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Publication numberUS996324 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 27, 1911
Filing dateApr 17, 1905
Priority dateApr 17, 1905
Publication numberUS 996324 A, US 996324A, US-A-996324, US996324 A, US996324A
InventorsSebastian Ziani De Ferranti
Original AssigneeSebastian Ziani De Ferranti
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Propulsion apparatus for ships, boats, and the like.
US 996324 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


- APPLmA'TIoN FILED APR. 11, 1005. I 996,324; A v Patented June .27, 191


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Patented June 27, 1911'.




Patented June 27, 1911.




996,324. Patented June 27,1911.




Patented June 27, 1911.


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APPLIOATIQN FILED APR. 17, 1905. 996,324, Patented June 27, 1911.


on the blades, according to the power re SEBASTIAN ZIANI Dr: IEIRJRA NCII, OF HAMPSTEAD, LONDON, ENGLAND.


. Specification of Letters Patent. Patented June 27, 1911.

Application filed April 17, 1905; Serial No. 256,108.

To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, SEBASTIAN ZIANI on FERRANTI, a subject of the King of Great Britain and Ireland, residing at 31 Lyndhurst road, Ha-mpstead, London, N. W., England, have invented new and useful Improvements in and Relating to Propulsion- Apparatus for Ships,

Boats, and the Like, is aspecification.

to propulsion appaof which the following My invention relates for its object to provide an improved plant. in which the motive power is developed in an internal combustion turbine adapted to work. withmaximum eiiiciency and economy under various conditions of speed.

My invention consists in a propulsive installation for ships, boats and the like in which the screw or screws, paddles or the like are actuated by one or more internal combustion turbines having means for varying the effective action of the working fluid quired.

My invention also consists in the improved apparatus and the details thereof to be here-- inafter described. x

To satisfy the requirements of marine pro-- pulsion, the turbines must be capable of running in either direction. They must also be capable of giving at maximum economy v the correct torque n proportion to the liquid resistance of the vessel at any pre-determined speeds. For example at full speed the turbine will be required to give the full amount of torque; at .8 of the full speed it will be required 'to give .55 of the full torque, and at .6 of the full speed, which is thespeed commonly adopted for cruising,

speed torque. It is thus evident'that whereas the speed is only varied ina small proportion, the torque required has an immense variation.

According to my invention 1 provide means whereby these variations of speed and corresponding variations of torque may be obtained simply and with the maximum economy. It is generally sufficient that for marine propulsion only one economical ciently at only one point of speed reversing.

it will be required to give,.2 of the full My: invention also provides for this. case being fully met. It is also necessary that the speed of the screws should be'reduced to as nearly as possible correspond with the speeds of the present fast running reciprocating engines. According to my invention this is most nearly approached to.

Referringnow to the accompanying drawings which illustrate my invention and form part of my specification, Figure 1 shows a diagrammatic view of an installation constructed according to my invention. Figs. 2 and 3 show forms of control mechanisms for turbines employing as the working fluid steam or air heated by the internal combustion of a suitable fuel. Fig. 4 shows a form of'turbine with blades sufficiently long to allow passages of the fluid through them at difl'erent radii. Fig. 5 shows a form in which successive passes of the fluid through the blades takes place at the same radii.

Fig. 6 shows a form of reversing turbine in which the blades are three times the radial depth required for a single pass. Figs. 7

and 8 show elevation and plan of a form of reversing turbine in .which the blades are twice the radialdepth required for a single pass. Fig. 9 shows a turbine having double length blades disposed parallel to the axis of rotation. Fig. .10 shows a form of turbine in which oppositely running wheels are used. each wheel having multiple rings of radially disposed blades. a turbine divided into segments for purposes of regulation. Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show details of the different segments as applied to a non-reversing single wheel return guide type of turbine. Figj-l5is a diagram of a reversing turbine adapted for marine propulsion. Figs. 15, 15*, 15, and 15 are detail views of the difierent segments of the arrangement shown in Fig. 15. Figs. 16

respectively. Fig. 18 shows a form of combustion chamber having water jacketed 'multiple nozzles. Fig. -19 shows another form in which a long tube is arranged to prevent back ignition. Fig. 20 shows a method of applying turbines to the propulsion of paddle .wheel steamers. Fig. 21 being a modification of the arrangement shown in Fig. 2O. Fig. 22 is a section on the line CD on Fig.

Fig. 11 is a diagram of' "and 17 show a form of'automatic return .guide in working and non-'worklng position 21 showing the idler wheel and brake mechwhere desirable similar elementsin the different drawings are.denoted by the same reference letters.

In carrying my invention into effect and as applied by way of example to a plant having opposite handed propellers on concentrically disposed shafts I provide a turbine having oppositely running wheels, 4;, and w, Fig. 1, which are operated by the high temperature working fluid issuing from the combustion chambers, a, through expanding nozzles, b, so as to reduce the high temperature of the working fluid to such a degree as the materials of construction can safely withstand. The wheels, '21, and to, actuate opposite handed propellers, 6 and 7, through concentrically arranged shafts, 8 and 9, and are provided with two concentric rings of blades which are disposed in opposite directions in each ring for purposes of reversing, separate sets of nozzles and combustion chambers coacting with each ring of blades being disposed in convenient posi: tions around the turbine casing. The turbine is arranged to give the correct torque in relation to the speed by any of the methods to be hereinafter described. The fuel and air are introduced into the combustion chamber, a, from any suitable sources through the pipes, h and m, by mechanism which I will hereafter describe with reference to Figs. 2 and 3 the air in this case being compressed by separately driven compressors, h. A pipe, 0, leads steam which is preferably superheated while. passing through the jacket, 0, before entering-the combustion chamber, a.

The high temperature gases from the combust-ion chamber, a, after operating on the turbine wheels are led through regenerators, 10, of any suitable type where the balance of the,ava1lable heat is utilizedtoheat the feed water which enters the regenerator by the pipe ll, and is conducted to the boiler by the pipe, 12.

In some cases air may be utilizedto form the Working fluid which then becomes of a noncondensable nature thereby rendering the boiler or evaporator unnecessary in which case the regenerators may then beusediglio impart heat to the air before it enters the-combustion chambers. Again in other cases the working fluid may be partly of a condensable nature as for example in the case where it consists of a mixture of the products of combustion and steam; the regenerator may in these circumstances be used either to part-ially or totally evaporate the condensable part of the working fluid. When only partial evaporation of the working fluid takes place in the regenerator, the pressure at which the regenerator works should preferably be such that the unevaporated portion will immediately flash into steam on its introduction into the combustion chambers, so that no further evaporating plant will be necessary.

What I consider as essential to my invention is that the nature or condition of the working fluid should be such as to preclude the possibility of any material deposit. of moisture on its passage through the'turbine as otherwise skin friction and eddy losses will be incurred which will materially affect the efficiency of the plant. Such losses are avoided by using air, or steam superheated by internal combustion, or a mixture of steam and products of combustlon as herelnbefore described. The pressure energy of the working fluid is converted into velocity energy as it issues from the combustion chambers in expansion nozzles which reduce the temperature of the working fluid to such a degree as not to act detrimentally on the constructive materials employed.

I will now describe some of the details of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1. Thus referring to Fig. 2, an arrangement of parts is shown suitable for use with a steam turbine, the steam being highly superheated by burning in it some suitable fuel. In the figure, the combustion chamber is shown at a, the nozzle, b, issuing direct therefrom. (It should be noted that these nozzles are not shown in their true shape in Figs. 2 and 3 owing to the manner plan cuts them, rendering them considerably fore-shortened). Steam is admitted by way of the pipe, 0, and valve, (Z, the jacket, e, surrounding the combustion chamber whence it passes through suitable openings into the interior of the chamber, as indicated by the arrows. Inside the -combustion chamber is a flame tube, f, into which air is admitted from the main air supply pipe, k, by way of any suitable valve, 2', while oil or gas is likewise admitted by way of a valve, is, from the main fuel pipe, m. I preferably place the igniter, n, which may be of any suitable type, in a subsidiary or firing tube, 0, which is supplied by branches from the main air-and fuel supply pipes, h and m, above mentioned, these branches being controlled respectively by valves, 7" and s. The various steam, air and in which the sectional i pp y fuel valves above mentioned I control by 7 means of cams, eccentrics or the like such as t, mounted on 'a common shaft, u. The

quence, a typical cycle of operations being follows :First, air and fuel are admitted to the firing chamber, 0, by way respectively of the valves, r, and s. The electric thus removing the point of maximum tern-- perature from the igniter.

In Flg. 3 a modificatlon of the arrangement just describedis shown applied "to the firing tube such as already described may be;


case of a. turbine employing air in which a suit-able fuel is burned as the working medium. The same reference letters are Used as in Fig. l to denote corresponding It will be 'seen that in this modification, a separate. eccentric is shown to operate the igniter, a, while the flame tube, f, is dispensed ,with, the main air supply entering the combustion chamber, a, by way of the jacket, 6, While the fuel is introduced directly into the same chamber preferably.

at the end remote from the nozzle, 7).

In some cases a single combustion cham-' ber may be used with one or more nozzles issuing therefrom, or several chambers may be used. Where I use a singlechamber, I

supply this intermittently with the elements used to form the working fluid. The length of time for which these elements are supplied determine the power given off. For this purpose the admission valves must be large and Work with a quick motion, so as to give clean opening and closing. An electric igniter may be used which .is worked either continuously or intermittently, or a used; but in this case I may sometimes use a firmg tube Worked continuously, care bemg taken that the electric igniter is of such a I form and so placed as to receive the mini mum injury from the heat of the burning gases. I

As it is very desirable when employing a number of combustion chambers that the duration 'of operation ofv the individual chambers should be as long as possible, and

as this is inconsistent with the obtaining of a constant torque, I prefer to have several intermittently acting chambers, the governing being obtained by regulating the length of time during which these chambers are in operation. In order to obtain good turning, I Work these chambers consecutively and at equal intervals of time. The periods may then be quite long, and the turning still very good. It is of course clear that the chambers when so worked mustbe operated as already described; viz.. by the approximately simultaneous admission and stoppage of all the elements necessary to form the working fluid.-

In carrying out my invention, I use where possible a compressor of the rotary type,

suitable non-return valves, and suitable control valves for stopping of the water supply with the minimum shock, an air butter or cylinder being provided to facilitate the acicomplishing of this result, the compressor moving part running dry when out out of. operation by meansof the above valves. I may however, according to another method, govern the amount of compressed air supplied by means of working one or more compressors intermittently at slow periods, and varying the length of the periods for purposes of, regulation. Where two or more compressors are worked in this way, I make their periods follow each other consecutively, so asto give the greatest evenness of pressure and absorption of work from the driving turbines. I may feed the compressor with air in comparatively short blasts, or in the case of the compressors using water, I may feed the water at intervals of greater or shorter length, so that the compressor Works intermittently. It is therefore com pressing at one time and then rotating light pressor by means of automatic gear worked from the turbine or compressor shaft or any other source of power. The valves are so arranged as to cut the compressor out of action periodically, and the length of its action in these periods is the measure of the amount of external work done.

In some cases where I may use a secondary condensing turbine in place of a regenerator to absorb the balance of available heat in' the exhaust gases from the main turbine I use this to drive the compressor. In some cases this may be supplemented by a self-governing turbine of the air-steam type which will give the balance of power and efiect the necessary regulation. This method of driving is also applicable to compressors other than those of the type which I have mentioned.

In order to obtain the best results with the cycles used in connection with the appaplained, may employ this for driving a compressor, or for assisting the main turbine in one direction, or for driving any auxiliary machinery. This turbine may be of the pressure flow type, and is the .only case in this specification where the turbines spoken of are of this type.

In-o'rder to satisfactorily carry my invention into effect, it is necessary that the turbine should be so constructed that they should be capable of easily varying the number of times the working fluid is passed through the blades, so as to get easy and eflicient speed variation with a constant velocity of working fluid. I can best accomplish this by means of two impact wheels, such as the Laval, placed in close proximity to each other and arranged to rotate in opposite directions. In some cases the fluid is delivered direct from 'one wheel into the next, and in others guide blades are used in between. Where, however, guide blades in between are used it is: necessary to form them with a different receiving angle to the angle ofdelivery, although the blades are placed in the direction of flow of the work ing fluid, and only slightly diverting it from its natural course. This necessitates a certain thickness of the guide blades, so as to keep the correct area, which in its turn necessitates a division of the nozzle or stream from the nozzle so that shook against the central dividing blades may not be experienced.

I will now describe forms of turbines with oppositely running wheels adapted to ex tract from the fluid the high velocity imparted to it in its expansion in the nozzles.

According to one method I farm these adjoining oppositely running impact wheels (see Fig. 4) with blades, '1) and 'w, of sufiiclent length radially to enable the working fluid to be first passed through at one radius and'then to be curved around by means of the guide ducts, 3, and passed back again through the wheels in the opposite direction at another radius this'operation being performed once or as many times as is necessary to get suflicient reactions at the speed of running 'to absorb the kinetic energy in the working fluid. According to this method I am able to give the guide ducts a different angle according to the progression of the working fluid through them, as

the working fluid always passes in the same direction through them at any one radius and therefore notwithstanding the variation of angle which should exist between the blades of the running wheels in the succes sive passes, a compromise is effected whereby the angle is approximately right for the several conditions at varying speeds. These returning guides on each side of the oppositely running wheels are of course correctly proportioned otherwise as regards, for example, sectional area.

According to another method, (see Fig. 5) I use two oppositely running wheels as above described but wit-h the blades, '0 and w, of only sufficient radial depth for one passage ..of the fluid. I pass the fluid through both wheels at one radius and by means of suitable returning guides, 5, pass it back again at the same radius throu h the wheel and repeat this operation a su 'cient number of times to take out the velocity of the working-fluid. According to this method the working fluid travels through the blades in the opposite direction at each pass. \Vith the turbine so constructed, and passing the working fluid fromthe nozzle through the first and second wheels, and by means of returning guides back again through the second and first wheel, I get equal power oneach wheel. There is, however, more shock in assing from wheel to wheel accordin to thls method than according to that beforedescribed, as the fluid is passed 'through'the wheel alternately backward and forward.

With either of the abovearrangements as described I use the turbines described for marine purposes, one, working on each of a pair of screws mounted on concentric shafts. The passage backward and-forward of the workipg fluid through the blades allows the use 0 made 0 considerable diameter, and. thus a low speed obtained. Varying the number of passes in a manner to be described also gives the desired speed, according to these methods. In order, however to make the arrangeguite simple wheels, which may be" ment complete in using turbines constructed according to Figs. 4 and 5, I require to place a turbine of any suitable type upon one or both of the concentric shafts for the purpose of, running in the opposite direction for driving astern. These several turbines 'are started and stoppedby means of a suitable gear, as described elsewhere in this specification so that the turbines may be the blades are then made three inches long radially. Through the first inch, i. e., the outermost one in the example shown, I pass the fluid from the nozzle,'a, in one direction. Ithen by means of suitable guides 3, return it through both wheels through-the space occupied by the third or innermost inch of radial depth and so on backwardand forward through the first and third inches of radial depth the 1 desired number of times. This part of the constru-tion corresponds to that described with re erence to Fig. 4. In the center inch of radial depth I- form the blades pointing in the opposite direct-ion according to any well known methods and use this part of the blades for the purpose of reversing, 2'. e. running each wheel-in the opposite direction to that arranged for running ahead .when the nozzle, 2, alone is acting. I provide a reversing nozzle, 2, to co-actwith the center inch of blades and in accordance with the method described with reference to Fig. 5, provide returning:

guides such as 5.

According to another method, (see Figs. 7 and 8) I make the blades, '0 and w, of twice the radial depth necessary for one to pass and superpose'two sets of blades and nozzles as shown. Thus for working in the aheaddirection the working fluid issuing from the nozzle, 2, passes through the first inch of both wheels and is then returned for another pass through the guides, 5. Similarly for reversing, the fluid passes from the reversing nozzle, 2, through the second inch of both wheels and is returned by the guides, 5

I- may employ any of the above constructions with guide blades in between oppositely running wheels, as indicated in several of the drawings already described, and in this case I vary the angles of the guide blades, as regards their entering and leaving parts, for different positions around the wheels according to the speed and number of reactions, thus gettingthe best results under all conditions. This variation of the angle of the guide blade is particularly applicable when for the purposes of speed and power regulation, I divide the wheel into segments in a manner to be described. I, however, prefer in most cases simply to use the one wheel delivering into theinext, making a compromise of the angles of entering and leaving and correctly fixing the angles of the returning guides to the --work they have to do.

In some cases I employ single wheels of. blades and pass the working fluid back-' ward and forward through these blades by means of returning guides, such as already described, at a constant radius. This method, however, I only employ in connection with the turbines cut up into sections for varying torque and speed in a manner to be described "the nozzles and return guides being arranged to' suit these, varying torques and speeds.

. In the turbine shown in Fig. 9 two wheels, 20, and 21, are arranged co-axially, with the blades, 22, 23, dis osed in a. direction parallel to the axis 0 the turbine, so that the fluid from the nozzle, 2, after its first passage inwardly through the blades is returned by the guides, 26, for a second passage outwardly through a different part of the length of. the blades, the process being repeated as desirable.

So far in the foregoing description, where I have described turbines having oppositely running wheels, each has been provided with a single set of blades. I may, however, vary these forms to the extent of employing multiple rings of blades, half of which are mounted on one wheel running in one direction and the other half are mounted on a second wheel running in the opposite direction. Thus referring'to Fig. 10, two rings of running blades, 27, are fixed radially to the broad rim of a single wheel, 28, the blades being thereby constrained to run in the same direction. In between these two rings of blades, 27, another ring of blades, 29, is arranged, which is connected to an outer ring of blades, 30, by means of an external connecting piece, 31, the two rings of blades, 29 and 30, being carried by another wheel, 32. The blades, 29 and 30, aredisposed so as to. produce rotation of the wheel 32, to which they are secured in 10C an opposite-direction to that given by the blades, 27, mounted on the wheel, 28. It will thus be seen that since the blades, 29 are mounted on the external connecting piece, 31, and are supported thereby, the 1 power which they give is transmitted through the connecting piece, 31, and down to-the wheel, 32, through the body of the remaining blades, 30. This system may work according to any of the methods I have described in this portion of the specification with reference to turbines having radially disposed blades, the object of the arrangementbeing to get greater power into the space than can be obtained with a single pair of oppositely running wheels. Thus the blades may be of only sufficient length for a single pass or they may be double,

.three times or four times the length, all as and for the purposes fully described above.

/;F01' the sake of example, I have shown in Fig. 10, a reversing turbine with blades double the length required for a single pass.

For the ahead direction of rotation of the turbine, the nozzle, .2, the outer length of the running blades and the return guides, 33, are employed; for rotation inthe opposite direction, the reversing nozzle, 2, the inner length of the running blades and'the -return guide), 34. The working fluid thus receives four reversals in a single passage through the blades; by returning it once, it will then have received eight reversals and so on.

For the purpose'of regulation, I construct turbines with the casing and its parts 'divided up into segments, and in these segments respectively, I provide such nozzles, guides and the like as are necessary to give the different conditions of running I require. Thus, as indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 11, I divide the casing of a turbine of a nonreversing single wheel type into three segments, A, B and-C, which are usedrespectively for low, medium and high speeds. In sections A, I arrange a nozzle, 2, and one return guide, 34, thus securing two\reactions on the wheel, 35; this is shown in .Fig. 12. In section B, as shown in Fig. 13, the arrangement is similar but I use three return guides thereby securing four reactions on the wheel and finally in section C, as shown in Fig. 14, I provide four return g iides, 34, giving five reactions on the wheel. The essence of this part of my invention is that by providing a separate set of nozzles and return guides for each speed, I am able to give correct angles to the guides in the dift'erent segments, which would be impossible it I merely varied the number of passes through the blades using as many as required of one set of return guides.

It will be obvious that in order to vary the power at any of the pre-arranged speeds I may provide a plurality of each or any of the arrangements shown in Figs. 12 to 14 respectively in the corresponding segment of the turbine.

In applying my invention to a reversing turbine of the type described with reference to Fig. 6, having provision for three efiicient speeds ahead and. one astern and referring to Fig. 15,, an end elevation of the turbine is shown, the radial distances apart of.

the four concentric circles, 36, representing the three lengths, each say of one inch, into which the blades are divided. The turbine it will be seen is divided into four segments, A, B, C, and D. In segment A, which is used for full power and speed ahead, five nozzles, z, are provided and the fluid issuing from each is caused to make eight passes through the blades, this being effected by the return guides numbered 3 in Fig. 15 and diagrammatically indicated in Fig. 15

. by the zigzag lines issuing from the respective nozzles; the numerals adjacent to these lines indicate the number of passes made by the fluid through the turbine at these points. In segment, B, are arrangedtwo nozzles, 2, the fluid from each making ten passes Fig.

15' through the blades this segment is used for, say, .4 of the full power ahead and .8 of the speed. In segment. G, one nozzle is arranged, the fluid making twelve passes .2 of the full with diminished e ciencies.

the blades and giving say, ower and .6 of the speed. The segments, 1 B, and 0, thus provide efficient means of procuring the three different ahead speeds. Finally in segment D, I provide in the middle inch of the blades, five reversing nozzles, a, making eight passes Fig. 15 through the blades. These successive passesare not indicated in Fi 15 to avoid confusion since they are all e ected at the sameradius. It will be seen that this arrangement provides Fig. 15 through for eflicient Working of the turbine at only one speed viz., full speed astern, but by shutting off one or more of, the nozzles, a, other speeds may besecured but of course Similar remarks apply to segments, A and B. It will further be obvious that instead of providing a plurality of nozzles in each of the segments A, B, and-C, I may provide single nozzles of different sizes but in most cases I prefer the arrangement above described. In some cases the returning ducts may be worked into and out of position by means of suitable relay gear connected with the control mechanism of the turbine. By

means of a governor working by variation of speed of the turbine, I may vary automatically the number of returns through the blades according to the speed at which the turbine is running. For example, the faster the turbine runs, the .fewer the number of return blades that are required, and therefore the fewer the number of times the working fluid is passed backward and forward. On the other hand, if the speed falls, the governor automatically puts into place additional reaction ducts which conduct the working fluid backward and forward a greater number of times and so add to the torque capacity of the turbines at the particular speed. The power to be given'out by the turbine at any one speed will then depend upon the number of nozzles and chambers that are thrown into action by the main control of the apparatus.

I may automaticallyecontrol the number of reactions in accordance with the speed according to another method. For this purpose, (see Fig. 16), I pivot'the reaction ducts or return guides, 37, by attaching to them a knife edge, 38, or the like resting in a corresponding recess or socket, 39. I so arrange the position of this pivot or hinge device that the action of the working fluid the fluid from eachpassing through the guide exerts a force this action ceases to take place, the returning ducts drop back into working position alongside the running wheels, so as to make the maximum number of reactions. \Vhen the turbine is at rest the maximum number of reactions will be obtained at starting. These moving ducts may automatically adjust themselves to the power being developed and thus produce more efficient working. The number of nozzles in action may be varied so as to diminish the available horse power given to the wheel at. the low speeds. In some cases where I employ multiple outflow nozzles such as 50, (see Fig. 18),

issuing directly from the combustion chamher, I provide a water jacket, 51, locally around parts of the nozzles and in some cases between the individual nozzles likewise as shown. The signification of other reference symbols on this drawing has already been explained.

As before described, I preferably construct the combustion chambers, a, in such a way that the combustion chamber proper is cooled by jacketing it with the air supply.

The external shell, 52, (see Figs. 18 and 19) forming the outer wall of the jacket, e, through which the air is supplied can be readily made to stand the full pressure. A ain in some cases, (see Fig. 19) I provide a Iong tube, 53, on the end of the combustion chamber, a, supplying this tube with air through an annulus, 54:, which is in dlrect communlcatlon with the acket, e, surrounding the combustlon chamber proper.

I also supply fuelthrough a central orifice,

55, so arranged that the combustible mixture passes alongthe tube, 53, at high velocity thus preventing back ignition; or in some cases the straight mixing tube, 53, may be replaced by a mixing tube, in the form of a coil. The combustion chambers may be arranged radially to the axis of the wheel or with their axes in planes parallel to the axis of the wheel and at any suitable angle to the plane of rotation or in any other convenient and suitable position.

I have already'described with reference to Figs. 2 and 3 one form of the combustion chamber which I prefer to use as applied to a turbine together with the governing gear rendering it capable of working under the widely varying conditions involved in the present invention. In order to make the arately driven compressing plant for supplying the necessary air under pressure for either the air or steam superheated turbines. In the latter case the air compressor may be driven from the secondary turbine, assisted if need be and for purposes of starting by a primary turbine suitably governed to give the right amount of air to the system. The compressor for this purpose may be of the reciprocating type working with say three stages, and arranged to compress as nearly isoth'ermally as possible. lVhere the turbines are worked by air and the products of combustion and the power required for compression is considerable the compressing must be performed wholly or in large measure by means of a rotary compressor using liquid as the medium of compression. This compressor is driven by a separate air turbine, and may be governed by means of intermittent operation as already described in this specification. Separate air reservoirs with proper air governing arrangements are provided, so that a constant supply and small storage of air is kept, the storage of air being also necessary for starting purposes. serew operating turbines so that they can be easily handled by means of suitable valves, and worked under conditions of maximum economy at the various speeds and torques required from them Where I desire to drive paddle boats which do not require such large powers as above contemplated, I still prefer to use the same class of turbine consisting of oppositely running wheels. I may attach large toothed gear wheels, 56, (see Fig. 20) to the shafts of the paddles, 57, with two pinions, 58, gearing into each of these main wheels- On the ends of these pinion shafts, I fit worm wheels, 59, and into these are geared worms,

60, mounted on the shafts of the oppositely running wheels of the turbine, 61. The turbines may be of the variable speed and reversing type, as already described, and one complete turbine is then fitted to each paddlewheel, as shown. This arrangement enables rotation in either direction to be effected on each wheel independently of the other and therefore gives the boat facility for handling the best together with good economy under all conditions. It is obvious that many detailed variations of the application of the turbines which I have described may be made to the driving of paddle wheels.

According to another method (see Figs.

gear wheels. 56. which when it is desired to operate the paddles separately I fix upon the two separate shafts each carrying a paddle as in the form of drive described with referrect into the corresponding gear wheel, 56;

the motor wheels driving the other paddle wheel also have their shafts fitted with pinions, (32 but these latter in order to get the right direction of rotation drive the corresponding gear wheel, 56; through an idler wheel. ()4. According to this method I can either ru'n ahead or astern.

I provide both the shafts carrying the paddles with brake wheels, (35, and brake shoes or clamps, 6 pivotally mounted at (37*, (see particularly Fig. 22) so, that I can hold either of the paddle wheels. It is then possible with the reversing turbines to run the other wheel either ahead or astern. In this way, although the operation of the boat may ordinarily be by means of both paddles going ahead or astern, I am able to obtain additional control for turning in a circle of small radius or of other purposes of easy handling. The wheels when both free also rotate atditl'erent speeds when the vessel is making a circle, and this facilitates the steering of the boat. In place of gearing through an idler wheel one/of the main gear wheels may gear with an externally toothed.

spur wheel and the other with an internally toothed spur wheel provided that both sets are approximately the same ratio of gearing.

I wish it to be understood that although I have described my invention as applied to ships. boats and the like, yet it is evident that it may be applied to other power in stallations in which it is necessary to vary the torque according to the power required, as in those cases where it is required to run speeds other than the normal for considerable periods of time.

I wish it to be understood that where in the foregoing description and claims I have the. working fluid of varying operative.

lengths, together with means for supplying working fluid to any of said paths at will.

2. In combination, a turbine having one or more bladed members, a plurality of guides coaeting with the blades of said members to form a plurality of paths for the working fluid of varying operative lengths, means for gene 'ating said working fluid, means for heating said generated fluid by internal combustion, together with means for supplying said fluid to any of said paths at will.

3. In combination, a turbine having one or more fluid members, a plurality of guides coaeting with the blades of said members to form a plurality of paths for the working fluid of varying operative lengths, means for generating condensable elastic fluid, means for heating said condensable elastic fluid, together with means for supplying said fluid to any of said paths at will.

4. In combination, a turbine having one or more bladed members, a plurality of guides coaeting with the blades of said members to form a plurality of paths for the working fluid of varying operative lengths,

a source of elastic fluid under pressure, a

source of fuel, a combustion chamber in which said elastic fluid and fuel are burned, together with means for leading working fluid from said combustion chamber to any of said paths at will.

5. In combination, a turbine having one or more bladed members, a plurality of guides coaeting with the blades of said members 'to form a plurality of paths for the working fluid of varying operative lengths, a source of condensable elastic fluid under pressure, a source of compressed air, a source of fuel, a combustion chamber in which fuel and air are burned to heat said condensable.

elastic fluid, together with means for leading the working fluid from said combustion cllaniber to' a liy of said paths at will.

6. I11 combination, a turbine having one or more bladed members, a plurality of guides coaeting with the blades of said members to form a plurality of paths for the working fluid of varying operative lengths, together with a second plurality of guides coaeting with theblades of said members to form a second plurality of paths for the working fluid of varying operative lengths for reversing the direction of rotation of site directions, a plurality of guides coactname to this specification in the presence of ing with the blades off said {HQIHEQI'S ti) fgrn; two subscribing witnesses. a iluralit of aths or'the W01 ing ui 0' va rying Zpera tii'e lengths, to ether with SEBASTIAN ZIANI DE FEB'RANTL means for supplying working uid to any Witnesses: of said paths at will. ROBERT MORRISON N EILSON,

In testimony whereof I have signed my V VIVIAN ARTHUR HUGHES.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2478206 *Feb 24, 1944Aug 9, 1949Westinghouse Electric CorpMultirotor gas turbine power plant with propeller
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Cooperative ClassificationF01D1/30