|Publication number||US999674 A|
|Publication date||Aug 1, 1911|
|Filing date||May 17, 1910|
|Priority date||May 17, 1910|
|Publication number||US 999674 A, US 999674A, US-A-999674, US999674 A, US999674A|
|Original Assignee||Johannes Sartig|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. SARTIG. METHOD OF REMOVING NIOOTIN FROM TOBACCO.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 17,1910v Patented'Aug. 1, 1911.
EA ii)? 85565 JOHANNES SABTIG, OF NIKOLASSEE, NEAR BERLIN, GERMANY.
METHOD OF REMOVING NICOTIN FROM TOBACCO.
Specification of Letters fiatent.
' Patented Aug. i, ran.
Application filed May 17, 1810. Serial No. 561,823.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JoHANNEs SARTIG, a citizen of the Empire of Germany, residin at Nikolassee, near Berlin, in the Empire Germany, have invented a new and useful Method of Removing Nicotiri from Tobacco, of which the following is a specification.
The known methods of removing nicotin from tobacco or tobacco products by means of high pressure or superheated steam present the defect, that together with the nice- -tin also certain quantities of other volatile constitutent parts of the tobacco, more particularly a good deal of the aroma and of the tobacco resin, are removed from the tobaccoa For the manufacture of nicotin, of course, this fact is of no importance, but for the purpose of smoking this defect is most objectionable, since the quality of the tobacco is necessarily essentially reduced for want of a great part of the aroma and of the tobacco resin, more particularly because the elasticity of. the tobacco is diminished and this the more the higher the temperature is at which the tobacco was-treated, so that the tobacco becomes more or less fragile and consequently in proportion useless.
In the usual fermentation of the tobacco in general the temperature of the latter is not permitted to exceed from to centigrade. Only in the subsequent complete drying of the tobacco and of the tobacco ribs or stalks higher temperatures are employed, many of the experts being of the opinion, that the temperature inthe drying room should never rise beyond 65 centigrade, and that by increasing thetemperature up to or 90 centigrade already the aroma and the elasticity of the tobacco 40 sufier considerable damage. In view of. this fact it would seem, that at temperatures of 100 oentigrade and more oi" the steam the quality of the tobacco will be essentially in-. jured and this the more the higher the temperature is at which the tobacco is treated and the longer the time is during which it is exposed to this high temperature above 100 centigrade. My invention consists in a new method of removing nicotin from tobacco while on the one hand preserving as much as possible the quality of, the tobacco as regards aroma and elasticity and on the other hand obtaining the nicotinin its undecomposed state from the-tobacco, For'attaining this effect, it is absolutely necessary to treat the tobacco at as low a temperature as possible and to avoid every oxidation of the substances con tained in the tobacco, so that every contamination of the treated tobacco with products of the oxidation of the substances and with so-called resinified matters is rendered impossible, while at the same time the nicotin removed from the tobacco is recovered in its undecomposed state. These important requirements are fulfilled with none of the hitherto known methods, but are completely satisfied bymy new method,
which is based upon my detailed experi-,
from without by surrounding liquid, and in conducting the volatilized nicotin with the steam carrying it away to devices of any known construction for nicotin.
I will now roceed to describe my invention with rererence to the accompanying drawing, which represents a vertical section through an apparatus that may be used for carrying into edect the new method.
The apparatus may forexample comprise a low pressure steam generator A, a steaming tray B,a cooler C, a condenser D and an air-pump The low pressure steam generator A. is shown to consist of an open heating vessel 1 filled with water, a closed vessel 2 disposed on suitable supports 3 on the ,bottom of the vessel 1 and mostly filled with water, and at least two tubes 4 and 5 connecting the vessel 1 at the bottom and near thelevel or the water with some steam boiler or other generator (not shown). It will be understood that by heatin the boiler or generator the water will be iept circulating through'the tube 4, the vessel 1 and the tube 5, so that always warm or hot water will be in the .ves sel 1 for heating the water in the closed ves- Sol 2. The latter can be charged with water through a supply tube 6 and a stop valve 7 placed on the cover 39.- A thermometer 8 and a vacuum gage 9 are shown to be provided on the vessel 2, and where so preferred a glass'water gage (not shown) may be equally provided on the vessel 2. The low recovering the pressure steam generator It may also be oi" The steaming tray B is shown to consistof an open heatin vessel it) filled with water, a closed vesse 11 disposed on suitable supports 12, 12 on' the bottom of the vessel 10 and two tubes 13 and 14 connectingthe heating vessel 10 at the bottom and near the level of the water with say the same steam boiler or other generator mentioned above. The closed vessel 11 is shown to be connected with the cover 39 ot the vessel 2 by a bent tube 18 with a stop valve 88 and to contain horizontal bars 15 with several hooks 16, 16, from which tobacco leaves may be suspended in clusters 17. ln case it is desired to steam the tobaccoin a loose'heap or in layers, the bars 15 with the hooks 16, 16 may be replaced by several superposed perforated horizontal removable plates of any known construction, so that it is possible to lay the tobacco in layers on the several plates, or the bar 15 with the hooks 16,16 may be replaced by a perforated liaise bottom at a small height above the bottom proper ot the vessel 11, so that the tobacco can be placed loosely on the false bottom. Lillie, cover 19 of the vessel 11 is preferably provided'with a thermometer 20 and a vacuum gage 21. The steaming tray B described may oi course be of any other known construction, the essential point being, that the steam coming from the vessel 2 through the ipe 18 be enabled to pass through the vesse 11 and to act upon the tobacco.
The cooler U is shown to consist of an. open vessel 22 filled with water, a coil 23 connected at the upper end with the vessel 11 through a tube 24 and at the lower end with a tube 25 without the vessel 22, and of two tubes 26, 27', of which one 26 may connect the vessel 22 at its bottom with some source of cold water and the other tube 27 may connect the vessel 22 near the level of the water with some discharging place. Ui course the cooler G may be ot any other known construction, the essential point being, that the water flowing through the vessel 22 upward be enabled to cool the coil .23 and thereby to condense the steam with the nicotin distilledover from the vessel 11 through the-tube 2t. v 7 The condenser D -'s shown toconsist oit' an open vessel 28 filled with water, a closed vessel 29 disposed/on suitable supports 30, 30 on the bottom otth'e vessel 28 and two tubes 31, 32, or" which one 31 connects the vessel 28 at its bottom with some source or: cold water and the other tube 32 connects the vessel 28 near the level oil the water with some discharging place. A thermometer 83 and a vacuum gage 341 are preferably procorner/a vided on the vessel 29, and where so pre :terred, also a glass water gage may be provided, although it is not shown. The con denser D may equally be of any other known construction or it may be replaced by a simple closed receptacle without any cooling device, the essential point being, that the distillate arriving at the condenser. D or other receptacle be kept at a sufliciently low temperature.
E denotes an air-pump of any known construction, which is capable of sucking the distillate from the vessel 29 through a suction tube 35 and a suction valve 86 and discharges it through a tube 37 to some storage vessel, while the pump E rareties the air in the closed vessel 2 above the water, in the closed vessel 11, in the coil 23, in the closed vessel 29 and in the tubes connecting all these parts together.
My new method is as follows: Tobacco of any kind, either. prepared or fermented or unprepared, either in leaves or as finished products, is introduced into the closed vessel 11, where it may be suspended in clusters 17, 17 from the hooks 16, 16 as shown, or' it may be placediin a loose heap or in layers, as mentioned above. After closing the vessel 11 with thecover 19 the stop valve 38 is opened and the air pump E is started, and the water in the two vessels 1 and 10 is gradually and uniformly heated up to any desired temperature corresponding hp the degree of rarefaotion of the air until he water in the closed vessel 2 commences to boil, when the low pressure steam so generatedwill pass throughthe valve 38 and the tube 18 to the vessel 11 and act upon the tobacco. The steam is prevented from cooling and condensing by the heating ot the vessel 11 with the water in the vessel 1th The steam passing through the tube 2% and carrying with it the tree nicotin separated from the tobacco will be condensed partly in the coil 23 and partly in the vessel 29. The distillate containing the nicovalves or the like (not shown), so that the temperature of the low pressure steam within the vessel 2 can be in this manner adjusted. in a similar manner the temperature oi the heating water in the vessel 10 and consequently the temperature in the closed vessel 1.1 can be adjusted. Also the out any condensation.
temperature of the cooling water passing through the vessel 22 of the cooler C and through the vessel 28 of the condenser D can be adjusted by means of stop valves or in any other known manner.
The stop valve 38 shown may be useful for the operation of the apparatus, which operation can be varied in accordance with the circumstances. lVhere so preferred, the stop valve 38 may be omitted.
In the manner described above itis possible to distil any quantity of water at any desired temperature under 100 centigrade with the aid of the rarefaction of air'and to pass the steam through the tobacco with- As the nicotin in the room with rarefied air is equally volatile at all the temperatures under 10( centigrade, it will pass with the steam at the moment that itseparates from the tobacco, while of the other volatile constituent parts valuablefor the tobacco, more particularly of the aroma and of the tobacco resin only quantities will separate by distillation which are the smaller, the more ithe temperature of distillation is lowered beneath 100 centigrade. At a temperature of 50 centigrade besides the nicotin no traces of aroma or tobacco resin could be any more found in the distillate which is as clea'rwrs water and perfectly odorless.
When it is desired to fully maintain the aroma and the elasticity of the tobacco, it is now possible with the aid of the rarefact-ion of air toremove the nicotin from the tobacco at a vacuum of about 92 millimeters mercurial column or less which corresponds to a maximum temperature of 50 centigrade or less. j
By the method so far described only the free nicotin contained in the tobacco can be distilled and recovered, but not the nicotin bound With acids. In case it is desired "to also distil and recover the nicotin bound with acids, it will be necessary to first treat the tobacco or tobacco products in any known manner with ammonia before freeing it from the nicotin. This can be effected for example in the manner, that either the tobacco is simply sprinkled with a watery solution of ammoniaand is allowed for sometime to be thereby acted upon, or the tobacco or tobacco products is or are for some-time placed loosely or suspended in a closed vesselon the bottom of which a sufiicient quantity of ammoniacal water is placed, ,unt-il the tobacco is suiticiently. saturated with water steam and ammoniacal' steam. Thereby all the nicotin bound with acids contained in the tobacco is freed from its combinations and is replaced by the ammonium.
When the tobacco treated with ammoniais introduced into the steaming tray B and the apparatus is operated in the manner -ing the duration of the distillation.
described above, a distillate will be obtained which contains besides the distilled and undecomposed nicotin the excessive ammonia previously contained in the tobacco. From the distillate the nicotin can again be recovered in any known manner.
The tobacco treated with ammonia or ammoniacal water can be at will more or less completely freed from nicotin by vary- The tobacco so freed from nicotin contains ainmonium instead of the nicotin separated and originally bound with acids, but otherwise it contains all the remainin constituent parts, more particularly the full aroma and all the tobacco resin and extractive matters, so that this tobacco freed from nicotin can be Worked in exactly the same manner as the tobacco not freed from nicotin and has suffered no damage, so that it is fit for smoking purposes.
From detailed experiments I have established the fact, that certain kinds of tobacco containing a high percentage of nicotin and being called heavy by the smok ers prove when freed from nicotin at a tem perature of at most 50 centigrade according to the above described method to be still heavy. When, however, these heavy kinds of tobacco are treated with low pressure steam in closed vessels with rarefied air at temperatures above 50 centigrade, but under 100 centigrade, according to the above method, the tobacco freed from nicotin will prove to be more or less light in accordance with the amount of temperature employed, while the aqueous distillate will contain besides the nicotin and ammonia the more of the aroma, the 7 higher the temperature employed was. In cases, therefore, where it is desired to turn a ver heavy tobacco into a lighter kind by freeing it from nicotin while disregarding a loss or a smaller part of the aroma, this can be effected according to my method by more or less increasing the temperature above 50 centigrade in proportion to the quality required, care being taken that this temperature-in the closed vessel with rarefied air be kept under 100 centigrade. In this manner the tobacco can be simultaneously freed from nicotin and rendered lighter without removing too great parts of the aroma and of the tobacco resin from the tobacco. The tobacco freed from nicotin and renderedlighter is still sufiiciently aromatic and elastic, can be well worked and is fitfor smoking purposes.
In the drawing I-have shown cooling and condensing devices, in which the air is rarefied, for turning the steam containing the nicotin into a watery solution of nicotin, from which the-nicotin can be recovered in any known manner. Instead vofthese devices of course also other devices of any known kind may be used, in Which the steam containing the nicotin can be treated in any known manner for recovering the nicotin, either in its free state or in combination With acids. For example the steam containing the nicotin may be passed through a diluted solution of acid in a suitable recipient With rarefied air for binding the nicotin With the acid, and the solution may be concentrated in the same rarefied air.
1. The method of removing nicotin from tobacco, which consists in passing lovs pressure steam in a continuous current through the tobacco in a suitable vessel while raretving the air in the latter so as to keep the temperature of the steam at any point beneath 100 ccntigrade, in at the same time preventing; the steam during its passage through the tobacco from cooling and coneasemtobacco in a suitable vessel while rarefying the air in the latter so as to keep the temperature of the steam at any point he neath 100 centigrade, in at the same time preventing the steam during its passage through the tobacco from cooling and con (lensing, in recovering the nicotin carried oft" with the steam, and in Working the tobacco as usual for smoking purposes.
Witnesses lVoLoEMAn HAUPT, HENRY Plasma.
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