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Publication numberUS993724 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 30, 1911
Filing dateAug 13, 1910
Priority dateAug 13, 1910
Publication numberUS 993724 A, US 993724A, US-A-993724, US993724 A, US993724A
InventorsOliver G Simmons
Original AssigneeKenneth L Kintzel, Oliver G Simmons
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 993724 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



APPLICATION FILED 1116.13. 1910.

993,724. 'Patented May 3o, 1911.



Patented May 30, 1911.


@wi/Immo 0. G. SIMMONS.


Patented May 30, 1911.




Patented May 30, 1911.

'AEnorLANn 993,724. speciacaaon of Letters raient.

I Application filed August 13, 1910. Serial No. 577,038.

To all 'whom 'it m4n/comm. v

vBe it known that I, OLIVER Gr. SIMMONS, a citizen of the United States, residing at Washington, in the District of Columbia, have invented a new and useful Aeroplane,

of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to aeroplanes, of either the monoplane or biplane type, and has particular reference to specific improvements in devices for 'stabilizing the machine without warping or distortin the forms of the main planes, all as `will e hereinafter fully described and claimed, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a plan view of a biplane machine to which my improvements are connected; Fig. 2 is a front elevation and Fig. 3 is an end elevation of the same; Fig. 4 1s a diagrammatic perspective view of the stabilizing devices in av preferred form thereof, detached from the other parts of the machine, the movable parts being shown in different positions by distinctive .character of lines; Fig. 5 is a sectional detail of cer- .25 tain-parts hereinafter referred to; Fig. 6 is a detail hereinafter described, and Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a modification of the invention.

Throughout the following detailed description and'on the several fi ures of the drawings similar parts are re erred to by like reference characters.

In aerial navigation when aeroplanes are employed it is well understood that in order to maintain proper equilibrium, when overcoming irregular impulses of the wind or in turning, it is necessaryto vary the effective angles of the respective lateral ends of the machine, the means for accomplishing this purpose being under the immediate control of the operator. In this machine I provide for the above-mentioned control by` employing a pair or sets of/pairsl of independent planes, which may be located at any convenient places with respect yto the main planes, but preferably beyond the ends of the main planes at the extreme sides of the aeroplane.

As illustrated diagrammatically I have shown a liying machine includin a pair of main supporting planes 10 an 10 held properly spaced one above the other by suitable braces 11 and maintained in proper rigid relation by guy wires 12. These planes and associated parts may be made of any suitable materials now well known in the art but preferably are of a rigid construction.

At 13 I show a horizontal plane carried by the front part of the machine, adapted for controlling the elevation thereof, and at the rear part ofthe machine I show a horizontal plane 14 and vertical rudder 15. Any convenient or desirable form of propeller or propellers and driving means therefor may beemployed but since they form no partv of this invention they are not illustrated.

In carrying out this invention in a practical embodiment, but which will be understood as being illustrative of one of many adaptations which may be resorted to, I have shown in the drawings a pair of auxiliary or stability .planes at each side of the machine, the planes of each pair being connected together for simultaneousand'harmonious operation, and both pairs of stability planes being connected by means 1mder the direct control of the operator whereby they may vbe moved in unison ineither direction. I show a pair of stability planes 416HL and 16b at one end of the machine, say

at the left of the operator, and the other pair 17'l and 17b are at the ri ht `of the operator. The stability planes o each pair are rigidly guyed to each other so as to maintain proper parallelism between them and .ypt so as not to interfere with the variation 1n their position with respect to the main planes of the machine. A guy 18 also`is shown extending from the outer end of the axis of the upper plane of each pair diagonally inwardly and downwardly and connected to a beam or strut in the main part of the machine, the'purpose of such guy being to increase the rigidity of that pair of stability planes with which it is associated. The stability planes are shown as being normally in alinementrwith the main planes of the machine, but it is not my purpose to be limited to such positions.

As a suitable means for swinging the stability planes on their axes I show a pair of rock shafts 19 and 19, in alinement with each other and lying substantially in the lower main plane 10 and extendin laterally from the region of the center of. the machine. fixed bearin'gs in the mainframe. Each of said shafts has direct connection with a pair of the aforesaid stability planes, in this Said shafts are journaled in suitable ment with the axis' of the uppermost main plane l0. The said uppermost stability plane is shown as having a short axis journaled at 2O to the extreme end of the plane 10. As a suitable means for operating said shafts I ,preferd to journal on their meeting ends a sleeve or frame 21, just ,outside of which are connected to the respective shafts 19 and 19 a pair of miter gears 22 and 22, and meshing with both of said gears is an 'idler gear 28 to which is connected a lever or rock shaft 24 which may extend forwardly from the sleeve in normal position or .in any other suitable direction but preferably on the side of the main rock shaft adjacent to the operator.

In that form of the invention wherein the rock shaft`24 is connected to the gear 23 for the rotation thereofin either direction, any

suitable means may be connected to the rock shaft, such as an auxiliary lever 24a under the control of the operator whereby when the said auxiliary lever is swung to the right orleft the rock shaft 24 will be correspondingly rotated and the shafts 19 and 19 rotated in opposite directions.- v

lAs viewed in Fig. 4 if the lever 24%l be connected rigidly with the gear 23 and said gear be journaled for rotation with respect to the sleeve 21 it lis possible and perhaps may be desirable on the part of the operator for himA to so control the stability planesA as to cause them not only to move simultaneously in opposite directions but also to move in the same direction'or even for one to be held stationary while the other may be moved in either direction. That is to say if-the lever 24a projects upwardly and the operator draws upon it rearwardly he will cause the gear 23, andthe other gears to swing bodily together on the axes vof the shafts 19 and 19,', causing the' stability planes to swing upwardly infront and downwardly in the rear. Likewise a forward movement of the lever would act to depress the stability planes in' front, tending',

to cause the machine to descend,"{[;f the le'-l ver 24a be swung directly to onegside or the other the gears 22 will be rotated simulta-v neously in opposite directions just as before described causing the stability planes to move simultaneously in opposite' directions. Again, it is possible for the lever 24a to be moved either forwardly or rearwardly in comairlation with a lateral movement so as to cause the gear 23 to roll upon one of the gears 22, leavingv the latter stationaryv and driving the other gear 22 at an increased speed in the direction determined by thel direction of movement of the lever.

In Fig. 6 I have indicated a further adaptation ofmy improvement whereby the leverv 24al is extended upwardly linto loose positivey connection-with the back rail or support of the seat of the operator, whereby the movestability planes on the left side of thev machine will be turned tovdepress that side :of the machine. Any suitable means maybe. employed for connecting the seat to the machine and the said lever to the seat. Any convenient means may ,be employed for operating the elevating plane 13 and the rudder l5, and under certain circumstances it may desirable to connect one or the other or both of the controlling means ofthe elevatinglplane and rudder with the main controlling lever 24. A

Fig. 7 illustrates diagrammatically a modification ofthe devicein which the main stationary planes 10 and 10'- are displaced by the stability planes, which are made correspondingly large enough fory this purpose. As in the other modifications however the stability planes have the same relation to eachother Vand are controlled in a manner similar.` to that above described.-` The -stability planes 16. and 16d are connected' lfor simultaneous movement in either direction and the stability lanes 1'?c and 17d are operated in an opposite direction by means ofthe gear connection heretofore described. This forin of the. invention will also preferably have coperatin with it the elevating plane 13 and the rud er 15.

I claim: l l

In av iying machine, the combination with elevating and steering devices, of pairs ofstability planes on opposite sidesrof the machine, each pair of planes being connectedffor simultaneous movement in either direction, vand means'fo'r rotating said pairs of planes simultaneously in opposite directions, said means including -a palr of coaxial rock shafts, a pair of gears connected to the respective shafts, -an intermediate gear meshing with said first-mentioned gears, and means under the direct control of the operator for automatically controlling the'movetrolling means including an operators seat In testimonywhereof I have hereunto set having a back support, a. shaft connected to my hand in the presence of two Witnesses.

and extending forwardly from said intermediate gear, and a lever extending ua- OLIVERVG SIMMONS 5 Wardly at an angle from said shaft direct 5 to and having loose positive engagement l GLENN R. MADoLE, with said back support of' the seat.

Witnesses I VERNON L. BURGE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2820601 *Mar 9, 1953Jan 21, 1958Northrop Aircraft IncMovable wing tip
US6641086Aug 14, 2001Nov 4, 2003Northrop Grumman CorporationSystem and method for controlling an aircraft
Cooperative ClassificationY10S244/904, B64C13/00