US RE10944 E
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ELECTRICAL CONDUCTOR- No. 10.944. Reissud July 17, 1888.
BY W WZZY.
' the drawings 1o PAT NT ()FFICE- I EDWARD wssToN, OF NEWARK, NEW-JERSEY;
srnczmcarz'o'n iormiug part cinemas Letters Patent No.
- Original No. 381,304,
.To all-whom it may conccrrt:
Be it known that 2], Enwaajn \Vrsros, a .snbjcct of the Queen of Great. Britain, and. a residentbf Ncwarluiu v the county of Essex and Stateof New-Jersey, have discovered and in vented ccrtal'u new and useful Improvements in Electrical Conductors, of which the'following isa specification,rel'crcncebeiug had to accompanying and forming-part of the same. I
Thereare a great many electrical devices containing long lengths of conduct-or, usually in the form of coils or in convolutions, through which inlhe use or application of the instrumcntthe current is passed, and in which it is desirable, and often extremely important, to preserve a constant resistance. This is frequently-a :nrttcr of the greatest dilliculty, inasmncli as a strong current is apt to raise the temperature of the conductor, and this, at least with all metallic conductors heretofore used, operates to-iucrease its resistance; In fact,
the resistance of all such instruments varies --'o'l temperature of V a metallicalloy,
1 either. made wholly 5o haveasu-bstantially constant resistanceunder with the temperatureof the coils or conduct- 1 ors,fo whatever cause-such variation in temperaturemaybedue. Amongtheinstruments which are inj uriousl y afl'ected by this property I of conductors may be mentioned rheostats, artificial resistance, regulators, electrical meters, indicators, or"testing-instruments generally which are connected witlra circuit or branch thereof for determining the strength of-a current or the potential at any point in a circuit. It is evident that a remedy for'this is'ex tremely'desirable, as it would'add greatly to. the value and cflicicncy of everyinstrunient to which it is applied. g
I have discovered that thereis an electric. ally conducting material the resistance of which to'the currentis-lowered byauincrease said-material a property which belongs .to no known electrical cor;- dnctor, so'faras I am aware.' This material is I and this alloy is a' means,when interposed in an electrical circuit, whereby I I carry' my discoveryinto practical eflect.----I utilizesaid alloy in electrical conductors of said alloy coils, helices, l or the like, for such instruments a s'shouldl variable temperature, by making one part of 1 datedApy-il I7, 1888. AIndicationforrl-issuufilcd May ll, IP89,
-of resistance in the will neutralize each lmon'form, and contains 10, dated July 17, 1888.
Serial No. 273,302.
portion of German ordinary metals. In such case the resultant resistance is substantially constant, provided the change-in the two as well as opposite.
of which lowers with increase of temperature is composed of copper, manganese orferromanganese, andnickel. This may be usedfor one portion of a coil and copper or German silverfor the other, so that should the coil be heated by a current or otherwise the changes other.
To secure an ex-' act balance is a matter easil y determined by parts of the coil be equal" The alloy the resistance the coil or helix" of thcsaid alloy and the other silver or some other of the two portions of the'coil adjustment of the lengths of the two portions of the coil, or by the metals used in the alloy. I prefer to-employ with German silver or copper analloy containing from sixty-five to seventy parts of copper, tweutyefive to thirty parts manganese, and two and one-half to ofnickeh in lieu of manganese greater cheapness. In the drawings I of coil to which t c invention is advantageousl y applied.
Fign rel represents a rheostat or artificial resistance. Itmay be of any convenient or coma'certain number of coils, B C, whichare here shown as wound on or supported by bars or rods D D. The whole numbcr'of coils may be inserted in a given circuit in series, or'auy one or more pairs of I them may be so inserted; but however the coils may be used with a rise of temperature, while theother 1 portion ,is often alioyql he re described above.
tions-the changes in resist- Under these condi the relative proportions of" have shown various forms at increases in resistance of 'l'crroten parts I prefer to use the ferro-manganese' pure on action at 'o'f i ts '7 ance in each portion are equal and opposite,
under SilllllflF'OOlJllifiOll of temperature, so that the total resistance remains-constant.
-Fig. 2 is a form of magnet. suchas might be used in electrical regulators to-preserve the resistance 'of the coil; constant. They are made partly of oncol' the ordinary-metals -or alloys, such part ngl dcsig ter E, and partly of "the alloy above described,
106 nated by the let- (represented atF.) In likemannerl construct a helix, as in Fig. 3, which may be used in a meter and indicator and the like, and also the coils of such instruments as galvano meters, Fig. 4. In these figures, E designates the part of the coil or coils composed of the usual metals, and F that composed of .the alloy oi copper, manganese or ferro-manganese, and nickel.
What I claim isl. A metallic electrical trieal resistance of which crease of temperature.
2. An electrical alloy of copper or and nickel.
3. An electrical conductor composed of an alloy of sixty-five to seventy parts copper, twenty-five to thirty parts ferromauganesc, and two and a half to ten parts nickel.
4. An-electrical conductor consisting of two metallic portions, the jni nt electrical resi stance of which remains substantially constant under conductor the elecdimiuishes with in conductor consisting of an its equivalent, manganese,
'which decreases all variations of temperature.
5. A conductor consisting of two metallic portions, one composed of a material the electrical resistance of which increases with an increase in its temperature, and the-other composed of a material the electrical resistance of under similar conditions, as and for the purpose specified.
6. A conductor consistin' portions,'one of which is composed of a material the electrical resistance of which increases with anincrease in its temperature, and the othcr'is composed of an alloy of copper or its cquivalentnnangancsc and nickehas set forth.
7. A rheostat; resisflance, or other electrical instrument of iluctors of which consist-of twoportio'ns, one composed of a metal or an alloy the electrical resistance of which increases with an increase in its temperature, the other of an alloy the resistance of which'decreases umler similar conditions, as set forth. I
, EDWARD WESTON.
got two metallic the kind described, the con-