US 996741 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
AERIAL VESSEL. APPLICATION FILED FEB. 21, 1910.
Patented July 4, 1911.
2 SHEETSSHEET 1.
W. WAIT. AERIAL VESSEL. APPLICATION FILED FEB. 21, 1910.
Patented July 4, 1911 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
peller, especially v edge and down-turned at the trailing edge, with the outlet or escape for the air at the .of th New York, Iuseful Improvements in Aerial Vessels, of which the 'tion, and is directed well as upward. I
5; Fig. a transverse section on the line UNITED STATES PATEN T orFIon.
WESLEY WAIT, OF NEWIBURGH, NEW YORK.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, WESLEY WAIT, a citizen of the United States, residing at Newburgh, in the county of Orange and State of have invented certain new and following is a specification.
This invention pertains to aerial naviga- 'to that class of structures enerally classed under the designtion, ."l1elicopter. More specifically, the invention resides in afnovel construction of a bladed wheel in the nature of a screw pr o designed to give the-lifting effect requisite for structures of the class, though ca able of use for effecting movement in orizontal or other direction as The wheel comprises a blade or blades, preferably two, each'of which, assuming that the axis of rotation be vertical and the plane of rotation horizontal, is hi her and, wider at the forward or leading edge than at the rear or trailing edge; is progressively narrowerfrom the leading toward the trailing edge; is unobstructed or open atthe leading inner side and near the rear of the blade, and the longitudinal or fore-and-aft edges of which are down-turned similarly to the trailing edge. The purpose sought is the gathering in of a relatively large volume of air by and beneath the blade, its compression, and its discharge toward and close about the axis of -rotation, where, by its accumulation, it shall afford a relatively dense mass or body upon and by which the apparatus may be supported or sustained. In practice, two or more such Wheels will be used in combination, either side by side or superposed, and reversely rotated, to the end that each may act in opposition to or in neutralization of the other as regards the tendency to rotate the entire structure about the axis of the wheel, or about an aXisof its own.
In the accompanying drawings: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic elevation of an aerial vesform Fig. 2, a perspective view of the wheel or propeller; Fig. 3, a top plan view e same; Fig. 4, a section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5, a perspective view of a similar modified form of blade; Fig. 6, a longitudinal section on the line 66 of Fig.
, Specification 6f Letters Patent. Application filed February 21, 1910. Serial no,
, L701 Fig. 5;. and Fig.
I Patented July 8, a perspective Z1183 showing a further modification of the a e. j
'. The present invention is based u on the theory that in order to render possible the lifting of the requisite weight by means of wheels in the nature of screw propellers, it is-necessary to gather in a considerable volume of air, and so compress or compact the same, and retain it beneath the blades of the wheel, that there shall be a relatively firm supporting medium for the structure. The ordinary screw propeller, when rapidly rotated in the atmosphere, tendsin considerable degree to throw the air outward away from the wheel,and in some degree to produce a partial vacuum beneath the wheel, where, instead, the air should be gathered and compressed.- To overcome this eflect or tendency, I construct my wheel as represented in the annexed drawings, in which A indicates a suitable framework provided with two vertical shafts B, C, journaled in suitable bearings, and each connected by gearing with a shaft D'driven by a motor E of any suitable description. Each. shaft B, C, carries at its upper end a wheel or propeller F, preferably of the form illustrated in Figs. 2, 3 and 4. Upon examining these figures it will be seen that this wheel comprises two blades 1, 2, the leading edge 3 of each being relatively wide, the trailing edge 4 narrower, and the longitudinal or fore-and-aft edges 5 being turned downward in a manner similar to the trailing edge 4. This down-turned edge is preferably made of decreasing depth or vertical measurement from the leading toward the trailing edge, as seen in Fig. 4. The inner fore-and-aft edge 5 is cut away or omitted in the rear portion ofthe blade, to form an air outlet Son the side toward the shaft or the axis of rotation, so that air gathered in by the broad mouth or leading end of the blade, and passing beneath/its slanting or inclined top wall, and betweenits converging side walls 5, is forced into a. constantly narrowing space and compressed, but held against free or ready escape, by the downturned edges or walls, untilit' reaches the outlets 6, whence it escapes near to, and is directed toward, the supporting shaft or axis of rotation. f
In the drawings I have represented the wheel as fashionedout metal, and in one piece, a supporting cross of relatively thin 1 vent the vessel as a whole rotating about the axis of the Wheel, or about some point or axis intern'iediate the two wheels-The purpose, of the wheels F is, primarily, to lift the structure from the ground, and. maintain it at the desired elevation, by causing the vessel or structure to tip more or less, movement horizontally, or in a direction other than vertical, may be effected. I have, however, shown the vessel A as equipped mon form, carried by a shaft II, at the front of the structure, and driven by chain or belt I from a sprocket wheel or pulley J carried by shaft 1). A clutch K, controlled by a hand lever L, serves to connect and disconnect the propeller shaft 11 with and from the main driving shaft D. A rudder M is. provided for varying laterally the course of the vessel. I have indicated in Fig. 1 a parachute N, the lower portion only of which is shown, but which is designed to be .used in case of emergency, to retard the descent of the vessel.
In Figs. 5, 6 and 7 I have shown a slightly modified form of the propeller, the essential difference being that the blades are made of less measurement in the direction of rotation, and of greater measurement in a direction radial to the shaft or axis of rotation. In this, as in Figs. 2, 3 and 4, there are two blades 9 and 10, the leading edge 11 of each being-free and unobstructed, ,the
trailing edge 12 being down-turned, the
fore-and-aft edges 13 being similarly downturned, and a discharge opening 14 being provided for each blade at a point near the shaft, or axis of rotation, by cutting away the trailing edge at that point. The action kind as under the previously described construction.
In Fig. 8 is shown a single blade of the same general character as that of Figs. 2, 3 and 4, except that instead of making the top face of the blade incline downward all the Way from the-leading to the trailing edge,
it has such inclination for a considerable portion of the distance, but as it approaches the trailing edge it is directed upward. There is, however, the same flat top 15, inclining downward from the leading edge 16 toward the trailing edge 17 through a considerable portion of the length; there are the same depending fore-and-aft edges 18;
though with a propeller G of com-' there is the same depending trailing edge or skirt 19; and there is an outlet 20 for the air at a point near, and having its mouth directed toward, the supporting shaft or axis of the wheel. The general mode of operation and result are the same as under the first and second described constructions.
In each and all the forms the air is gathered in at the mouth of the blade, is compressed between the inclined top surface and the narrowing or approaching side walls, and is prevented by the depending edges from escaping at the sides, or at the trailing edge, except at'those points near the trailing edge where the inner depending wall is cutaway, to permit escape of air and direct it toward the supporting shaft or axis of rotation.
The dimensions and relative proportions of the wheel may vary within quite wide limits, provided the principles or features .of construction above set forth be retained, and I therefore do not mean to restrict myself to specific proportions or details. 7
In the drawings I have represented the blades as having flat upper faces, and somewhat sharply turned skirts or edges, and this 'is the preferred form, but the same resultsmay be obtained in greater or less degree with blades of substantially semi-elliptical or semicircular cross section. In other words, the essential features, some or all of which may be present in a given structure, are the broad and open mouth adapted to gather the air; the depending skirts or edges serving to confine the air; the outlet for the air at a point near the rear or trailing edge of the blade, and on the side thereof nearest the axis of rotation, the upper surface in all forms inclining downward from the leading toward the trailing edge.
For convenience and certainty of description and statement of claims, it is assumed throughout the specification and the claims that the plane of rotation is horizontal and the axis of rotation vertical, and the claims are therefore to be read with that understanding, though in actual use the parts will not, under all circumstances, occupy such positions. 7
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is If A propeller or wheel having a blade formed with an open mouth, with downturned fore-and-aft and'trailing edges, and with a top face inclining downward from the leading toward the trailing'edge, and
having an air outlet near thetrailingedge,
3. A wheel or propeller having the upper the trailing edge of the blade, both in height faces of its blades inclined downward and and in width. narrowing from the leading toward the 6. In a lifting wheel or propeller a plutrailing edge, and having down-turned edges rality of blades each having an unobstructextendlng from the leading to and across ed leading edge and down-turned following the traillng edge, but cut away near the or trailing edges, the latter cut away or trailing edge on the side nearest the axis of omitted at a polnt near the axis of rotation,
rotation. and the body of the blade being in a plane l 4. In a wheel or propeller, a blade having oblique to the plane of rotation; whereby an oblique surface and down-turned edges the blade is adapted to gather a considerable except at the front or leading edge of the volume of air as it advances, and to comblade, the cross section of the space inclosed press the same and discharge it downward by the top and the down-turned edges proand inward toward the center or axis-of rogressively lessening from the leading toward tation.
the trailing edgeof the blade. In testimony whereof I have signed my 5. In a'wheel or propeller, a blade having name to this specification in the presence of an oblique surface and dow -turned edges two subscribing witnesses.
except at the front or leading edge of the WESLEY WAIT.
blade, the cross section of the space inclosed Witnesses:
by the top'and the down-turned edges pro- ARTHUR N. MEYER,
gressively lessening from the leading toward CALEB H. BAUMES.