US 983547 A
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G. E- FLECKI. ANATOMICAL SKELETON. P PLIUATION FILED JULY z, 1909.
Patented Feb. 7, 1911.
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C. E. FLEGK. ANATOMIGAL SKELETON. APPLICATION FILED JULY z3,A 1909.
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EETTED STATES PATENT @FFTCE CHARLES E. FLECK, OF ORANGE, NEW JERSEY.
To ZZ tlf/'wm it 'may concern.'
Be it known that l, CHARLES E. FLnoK, a citizen of the 'United States, and al resident of the city of Orange, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, (whose postoiiice address is Oakwood Court, 462 Main street, Grange, New Jersey,) have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Anatomical Skeletons, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to anatomical skeletons used by physicians, teachers, medical students and others for the purpose of instruction in anatomy and pathology and like purposes, and it relates more particularly to improved methods of articulating the several bones of which a skeleton is composed in such a manner as to closely simulate the joining together of the bones of the skeleton in the living body and to allow the bones to assume their respective normal positions and to move in the 7arious ways in which they move in the living body.
The object of my invention is to provide a skeleton of the kind mentioned, in which, when it is held or suspended in an upright position, all the vertebrae, ribs and other parts shall assume the normal position, but which shallstill permit such freedom of movement as to allow the various motions of the bones in the living body to be performed as well as to admit of the bones being placed in the various abnormal positions and relations to each other which constitute bony lesions or departures from the true order of the living skeleton. This freedom of movement and capability of being placed in the various positions and relative relations, both normal and abnormal, renders an anatomical skeleton prepeared in accordance with my invention specially useful in connection with instruction and demonstration in the study and practice of osteopathy,
r inasmuch as it is possible to produce at will and clearly exhibit to the investigator any of the various misplaccments or bony lesions which by interference with nerve and blood supply produce certain pathological conditions of the living body, and then to quickly and easily correct such lesions by restoring the bones to their normal positions, thus demonstrating the method of procedure used by osteopathy for removing the pathological conditions resulting from the lesions respectively.
The invention consists in the novel ar- Specicaton of Letters Patent.
Application filed July 23, 1909.
Patented Feb. '7, 1911.
Serial No. 509,240.
rangement and combination of the various bones constituting a skeleton, either natural bones or artificial representations thereof, in connection with articulating and other devices, adapted to accomplish the object of my invention, all as shown in the accompanying drawings and as hereinafter more particularly described.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure l is a general front view of a human skeleton, the bones of which are joined according t0 my invention, the feet and the upper part of the skull not being shown; Fig. 2 is a front view of the upper part of the same, on an enlarged scale, shmving the ribs, clavicles, sternum, scapulte, and a portion of the spinal column; Fig'. 3 is a front view of the pelvis, saerum, and the lower portion of the spinal column; Fig. 4 is a rear view of a portion of the spinal column; Fig. 5 is a side view of F a on an enlarged scale; Fig. G is a detailed view of the shoulder joint; Fig. 'T is a detail view on the line 7-7 of Fig. 2;, Fig. 8 is a detail sectional View on the line SWS of Fig. 7; Fig. 9 is a detail sectional view on the line 9 9 of Fig. 7; and Fig. 10 is a detail sectional view of the method of joining the clavicles and the sternum.
ln carrying my invent-ion into effect, I provide first an elastic and yet strong connection for the vertebrae of the spinal column. n the drawings the vertebrze are designated Q0, and between each vertebra is placed a compressible and elastic disk 21, constructed of felt or some suitable material. The disks 2l represent and simulate the function of the cartilage which lies between the vertebrae of the living body. Through the spinal canal is passed a connecting device adapted to elastically and yieldingly connect the parts together, producing an effect similar to that produced by the spinal cord in the living body. This device is designated 22, and may consist of a rod or a tube, of rubber or other suitable elastic material, as shown in the drawings, and if a tube is used, it may be reinforced by an interior chain. lf desired, two tubes may be used, one inside of the other, and also a chain inside of the interior tube; by this means great strength together with all desirable freedom of movement issecured. In either case the ends of the rod, tube or chain must be suitably secured at each end of the spinal column.
The method of attaching the ribs to their respective vertebrae is shown in detail in Figs. t and 5. It will be seen that the end of each rib, as well asthe adjacent transverse processes of the corresponding vertebra,`is bored, and a cord passed through the end of the rib, then through the vertebra, and linally through the corresponding rib on the other side, the ends of the cord being secured by buttons or washers 23 as shown. This cord is elastic, and suiiiciently strong to sustain all necessary strain.
The method of attaching the front ends of the ribs together and to the sternum is shown more particularly in Fig. 2, some details of the construction being also shown in Figs. 7, S and 9. Here 24 represents the sternum, and from this depends a double strip of material, 25. A series of rubber tubes 2G are provided, into the open ends of which the front ends of the ribs 27 are passed, and through a. slit near the middle the strip 25 passes, except with regard to the lowest tube 2G, which passes through the loop at the lower end of the strip 25, as shown in Fig, 7. By this construct-ion 'full freedom of motion is afforded to the ribs 27, which may move outward and inward, upward and downward, in all respects as in the living body. These are not shown in the drawings.
The connection of the sternum 24 to the clavicles 2S is shown in Fig. 2, but more clearly in Fig. 10. It will be seen that an elastic cord 29 connects these parts, the ends of the cord being secured by buttons 30 in a manner which will be obvious.
The method of securing the clavicle 2S, the scapula 30 and the humerus 3l, is shown particularly in Fig. 6. It will be seen that an elastic cord 32, the ends of which are secured by buttons 33, is passed through suitable openings in the several bones, in a manner clearly shown in said ligure. The scapulae 30 are secured to the rear portion of the second rib on each side, by an elastic cord 34 provided with end buttons 35, as clearly shown in Fig. 2.
Referring no w more particularly to Figs. l and 3, the sacrum 40 is secured to the spinal column, near the lower end, by an elastic cord, and to each side of the sacrum is attached the posterior portion of the corresponding pelvic bone 42, by an elastic cord as in other cases. The anterior portions of the pelvic bones 4t2 are secured together in a similar manner by an elastic i cord t3 and end buttons 4st. Between the anterior ends otl the pelvic bones is placed an elastic piece of :telt or other suitable materia-l, designated 45, through which the cord 43 also passes.
In the living body, the spinal canal is occupied by the spinal cord, which passes down from the brain to the lower end of the canal, and which gives out lateral branches or nerves between each two adjacent vertebrae. lVhile there is always normally a eertain amount of freedom of movelnent ot any two vertebrae with relation to each other, still, it' such movement is produced to an abnormal extent, or in an abnormal direction, or if it persists abl'iormally, it is obvious thatI these elterent nerves must be more or less compressed, either by the hard substance of the vertebra itself or by the tissue attached or in relation to the two adjacent vertebrae, which is itself abnormally compressed or distorted by the abnormal position of the vertebrae with relation to each other. It is one of the teachings ot osteopathy that such a compression of a nerve eiferent from the spinal cord is a cause of disease in the part or organ ot the body to which the eHerent nerves lead, since such a compression produces more or less intcrterence with the nerve force going from the part or organ belonging to the nerve. It is obvious that in a skeleton prepared according to my invention such lesions are demonstrable as well as the more temporary ones which are often produced by the abnormal shortening or lengthening oit' ligaments or by the contraction oi muscles the ends ot which are attached to the verteb 1a. Tn my invention I provide cords of suitable size and suitable material to represent such nerves elilerent from the spinal cord, one of such nerves being represented at 50 (see Fig. 2.) An examination ot the drawings and particularly of this Fig. 5 will make` clear how well adapted is a skeleton constructed according to my invention to demonstrate to students and others the character of such a bony lesion and the eiiects which must vnecessarily follow from the same, as well as to allow an investigation ot the precise movements and leverages and forces which must be applied in order to reduce such a lesion and to restore the bones to their respective normal positions.
In the living body, blood vessels, as arteries and veins, also pass in more or less close juxtaposition to the various bones, and it follows that any misplacements of such bones may be followed by more or less direct or indirect interference with the function of the blood vessels adjacent to it, and thus to the nutrition of t-he part or organ of the body to which the blood vessel leads. For instance, the vertebral artery is located in close relation with the cervical bones of the spinal column, and any lesion of the vertebrae Composing this region must interfere more or less with the function of the artery. This artery is shown in Fig. 2, being designated 51. By using a skeleton embodying my invention it is easy to demonstrate the effect produced upon this artery and others by bony lesions, and the manner in which the l. l t) wml bones must be moved in order to restore them to their respective normal positions and thus remove the abnormal pressure from the artery.
I have not shown in the drawings nor need I here describe the manner in which the other joints of the skeleton are articulated, since the same will be obvious to the reader from what has been heretofore said.
The advantages ot my invention have already been suiiiciently disclosed by what has been heretofore said with regard to the construction and operation of my invention, and need not be summarized here.
Il'aving thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is as follows:
l. ein anatomical skeleton, comprising a spinal column composed of a plurality of bones and provided with elastic means for uniting the bones, adapted to permit the bones to move in relation to each other in a manner similar to the motions of the living body.
Q. An anatomical skeleton, provided with an elastic cord passing through the spinal canal of the vertebrae, and having its ends secured to the skull and the sacrum respectively.
3. An Aanatomical skeleton, composed of a plurality of elements and comprising a spinal column composed ot a plurality of bones, and means adapted to elastically connect the various elements and bones together.
et. An anatomical skeleton, provided with elastic means adapted to yieldingly connect the anterior extremities ot corresponding ribs together and to the sternum.
5. In an anatomica-l skeleton, the combination with the vertebrae constituting the spinal column, ot an elastic connecting means secured at its extremities and adapted to yieldingly connect the vertebrae together,
and elastic disks or washers between the vertebrae adapted to simulate the intervertebral cartilage of the living body.
6. In an anatomical skeleton, the combination with the vertebrae constituting the spi nal column, of an elastic connecting means secured at its extremities and adapted to yieldingly connect the vertebrae together, and elastic disks or washers adapted to simulate the intervertebral cartilage of the living body; the said disks or washers being perforated and said elastic connecting means passing through the said perforations of the said disks and through the bodies of the vertebrae.
7. In an anatomical skeleton, the combination with the ribs ot elastic tubing connecting the anterior ends of corresponding ribs on each side of the skeleton with each other and with the sternum.
S. In an anatomical skeleton, the combination with ribs of means for connecting the anterior ends of corresponding ribs on each side ofthe skeleton to each other and to the sternum, said means comprising rubber tubing the ends of which are entered by the anterior ends of the ribs, and means for connecting the sternumwith said rubber tubing.
9. In an anatomical skeleton, a plurality of bones, and disks or washers of elastic material interposed between adjacent bones.
l0. In an anatomical skeleton, a plurality of successive vertebrae, and an imitation spinal cord of elastic material passing through the vertebrae.
In witness whereof I have hereunto signed my name this 13th day of July, 1.909, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
CHARLES E. FLECK.
lVitnesses T. E. RUGGLEM, R. L. REYNOLDS.