US 983363 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
MARTIN HARDSOCG, OF OTTUMWA, IOWA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed April 8, 1907.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, MARTIN Hannsoco, a citizen of the United States, residing at Ottumwa, in the county of Wapello and State of Iowa, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Pneumatic Mininglrlaehines, of which the following is a speci iication.
The present invention relates more par ticularly to the construction, arrangement and operation of a pneumatic hammer, and a cutting or channeling tool for use in mining coal, but the construction of pneumatic hammer is adapted for use and can be used with a drill or other tool, and for other purposes than cutting channels in mining coal.
The objects of the invention are to improve the construction of the frame of a pneumatic hammer, so as to enable air, or other medium under pressure, to act and operate the hammer, and to be discharged, after operating the hammer, to flow back and not interfere with the operation of the next change of compressed air, or other medium under pressure, in driving the hammer; to construct a frame for a pneumatic hammer with an interior chamber receiving the hammer and the driven stem, and having a flange rcarwardly extending on one side of the barrel, in which flange is located the passages for inducting pressure to the barrel to operate the hammer, and educting pressure from the barrel after the hammer has completed its forward stroke; to construct the frame of a pneumatic hammer so as to provide a central straight barrel with a chamber for the hammer and for the shank or stem of the tool head, and with passages for admitting air, or other medium under pressure, to reciprocate the hammer, and for driving the hammer, allowing the air, or other medium under pressure, to be discharged, so as to leave a perfect clearance in the chamber of the barrel in advance of the hammer; to con- 3 struct a frame for a pneumatic hammer, so
as to furnish a central straight barrel with a chamber therein for the hammer and the stem of the tool, and a flange or extended body with a passage or passages, and a port or ports for admitting compressed air, or other medium under pressure, to the hammer chamber for driving the hammer forward, and with a passage or passages, and a port or ports in the flange for discharging the air, or other medium under pressure, at the forward or striking end of the hammer; to
construct a channeling tool or hit having a stem slidable in the barrel of a pneumatic iammer, and struck by the hammer to operate the tool or bit and cut a channel, in mining coal or other substance or material; to construct a channeling tool or bit that will operate and cut a channel wider than the width of a pneumatic hammer frame for allowing the frame to enter the cut channel to the distance required for cutting outand separating a block or mass of coal, or other substance or material, of the desired dimen sion; to construct a channeling tool or bit having a straight face and an inclined face, and provided at its acting end with cutting points separated by a triangular or V shaped opening; to construct a pneumatic mining machine by which straight channels can be cut to any depth required, and which can be manipulated or operated bya single person without inconvenience or trouble; and to improve generally the construction and operation of the elements entering into the formation of the pneumatic mining machine of the present invention as a whole.
The invention consists in the features of construction and combinations of parts hereinafter described and claimed.
In the drawings Figure 1 is a side elevation of a pneumatic hammer and a tool or bit for cutting a channel; Fig. 2 a sectional elc ation of the pncui'natic hammer with the bit or tool for cutting a channel in full ele vation; Fig. 3 a cross section on line (L(& of Fig. 2; il; a cross section on line 'b b of Fig. 2; Fig. a cross section similar to Fig. 8 and showing a plurality of induction and eduction passages instead of a single induction and eduction passage; and Fig. 6 an elevation of the flat side of the tool or hit for cutting the channel.
The tool or hit for cutting the channel, in the construction shown, has a body 1, with a flat longitudinal face 2, opposite to which is an inclined face 3, so that the acting end of the tool or hit terminates in a point. The acting end or point of the tool or bit has two cutters 4, each of which has an outerward curve or inclination, and which are separated, one from the other, by a triangular or V shaped opening 5, so as to furnish a clearance at the acting end of the tool or hit.
The body or head 1, of the head, has a stem or shank 6, to enter the chamber 7 of the barrel 8, of the hammer frame, so that the shank or stem 6 constitutes a driven shank or stem; and, as shown, the driven shank or stem has a slot 9, through which passes a bar or key 10, secured in the wall of the barrel, and by which slot and bar the head has a limited end movement for operatin the bits or cutters. The frame, as a whole, consists of the barrel 8, and an extended flange or body 11, which flange or body, at the forward end, has a projection 12, with a shoulder 13, which forms a rest for a surrounding tube or casing, if used in connection with the hammer frame and tool. The chamber 7 terminates in a chamber 14, of a greater diameter in cross section than the chamber 7, and from this chamber, on one side, a single port, or a plurality of ports 15, leads, and each port 15 communicates with a longitudinal passage 16 formed in the body or flange of the frame and opening at its rear end into a port or ports 17, laterally leading from each passage 16, as shown in Fig. 2. v
The barrel 8 has an interior circumferential wall 18, located between the chamber 14 and a chamber 19, and from the chamber 19, on one side, a single port 20 leads, as shown in Fig. 3, or a plurality of ports 20 lead, as shown in Fig. 5. The single port 20 is in communication with a single longitudinal passage 21, or each port 20, of the plurality of ports, is in communication with a longitudinal passage 21, as shown respectively in Figs. 3 and I5, and each passage 21, at its rear or receiving end, has a port 22, inwardly leading therefrom. It will be understood that, in place of a single port 15, and a single passage 16, a plurality of ports 15 and a plurality of passages 16, can be used on'the plan shown in Fig. 5, for'the ports and passages 20 and 21, it being the intention to employ a single port and passage, or a plurality of ports and passages, as may be desired. The port or ports 22 communicate with a port or cross passage 23, with which a longitudinal passage 24 communicates, and the cross passage 23 and longitudinal passage 24 are formed in a head 25, having a' shoulder 26 to abut against the rear end face of the frame, and
a neck 27 extending from the shoulder. The
'head 25 has an exterior screw thread, and
the neck has an exterior screw thread for entering the neck into the end wall of the frame and barrel, as shown in Fig. 2, so that the passages 23 and 24 in the head and neck, furnisha. conduit or passage, for supplying compressed air, or other medium un der pressure, to the passage or passages 21 of the frame. The head 25 and neck 27 have a wall or partition 28, separating the passages 23 and 24 from a cross passage or port 29 and a longitudinal passage 30, which latter passage opens to the exterior of the head at the end, as shown in Fig. 2. The
port or ports 17 communicate with the cross passage or port 29, so that pressure educted from the chamber 14, forward of the acting end of the hammer, will flow through the port or ports 15 and passage or passages 16, and discharge through the passage 30, at the end thereof, thereby preventing the discharged pressure from passing outside of the body of the hammer frame.
The barrel has an interior circumferential wall 31, located between the chamber 19 and a chamber 32, which chamber 32 is continued as a chamber or hole 33, which receives the neck 27 of the closing plug, as shown in Fig. 2, so that the chamber of the barrel, as a whole, is closed at the outer or rear end by the plug.
The barrel has, located in the chamber thereof, and rearward of the driven shank or stem 6, a hammer having a driving end or head 34, continued as a body guided and held between the circumferential wall 18, and terminating at its rear end in an enlarged portion or head 36, guided and held in the circumferential wall 31, and having a shoulder forming an abutment or face 37 against which the compressed air. or other medium under pressure, admitted to the chamber 19 from the passage or passages 21, through the port or ports 20, acts to recede or force back the hammer as a whole. The body 35 of the hammer has a central passage 38, extending longitudinally therein, and opening at its rear end through the head 36, from which passage 38, lateral ports or passages 39 lead through the head 36, so that, when the hammer is receded, communication is established with the chamber 32, admitting con'ipressed air. or other medium under pressure, to the passage 38, for the air, or other medium under pressure, to act and thrust or drive forward the hammer as a whole. The passage 38, adjacent to its forward end, has leading therefrom lateral passages or ports 40, to furnish connnunication between the passage 38 and the chamber 14, for compressed air, or other medium under pressure, to flow from the passage 38, through the port or ports 1?, into the passage or passages 16, and be discharged at the port or ports 17, into the cross passage 2!), and longitudinal passage 30, to flow out at the rear end of the plug into a conductor or tube, for final discharge into the atmosphere, or otherwise.
The head or plug 25 has a screw threaded central hole at the end of the longitudinal passage 24, which receives a coupling tube 41, for the attachment of a pressure supply pipe or tube, not shown, and through which, from a source of compressed air, or other medium under pressure, the compressed air, or other medium under pressure, is conducted to the passage 24, for the air, or other medium under pressure, to enter the passage or passages 21, through the port or ports 22, and be discharged into the chamber 19, through the port or ports 20, to act against the abutment or face 87 of the hammer, and force back or recede the hammer as a whole. The exterior screw thread of the head 25 has entered thereonto the forward end of a tube 4-2, which tube serves as a support and carrying means for the hammer frame and the tool or bit, and also as a conduit for conductii'ig off the air, or other medium under pressure, exhausted through the passage 30, as already described.
The parts are assembled by entering the stem or shank 6 into the chamber 7 of the barrel, and securing the shank or stem against end withdrawal by the bar or key 10 passing through the wall of the barrel and the slot 9 of the shank or stem. The hammer, as a whole, is entered into the chamber of the barrel, rearward of the driven shank or stem (3 of the tool or bit head, and after the hannner is entered the plug or head 25 is entered into the end of the frame, with the shoulder 26 tightly abutting against the end face of the frame, so as to close the chamber of the hammer and have the port or passage 23 in communication with the port or ports 22, as shown in Fig. 2. The supporting or carrying tube 42, and the pressure supply tube, are connected with the hammer frame, which completes the connecting up of the parts, ready for the use or operation of the machine.
In operation, the tool or bit, with the hammer frame, is turned so as to cut a channel longitudinally, or vertically, in the coal, or other substance or material, and the compressed air, or other medium under prcs sure, is admitted to the pressure supply tube, so as to flow through the passage 24, port or passage 23, port or ports 22, passage or passages 21, and port or ports 20, into the chamber 19, and act against the face or abutment 27, to force back or rccede the hammer, as a whole, into the striking or driving position. The hammer, as a whole, is receded a sufficient distance to carry the abutment or end face 37, clear of the rear face or wall 31, so that pressure can enter the chamber 32, and from the chamber 32 again flow through the lateral passages or ports 39 into the central passage 38, and act to drive forward the hammer, as a whole, said action of the admitted pressure being performed by the closing of the lateral ports or passages 10, when such ports or passages are entered within the circumferential wall 18 by the recession or forcing back of the hammer, as a whole. The forward drive or thrust of the hammer, as a whole, causes its acting end or head 34 to contact the end of the driven shank or stem 6, and drive forward the shank or stem, and with it the tool or bit, for the tool or bit to act and cut a straight channel in the wall of the coal, or other substance, or material operated upon. The forward throw or thrust of the ham mer, as a whole, closes the ports or passages 2-39 by the wall 31, and opens the ports or passages a0, for communication between the passage 38 and the chamber let, admitting pressure to the chamber 14:, for the pressure to flow through the port or ports 15, passage or passages 16, and port or ports 17, into the cross port or passage 29 and passage 30, for discharge inside of the tube or casing 42, or otherwise.
The compressed air, or other medium under pressure, discharged at the front of the hammer, has a free passage rearward through the pathway in the body or flange of the frame, by which the driving or acting end of the hammer will have the discharged air carried away, leaving a clear drive for the hammer for each succeeding operation, thereby preventing any back pressure from the air, or other medium under pressure, that would interfere with the blow struck by the hammer.
It will thus be seen that the frame of the present invention, consisting of a straight barrel with a projected straight body or flange running longitudinally of the barrel, furnishes, by the passage in the body or flange, a means for supplying compressed air, or other medium under pressure, to operate the hammer, and a means for allowing the compressed air, or other medium under pressure, to escape'without creating back pressure against the acting end of the hammer, giving full force and effect of the hammer on the bit or tool at each forward stroke of the hammer.
The pneumatic mining machine of the present invention, constructed and operating as described, enables an operator to cut a channel as narrow as possible, but of greater width than the hammer frame, and this channeling is necessary, particularly in mining coal, where it is required to drive entries into the wall of the coal. The common practice is to drive entries or cut channels in the wall of the coal by a pick, and this practice results in a great waste of the coal, for the reason that the channel or entry must be cut wide enough for the man to reach in his arms and part of his body in order to make the cutting as deep as required, and, as it would have to be, to obtain the desired effect when the divided section of coal is forced out, either by the use of wedges, or by blasting. It will be seen that with a bit or tool, of the formation shown and described, a narrow out can be made in the face of the coal wall, and to any depth required, and this cut or channel can be formed below, above and on both sides of the entry, if so desired; and in making the cut or channel Very little coal will be wasted, leaving the divided-out section to be wedged loose by the employment of but little force, for the reason that all sides of the block, or divided section, are cut loose.
The machine of the'present invention can be operated by hand, and by a single operator, as the frame makes a compact and light instrument for operating the bit or tool, so that the machine can be handled with ease by one man, and in many cases can be made so compact and light as to be capable of holding up, while at work, with out any standard or column to furnish a support therefor, and this because the machine, as a whole, can be solight and still be effective and operative and not weigh over twenty pounds, thus giving immediate and perfect control of the operation of the machine by one operator.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Ina pneumatic mining machine, the combination of a barrel, a cutting tool mounted in the forward end of the barrel, a hammer in the interior of the barrel for driving the cutting tool, said barrel having a chamber in which said hammer operates, and also having inlet and exhaust passages communicating with the chamber, a tube secured to the rear end of the barrel, communicating with the inlet passage and with a source of pressure supply, and a tube surrounding the first named tube and secured to the rear end of the barrel, and in communication with the exhaust passage, said surrounding tube forming a support for the tool, and also forming a conductor for the exhaust, whereby the exhaust is carried away from the acting portion of the tool, substantially as described.
2. In a pneumatic mining machine, the combination of a barrel, :1 cutting tool mounted in the forward end of the barrel, a hammer in the interior of the barrel for driving the cutting tool, said barrel having a chamber in which said hammer operates, and also having inlet and exhaust passages communicating with the chamber, a plug'entered into the rear end of the barrel and having inlet and exhaust passages communicating with the'inlet and exhaust passages in the barrel, a tube connected to said plug and in communication with the inlet passage and with a source of pressure supply, and a tube surrounding the first named tube and secured to the plug, and in communi tion with the exhaust passage, said tube forming a support for the tool and also forming a conductor for the exhaust, whereby the exhaust is carried away from the acting portion of the tool, substantially as described.
Witnesses HELEN LA'lSPEICI-I, FRED BowLEs.