US 981311 A
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J. H. RIVERS. TURBINE APPLICATION FILEfi APB. 4. 1910.
Patented Jan. 10, 1911.
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J. H. RIVERS.
TURBINE. APPLICATION FILED APR. 4. 1910.
Patented Jan. 10,1911.
.1. 11. RIVERS.
APPLICATION FILED 11111.4. 1910..
3 SHEETSSHEET 8.
51 556557 I lfrza'ezz Patented Jan. 10, 1911 platted as progressing laterally IE PAINT FIQ.
JULIAN H. RIVERS, OF NIOTAZE, KANSAS, ASSIGNOR TO KAESSMANN-RIVERS DEVEL- OPMENT COMPANY, OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, A CGBPORATION OF MISSOURI.
Application filed April 4, 1910. Serial No. 553,281.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JULIAN II. RIVERS, a
citizen of the United States, residing at Niotaze, in the county of Chautauqua, in the State of Kansas, have invented a pew and useful Improvement in Turbines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to the construction of turbines; and it has for its object the arrangement of complementary shaped surfaces in such machines of such contours as will be better adapted to the expansion of steam than those now in use, as well as much cheaper in construction.
In turbines of the parallel flow type, the steam flows in a cylindrical shell-shaped body or mass which passes to successively larger chambers to allow for expansion;
while in the radial flow type the increase in circumference as the flow passes outwardly through the machine does likewise. But in neither type is the expansion allowed for in the normal manner. If the normal expansion of steam from pressure of, say one hundred pounds, to that of atmosphere be centrally on a fixed axis the contour of the normally expanding flow is of conic or conoidal shape, much resembling that of the bell of a horn; from which it is clear that a conic or conoidal form of the complementary acting surfaces in a turbine will, from its shape alone, allow for the expansion of the steam in a normal manner in its lateral progress through the machine. T o avoid the expense of attaching vanes to these surfaces I form the surfaces of the interior and exterior c0- noids themselves into series of alternating grooves and ridges arranged spirally, with those of the interior cone or conoid opposingly developed to those of the exterior cone or conoid, the conic or eonoid shape lending itself readily to such formation by the ordinary opt 'ation of molding and casting.
In the accompanying drawings in which I have illustrated one form of my invention, Figure 1 is a broken plan of a turbine illustrating the opposing grooves and ridges in interior and exterior cones or conoids. Fig. 2 is a sectional view on the line 22 of Fig. l, showing the inlet passages through the exterior conoid. Fig. 3 is a view on the line S of Fig' 1, showing the grooves opening to atmosphtn-c. Fig. 4; is a longitudinal sectional view of the turbine. Fig. 5 is a dia-- grammatic view, the intersecting dotted spiral lines showing the direction of the grooves and ridges in the interior and exterior conoids. Fig. 8 is a view looking into the exterior eonoidal shell. Fig. 7 is a longitudinal sectional view of the exterior shell.
The exterior shell 1, which is of conic or conoidal form, is integral or rigid witha supporting part 2, and may extend through or beyond said part as shown in Fig. 7. The interior surface of the exterior shell contains a series of spiral grooves 3 starting fron'r'the small end and spreading apart uniformly to the opposite or larger end in the manner shown in Figs. 6 and 7. At or near the small end of the shell 1 the inlet open ings I are formed. A housing 5 incloses the protruding end of the shell and forms a chamber into which the steam for the operation of the turbine is admitted, said steam entering the said chamber through an inlet opening 6.
The interior conic or conoidal shell 7, Fig. 4, is attached to a shaft 8 and its exterior surface contains spiral grooves and ridges of opposing development to those on the exterior shell. These grooves and ridges start from the small end of the shell and run spirally to the opposite end, spreading uniformly over the larger surface. The ridges 011 the interior and exterior conoids being opposingly arranged constitute abutments for the steam whereby the interior conoid will be driven as the steam passes outwardly through the machine. The shaft 8 has bear ings 9 and a powertransmission pulley 10.
In operation the steam is admitted through the pipe 6 tangentially intothe chamber or steam chest 5, thence by the converging tangential parts 4, impinging upon the ridges of the rotor 7; striking obliquely part of its force is expended in driving the rotor 7 andpartin causing a rebound toward the large end of the machine, the expansion likewise tending to drive the steam forcibly toward the large end, and such steam as tends to follow the grooves of the rotor, in its out ward course expansively engages the ridges in the stator, and vice verst'. Thus by proportioning the size o'f the inlets 4 and the large and small diameters of the engaging surfaces of the rotor 7 and stator 1, I are enabled to admit steam of sutlieient quantity at a stated pressure to employ it continuously and expansively until its entire force is exhausted and it reaches atmosphere.
I am aware that there may be many variations in the construction and arrangement of the parts, and in the manner in which they are assembled, without departure from the spirit and scope of the invention. I do not restrict myself to specific features or arrangement, nor to the utilization of steam or any particular motive fluid pressure for driving the-turbine, but
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is- 1. A turbine comprising conic surface acting members telescoped one within the other, oppositely developed ridges on the adjacent surfaces of said members, and means for admitting steam into the exterior conic memher tangentially to the ridges thereon, substantlal 2. A turbine comprising an exterior conic y as specified.
member having interior spiral ridges, an in terior conic member within said exterior member and having spiral ridges developed oppositely to the said ridges on said exterior member, lnlet passages through said exterior member tangentially to said ridges on said interior member, and a steam chest inclosing said inlet passages, substantially as specified.
' 3. In a turbine, an exterior conic member having interior spiral ridges starting from the smaller end and spreading apart uniformly to the opposite end, in combination with a rotary member within said conic member, and inlet passages opening through said exterior member tangentially to the having a conical chamber, spiral ridges on the inner wall of said chamber starting from the smaller end and spreadlng apart uniformly to the opposite end,.in combination .wlth a rotary conical member within said chamber, spiral ridges on said conical member starting from the smaller end and spreading apart uniformly to the opposite end, and inlet passages opening into said piston casing tangentially to the ridges on said conical member, substantially as speci- In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
. JULIAN H. RIVERS.
FRANKLIN MILLER, .J. D. RIPPEY.