|Publication number||US987842 A|
|Publication date||Mar 28, 1911|
|Filing date||Jun 10, 1909|
|Priority date||Jun 10, 1909|
|Publication number||US 987842 A, US 987842A, US-A-987842, US987842 A, US987842A|
|Inventors||Carl Richard Waller|
|Original Assignee||Laval Steam Turbine Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
.C. R. WALLER. ELASTIG FLUID TURBINE. APPLIOATION FILED JUNE 10, 1909.
Patented Mar. 28, 1911.
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0. R. WALLER. ELASTIC FLUID TURBINE.- APPLIOATION FILED JUNE 10, 1909.
Patented Mar. 28, 1911.
5 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
C. R. WALLER. ELASTIC FLUID TURBINE. APPLICATION FILED JUNE 10, 1909.
Patented Mar. 28, 1911.
5 BHEETS-SHEBT 3.
c. R. WALLER. ELASTIC FLUID TURBINE.
Patented Mar. 28, 1911.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 10, 1909. I
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181M; :4 ease a G. R. WALLER. ELASTIG FLUID TURBINE. APPLICATION FILED JUNE 10, 1909.
987,842, Patented Mar. 28, 1911.
5 SHBETS-SHEET 6.
O F 0 6 I P 8 O O 2 Z O o y v o H V P UNITED STATES ATE cam. moms WALLER, or 'rnnnron,
NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO DE LAVAL STEAM TURBINE COMPANY,'OF NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CARL RICHARD WALLE a subject of the King of Sweden, and a reeldent of Trenton, county of Mercer, and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Elastic-Fluid Turbines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to elastic fillld turbines, such as steam turbines, and particularly to turbines of the impact type comprising a rotating member carrying buckets, blades or vanes, against which steam or other working fluid is rojected by a plurallty of nozzles. It is requently desirable to arrange to operate such turbines with working fluid from a plurality of dllferent sources, either simultaneously or at different times,
- or to operate "the turbine in'connection'with the condenser at one time and to exhaust from the turbine into the air or under back pressure, at another time, or perhaps to work at times with a relatively low vacuum and at other times with a relatively high vacuum. For efiicient operation, this requires a plurality of nozzles of different shapes; for high efiiciency requires the use of different nozzles when the turbine is working condensing from what. is used when it is working non-condensing, and different nozzles for use when it is operating with low pressure steam from what are used when it is operating with high pressure steam. The form of such a turbine lends itself admirably to the provision of a large number of nozzles, some of which may differ in shape from others, and part or all of which may be in use at any one time.
. The inyention herein described comprises means whereby a large number. of nozzles are so arranged in connection with the rotating member, that they may be connected in groups, the nozzles of different groups receiving working fluid n from different sources if desired, means being provided whereby the number of nozzles in service of any group or groups may be varied as desired; and the invention further comprises an improved support'for the nozzles, an improved arrangement of steam passages, and various other features as more fully described hereinafter and particularly pointed out in the claims. I
Steam turbines are particularly adapted for operationby the exhaust steam of high pressure engines which, customarily, exhaust l into the air,
Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Mar. 28, 1911.. Application filed June 10, 1909. Serial No. 501,299.
the turbines in such case in effect taking the place of the low pressure cylinder of a compound, triple expansion, etc, engine,.but operating with greater efficiency and being much smaller and more compact. The exhaust steam from an engine which ordinarily operates intermittently or under an extremely variable load (hoisting engines, rolling mill engines and the like) may be utilized effectively for operating a low pressure motor, by interposing between the high pressure motor. and the low pressure motor a steam accumulator. Various constructions of accumulators adapted for such use are known and it is not necessary for me to illustrate here any particular in described is simultaneously by steam derived direct from the boiler at'high pressure and by exhaust steam from a high pressure engine, such steam either delivered direct from such engine, or through an accumulator. I
The accompanying drawings illustrate one construction of turbine embodying my invention.
In the said drawingsz Figure 1 shows an end view of said turbine; Fig. 2 shows a central vertical section of the turbine on thelinem w of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 shows a face view of the nozzle ring and Fig. 4 a transverse section thereof taken on the line 22 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 shows a detail section, on a largerv scale, 'of a portion of this nozzle ring, taken on the line a a of Fig. 8, the nozzle itself. being omitted; Fig. 6 is a similar view showing the nozzle in place and sectioned; Fig.7 shows an end view of the inlet end'ofone of the nozzles; Fig. 8 shows a detail side elevation and partial ,sectienmf was; 1st se; 9 ow a face'view ofthe inner wall of the secondary chest against which wall the nozzle ring is secured, the view being a section on the line b b of Fig. 2, looking in the direction of the arrow or toward the primary steam chest; Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view illustrating various combinations in which such a turbine may beused. g
. Referring first to Figs. 1-4 inclusive, the turbine casing as there shown comprises two sections, 1 and 2, bolted together. The rotary member or. wheel 3 is mounted on a shaft 4 having stuffing boxes 5, 5. In section 1 of the casing is an annular cored,
- shown I have a 1 of the turbine casing, are a plurality of openings connecting the primary steam chest characters, B,
chamber A constituting a steam chest, and I which for the purposes of this invention is divided into a plurality of chambers by means of partitions 6 (indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 1). There may be as many of these partitions as desired, the steam chest being divided into a corresponding number of compartments. In the construction shown I have indicated three such partltions 6 dividing the steam chest into three separate compartments, 7 ,8 and 9, to which working fluid may be led by pipes 10, 1 1 and 12, respectively. Against the inner face of section 1 of the casing a nozzle r1ng K is secured; and between this nozzle rmg and said section 1 there is an annular secondary steam chest M (Fig. 2) divided into a plurality of compartments by means of radial ribs 0 (indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 1 and also seen in Fig. 2), which ribs fit closely against the face of the nozzle r lng K, between the nozzle orifices of such r ng, so dividing the secondary steam chest into a plurality of entirely separate compartments. There may be as many of these compartments as desired. In the construction indicated nine such compartments, designated respectively by reference 0, D, E, F, G, H, I, J (Flg. 9) and in Fig. 3 the positions of these partitions O is also indicated for convemence, in dotted lines. In the inner wall of section A to the corresponding compartments of the secondary steam chest M, said openings having valve seats adapted to receive valves 14. Each such valve is provided with a stem 18 adapted to slide axially within a stuiiing box 17 fitting into a screw threaded orifice in the outer wall of section 1 of the casing, such valve stem having a head 19 to which is pivoted a link 20 also pivoted to a link 22 pivoted to the stufiing box; and th1s-link 20 is provided with an arm 21 which may be slotted as shown for convenient connection of a suitable operating member (not shown) thereto. It will be seen that by oscillating the arm 21 the valve 14 may be moved in or out, as desired. Each of these valves 14: having such an operating device, it will be clear that any one or more of the valves may beclosed or opened as desired, during the operation of the turbine.
Referring now to the nozzle ring K, shown in detail in Figs. 3-8 inclusive, this ring has, as there shown, a plurality of recesses 23, preferably spaced at equal intervals apart, from which open slightly flaring bores 23" adapted to receive the expansion nozzles L. These nozzles are held in place by means of threaded rings N'screwing over the inner ends of the nozzles and seating against shoulders of the recesses 23. This construction permits the nozzles L to be inscrted into their proper openings in the nozzle ring and secured in placetherein before the ring K is placed in and secured to the turbine casing; and when it is desired to remove a nozzle, or to substitute for any one or more of the nozzles another nozzle or nozzles of different shape, this may be readily doneby removing the ring. The subchambers B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J of l the secondary steam chest may have different numbers .ofnozzles, as may be desired to regulate the action of the turbine. In the construction shown, some of these sub+cham- .bers have two, nozzles communicating with them and others have three such nozzles. The number may of course be smaller or larger as desired. Against the inner face of the nozzle ring K is a ring 24:, termed a diffuser ring, and bolts passing through this difi'user ring and nozzle ring to section 1 of the turbine casing hold these two rings in place. Section 2 of the turbine casing has an annular flange 33 which, at its circumferential edge 34, is turned inwardly toward the wheel 3, the annular space between this edge 34 and the inner edge of the ring 24 forming a passage through which the working fluid, after acting on the buckets, blades or vanes 25 (Fig. 3), escapes to the exhaust space26 of the turbine casing and thence to the exhaust outlet 27.
Fig. 10 shows diagrammatically a turbine such as illustrated in the preceding figures, having its steam chest divided into a plurality of chambers 7, 8 and 9 and having 'valves' by which the various nozzles of each chamber may be ut into action or cut off as desired. In th1s drawing P designates a suitable boiler or steam generator and Q a main steam pipe therefrom. R desi ates a high pressure engine which may supposed to be an engine operating somewhat eontinuousl and under somewhat uniform load, S designates an engine which may be supposed to o erate intermittently or under quite a variab e load, T designates a steam accumulator, U designates the-turbine, V an exhaust pipe for the system, W a condenser and X a valved atmospheric outlet for the exhaust. Accordin to the arrangement shown, chamber 9 o the steam chest of the turbine is connected by a pipe 40 direct to main steam pipe Q; compartment 8 is connected to the exhaust pipe 41 of engine R and compartment 7 is connected by. ipe 42 to the accumulator T itself connected to the exhaust pipe 43 of engine S. Suitable valves are rowded, the function of which valves is obvious. With the steam chest of the turbine divided as shown, such turbine may be operated, either simultaneously or at different times, by live high pressure steam from the boiler, by the exhaust from high pressure engine R or by the exhaust from engine S after such exhaust has passed through the accumulator T by which accumulator heat is stored up during periods of active operation of engine S to be given o-if in steam when engine S is less active.
Also, by the connections shown, the whole system may be operated condensing or may exhaust into the external air. Numerals 18 designate, the stems of valves by which one or more of the nozzles of each compartment of the turbine may be brought into actionv that Fig. 10 illustrates only a few of the various conditions under which a turbine having its steam chest so divided may be operated.
What I claim is:
1. An elastic fluid turbine comprising in combination a turbine casing having integral walls containing a wheel chamber and an annular primary steam chest, said casing comprising a partition integral with said walls, separatingsaid wheel chamber and steam chest and provided with openings for the passage of working fluid, a nozzle ring secured a ainst said partition and pro vided with a p urality of nozzles adapted to project working fluid into said wheel chamber, said nozzle ring and partition having in their adjacent faces, corresponding-registering recesses together forming a plurality of separate secondary steam chests, said partition havingin it a plurality of openings, one
for each such secondary steam chest, for the passage of working fluid from the primary steam chest to such secondary steam chest, and valve means controlling the flow of working fluid from the primary steam chest to the secondary steam chest independently.
2. An elastic fluid turbine comprising in combination a casing having a wheel chamber a detachable nozzle supporting ring, a difl user ring, means holding said diil'user ring and nozzle ring in place in the casing and a bucket wheel adapted for rotation between the nozzle ring and diffuser ring.
3. In combination with an elastic fluid turbine wheel of the impact type, a casing having an annular working fluid receiving chamber, a detachable nozzle supporting ring, a plurality of nozzles in said ring, and a diffuser ping; the said wheel havingits buckets interposed between said nozzle ring and said diffuser ring.
4. In combination with an elastic fluid turbine Wheel of the impact type, a cas ng, and in said casing, a nozzle supportlng ring, a plurality of nozzles in said ring, and a difl'user ring,- the said nozzle ring and diffuser ring being located on opposite'sides of said wheel and forming between them an annular chamber receiving the wheel buckets.
In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence oftwo subscribing witnesses.
CARL RICHARD \VALLER.
H. M. MARBLE, FRANK E. RAFFMAN.
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