire resisting concrete of which the blocks are made, may be formed of any thickness that is desired. The blocks are preferably cast in units of one foot in height but. may be varied to suit the height of floors if desired. It is possible however to vary the height of the floors by raising or lowering the column clamps on the columns within a reasonable range as a section of the column .is east. as a unit with the floors and girders. This method is not intended toreplacc or displace any special system of distorted rods, wire netting, etc, as any of the known forms of reinforcement may be applied to it and any dimension of reinforcing rods or shapes may be used with it the same as if the ordinary wooden forms were employed. Almost any method of column reinforcement composedof rods and rings may also be used by this method. I

, It will be seen from the foregoing that I have deviscd and brought-into existence, :1 novel method of constructing concrete buildings and the novelty resides artly in the manner of performing certain unetions, but it also consists in the procedure.

It is to be understood" that a certain sirable for the best results, in carrying my invention into effect in the best possible manner. These successive acts may be briefly referred to and described as fol-- lows :1st. Upon any suitable foundation I erect a column of my improved column blocks to the height of one story, preferably using ordinary mortar joints when securing the blocks one upon the other. 2nd. I place at the foot of the column and exterior to the same, the concrete foot blocks. 3rd. I place around the columns and upon the foot blocks, the vertical wooden struts and bind them closely around the column. 4th. I place the cast iron clamps upon the tops of the struts adjusting their position with the wedges and Securely fastening them by bolts. have been adjusted, the girder forms or troughs. 0th. I place the floor for-pi supports upon the ledges of the girder forms. 7th. I then place the floor form units upon the floor form su 'iports. 8th. .[lhen introduce the metallic reinforcing parts consisting of vertical column rods; section of the column reinlorccmcnt. or the cage; the girder and floor reinforcing rods. 9th. I then complete the structure by filling the concrete hollow columns. so as to form the permanent pillar and t.-unp same and at the same time [ill in the girder forms, floor beams and floors up to the level of the These nine sequential steps constitute the cycle of the operation involved 5th. I set in the clamps, after they 'J in my invention and I have found by experience and extensive and practical demonstration that the successive steps as I have just explained, insures the best and most enduring results.

It will be understood that my invention is directed to the most cconon'iical means of assembling the methods which I employ and also, to an'equal extent, contemplating substantial results from the standpoint of strength.

Itwill he seen that the completion of one floor does not depend upon the completion of a floor beneath it, but that the struts may be carried on, up, and through the building to "any height. It will also be seen that immediately upon the completion of any "one floorand upon its drying and setting, the struts and clamps can be removed and taken to another floor and arereiim'ployed. It will also be seen that my system lends itself to the standardization of building construction both as regards the strut and the clamping devices and also as to the sectional fire proof hollow blocks which can be of certain fixed sizesor standard sizes and which are brought into the building ready made. It will also be seen that after the column of hollow blocks has been erected and the clamps, girder forms, floor-units and floor unit supportsand the metallic reinforce parts are in place that one entire floor and its supporting pillars can be cast in one operation and that in drying and setting it will fasten itself to the concrete immediately below it and that as a consequence, the entire building when completed will be a monolithic structure. Also some 'of the parts employed by me, such as the reinforcing steel rods, may be omitted. In some classes of buildings they would not necessarily be a requisite. The shape also of the hollow blocks, in so far as interior cross section is concerned, may be modified and I may use a system of blocks which produce an oblong shaped pillar, or other shapes may be-employed as the case may require.

The finished building is a monolithic skeleton of reinforced concrete having the great est stability and least susceptibility to .vihration of any form of construction known.

A skeleton frame consisting of the column and girders only may be constructed and wooden or other type of floors used.

In so far as the' sequence of operation is The block columns may be used in conjunction with steel girders, etc., by setting tle column clamps and resting the ends 0 gir ers into the column. The columns are no larger in section than any other form of reinforced concrete construction of the same or less ,bearing capacity. There is no limit to height of floors or s acing of columns within the range of rein orced concrete constructionu Having thus described my invention, the

following is what I claim as new therein and desire to secure by Letters Patent:

The method of producing concrete pillars irders therein and casting the ends of sageso WILLIAM A. BISHOP.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2981998 *Jun 2, 1954May 2, 1961Williams Chester IShe-bolt form spacer
US3159898 *Jul 25, 1962Dec 8, 1964Dougherty J JRemovable form for concrete jacket
US3961457 *May 2, 1974Jun 8, 1976Zalewski Waclaw PMethod of building construction
US3975873 *Aug 20, 1973Aug 24, 1976Lely Cornelis V DPrefabricated building sections or room units and methods for their use in erecting buildings
US4060948 *Aug 23, 1976Dec 6, 1977Brownlee Robert OStructural frame for a building
US4104844 *Sep 6, 1973Aug 8, 1978William Clinton ReidMethod of erecting a building construction
US4211045 *Dec 7, 1977Jul 8, 1980Kajima Kensetsu Kabushiki KaishaBuilding structure
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US7874110 *Jan 20, 2001Jan 25, 2011Oliver MatthaeiReinforced or pre-stressed concrete part which is subjected to a transverse force
US8011147 *Apr 30, 2007Sep 6, 2011Hanlon John WBuilding system using modular precast concrete components
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US20040055234 *Nov 27, 2002Mar 25, 2004Hiroshi MutsuyoshiReinforced concrete column or bridge pier
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US20080060293 *Apr 30, 2007Mar 13, 2008Hanlon John WBuilding system using modular precast concrete components
US20090188191 *Jul 30, 2009Martin WilliamsPanelization Method and System
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International ClassificationE04B5/43
Cooperative ClassificationE04B5/43
European ClassificationE04B5/43