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Publication numberUSRE118 E
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 13, 1848
Publication numberUS RE118 E, US RE118E, US-E-RE118, USRE118 E, USRE118E
InventorsP. B. Mouse
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Improvement in electro-magnetic telegraphs
US RE118 E
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

, 4 Sheets-Sheet 1.A S. F. B. MORSE.


Reissued lune 13, 1848.

Y '4- sheets-sheet 2. s. F. B. MORSE.


Reissued'; June` 13, .1848'.

No. na.

4 Sheets-Sheet 3.



BeSsued June I3, 1848."

No. 118. I

4 Shets-Sheet 4.l S. F. B. MORSE.


.Reissued June 13, 1848.'

f 0! signals.




Specification forming part of Letters Patent No.

4,453, dated April 11, 1846; Reissue No. IIS, dat-ed I June 13, 184s. i y l To alL whom it may cmwern:

Beit known that I, SAMUEL F. B. MoRsE,

now of Poughkeepsie, in Duchess county,in the State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in tle Electro-Magnetic Telegraphs; and I do hereby declare that'the following is a full, clear, and exact description of theobject,constrnction,and operation thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and making part of the same.

The original and final object of all telegraphing is the communication of intelligence ata distance by signs or signals.

Various modes of telegraphing .or making signs or signals at a distance have for ages been in use. The signs' employed heretofore have had one quality-in common. They are evanescent, shown or heard amoment, and leaving no vtrace ot' their having existed. The varions modes of these evanescent signs have been by beacon lires 'of differentl characters, by ags, by halls, and reports of tire-arms,y by

bells heard from a distant position, by movable arms from posts, &c. I do not therefore claimto be the inventor ot' telegraphs gener(1 ally. The electric telegraph is a more vrecent lkind of telegraph proposed within the last century; but no practical plan was devised until about sixteen4 years ago. Its distinguishing feature is the employment of electricity to et'- feetv the same general result of communicating intelligence at a distance by signs or signals.

vThe various modes of accomplishing thisend by electricity have been the employment ot' common ormachine'electricity as early as 1787 to show an e'vanescent sign by the divergence 0f pith-balls; the employmentof common or machine electricity in 1794 t-o show' anevan` esceilt signbytheelectric spark; the employment of volt-alc electricity in 1809 to show an evanescent sign by the evolu tion of` gas-buhbles vdecomposed from a solution in a vessclof transparent glassy the employment of voltaic electricity in the production ot' temporary maguetism in 182.0 to'show au evanescent sign byV detiecting a-'magnet or compass-needlefj The result contemplated from all thesefelectric telegraphs was the production ot' evanescent signs or signals only. I do not therefore claim to have first/applied electricity to telegraphing for the purpose of showin gevanescent signs The original and final object of my telegraph isto imprint characters'at any distance as siguals for intelligence. Its object is tomark or impress them .in a permanent manner. To attain this end I have applied electricity in l novel process the motive power of electro-magnetism,or magnetism produced by electricity,` to operate machinery for printing signals at any distance; second, I have applied the chemical eliects of Aelectricity to print signals at any distance.

The apparatus or machine with which I mark or imprint signs or letters for telegraphic purcircuits or conductors consisting of the main the machinery ot' both termini.

(See Sheet-IIII,iFig..ti.-)' The Vpart Nis of wood or some convenient nonf'c'onilucti ng substance.` 3 is a'springor lever of metal, 'fastened upon a knob o'r`hammer, @traced witlr platinum. u is a'metal'l-ic anvil, alsof-facedI with. platinum. Parts ofthe eleetricconductor terminate at the key, the onepart-att-he anvil u and the other aty the hammer t, in such awaythat the tween the points u and t. The object ot' the key is to close and break .the circuit.

minus consist-s of the receiving-magnet. (See Fig. 4,-Sheet II.) H H are the coils or helices ofthe magnet, being part of the main'circuit magnet in a form to enable me to enlarge the coilsor,`v helices without separating to an inother. K K represent the 'upper and lower portions of the magnet, which are without the piece with them. oneend to this piece by a screw at o', and runs divergent from the position ot' the other bar in such a manner as to bring the twopoles two distinct ways: First, I have applied hya poses at a'distance I thus descrihe, viz. z' 1 first,` the machiueryat the transmitting terminus;-

second, the machinery at the receiving or re-` eording terminus; third, tlle'arrangement ot' circuit and. local circuit or 'circuits connecting Y First, theI mchineryat the transmitting-ten? mlnus consists `of the key or correspondent N'.

N at oneend andtenminatingat the otherl in.

only part broken of the entirecircuit is be- Second, the'lnachinery at the receiving ter'-, d y

ofeonductors. K K (see Figs. l and 5, Sheets yII and III) represent the iron ot the electro-.-

convenient distance the poles L L from each coils, and one of whichunites the two portions y of the magnet within the coils, forming one-` Ihc other bar is` united at'. I

,fIIijnear' eac-hv otherlbn'tj notin contact.' This arrangementadmits fof coils of anydesired ine toiorm--thehelices of a magnet without requiring any increase in thev size of the' ar mature, thus allowing tothe amature a quicker vibration and amore delicate adjustment. The l lspecial object `of the receivinglmagnets to close and vbreak a't a distance another-circuit,YA` called a"localcircut,,in which localcirc-uitis I .g is magnet-and battery or 'their equivalents for 'fthelprodction ofthe power necessary to mark or. imprint characters.

a is 'the armatureof the receiving-magnet',

v "aflxed tothe metallic lever T, supported by the; -v `metal standard gP, which, is Vattached to a.; jwooden 'frame or other"nonconducting subfi stance, M.. j is a springl so attached tothe o 'lever Teas to withdraw the armature s from the' poles L Lef themagnetwhen the magnetic force is withdrawn, -the'othr extremity ofthe spring being so attached to a .thumb-scre'w, 9,3 ',as to be adjusted to,y any desired .degree of': f strength or delicacy. Lis a stop (being a screw'. with a head) to'regulate, in connection with an-. l other metallic screw,1y, the limits of motion of-f the lever T. Tile screwly has'its end, w, faced with platinum-in order'eto form better contact --with 'thef platinum point orsnrface 'n on'l the i" lever T. On the -proper'adjnstment of these twoscrewfs l and y depends' the 'eili'cie u'cyof the receiving-magnet.,V i'lhelimits vofmotion shouldbesnch that'when the magnet is charged the point c shouldcome i'nv contact with the- .poi nt'w, but the surface ofthe armature shouldnot touch the surface ofthe poles of the mag netgand when the magnetis not chargedthei` armature 'should 'not be withdrawn by the' spring j beyond the sphere ofthe magnets 'fat-' traction.' 1 1 `#The register consists ofa series of wheels and "pinions, and its' object is to'regulate the move- 'ment of paper or othermaterial upon which to imprint telegraphic characters, Y' A A, 8vo., Sheets II I,Figs. 1 and 3, represent. v the platform, of wood or'otherconveni'eut nmterial, upon'which is to be imprinted the telegraphic characters D, one form ofthe arrange-y ment ofthe-'wheels and pinionsv of 'the register; id e, rollers for drawing' the paper in .contact with the pen or marking-roller?. (Seen also on f sheet 111, Fig. 1o.) i

Sheet II, Fig.' 3: E represents'thehelices or coils and'magnet of the registerj-F, the -pe n'l lever and armature" 'of vthe* magnet vattached.

5 6 'are vstops,' b'eing thumb-'screvsattacliedftof someconvenent iixedpart of the' machinery, for limiting the motion of leverF, to whichy isA aixed both the armature of the magnet E and the pen pointer points g. The stop 5 arrests the movement vof `thearmatnre as it moves toward and stop 6 as itrecedes from (by the action of the spring V7) the poles of the magnet, according as magnetism existsorce'ases. The spring? so operates on the lever F as tc be antagonistic to the attractive power of 'the electro-magnet E-not soy strong as success-y fully to resist the magnetic power whenexcited,

i 2 f y flits' :butfstron'g enough wheny the magnetic power to'bringthe armature back quickly.. Varm'ature'ir'i its movements should not be al-l lowed t'otouchv thefface--fof the magnet, nor

'should'tlie ,point or points `g (of which. there may beoneor-m'ore at pleasure) be allowed to touch th'efbottom of the `,Cgro'o'vejor grooves' of i the roller 21 vThe pen point or points, 'if they arescrews, aid in anexact adjustmentof the'V penllever. f

n Thefframe 'D vcontainsthetrai-not wheels whose lmotio'n'is caused-by 'the weight a or itsequivaientf Oonuected'wthithis train ofwheels '-is the self-'stopping apparatus G G', 'which consists-ofa friction-'wheel or brake=whee l', i, of any suitable material,4 as fwood, orki'flfc, which.v vshould be tix'ed -u'ponany convenient *partof 'the y`wh eel shaft, or the swiftest or vone of the .swiftest inthe train. i Another shaft,1( has at, 'fonefexitreinity afpulle."-wheel connectedby ja #small cordwith anbtherpelleywheel, G'i'x'd i [upon vthe'shaftof; the barrelb.v The diameter .of; the pulleywheel Gis greaterthan that fof" G'fifttached t'o-and fomingapartofthe shaft:v

othersuitable niateriah'sc formed esto-come .l in contactwith the friction wheel 17:5.. Ay light "rod ot`.wire,m, secured atoneextremity to andv 1 dOPPdfrom the pen-lever Fg has the other exytreinity'l f with a scre'xvthreadcut upon it, which 'passesfreelyi Athroughv an; openingin the.' brake k. A 'nut fitting thescrew keeps'4 the rod l ffromi'nsins beckhwifsnthe opening-and 't -v adiustand regulate the' l e 'tlllie'object of fthe self- Btopping vapparatus` toenable the operator to', 'pnt in 'action or to ernennt-pleasuretheginovez j the same time' serres Rarement cfg-theel tween'and uniting the'two -poles'offa battery' or any generator of electricity.;-figuse -in- .'=nn y arrangemeutwfor imprinting signals. 4tue' g binations of circuitsin `connection with-'the re- `ceiving-magnet or its'equivalent:

. The first combination consistsof two otfmore single' circuits consecutively arranged,` `each havinga battery and receiving-magnet ortheir equivalents, the second circuit; being dependent on the-.rst circuit@v and ,thethirdfonthe ,scond, and the fourth on the third and so on aid-inntum'like linksofa chain;y .Inthis' combination of circuitsfthe' entireline'i de-- revfeyud'yZp-Fig.. '10,;Sheet i withtliemhaf'whwls@ that thejpaperdrawn'ifrom{the-reelgby'pass-L ing between d and'e'SJdldQ lQ- beil'l contact.' with thegrooved cylinder i2. The 'roller elia kept inconta'ct'withrd E by the forked spring in v Fig. 4ltlbellil" ing' upontheends'of vthe journals,-` -Y and regiilatedlinA its strength byjthe thumb-,1 screws` 8 and 9.v The bearing' for' 'for the ends of the shafts of care not cireulargbut are slots to vallow of a slight movementin 'a dif; rection-with and against the forceof-thesprin'g, f so that the spring shall aetzwith'"proper,powerQV tending to'A keep the cylinder einfcontactwftlx'd; il'he .,"of 5 continuons-'connection by a goodeonductorbel its equivaleutclosesand breaks an independent;

second circuit, which is no part ot' the main llne-,nor is the main line influenced in its action by the derangement of any oneor all ot' the localorsecondarycircuits. Bothcombinatio'ns of circuits may beinsulated upon posts, or otherwise, to a'ny distances throughout acountry These two combinations 'of circuits areillustrated by Figs. Sand 9, Sheet 1V. l

4:Example 1.-The h'rst link has a battery, G. From the pole P the circuit connects the anvil D ofv a key. or correspondent where it terminates. From E it againcom in ences, and, passing through F, continues to the plate C in the earth, thence through the, earth to plate B, and then through the helices of the magnet A, terminatingat theotherapole,.N, of the battery.- At the key F E D is the only part of thecircuitbrolten-tot-wit, between E and D. When Eris pressed down so' as to toueh'l) the circuit is closed,and, the magnetic influence from the battery Gr operating on A, the lever F' E' 1) of the second link is brought down. D -and E are connected, (the only broken parts of the second circuit similarly arranged as thevrst.) andy the battery G operates the helices of the maUnetA connected with an- B other lever, and so on to a third link indefinitely.

Example-2, Fig. {L -From one pole of 'the main battery M the conductor proceeds to the key P, where it is interrupted, (as in the key F E D ot'the previous example,) and thence proceeds to the plate K in the earth, passing through'theearth to the plate L at the other terminus. From L itpasses to a similar key, R, thence through the helices of receivingmagnet O to an intermediate key, Q, thencethrough the helices ofreceivingnlagnet N, and so completeing the circuit at the other pole of the battery M. The local circuits are without the main line. When not in use'the keys P, Q, and R are kept closed, so thatwherever there is a key upon the line anioperator can command the whole line by breaking and closing circuit with the key at his station. Each key operates every receiving-magnet on the lille. N and'O both operate when either of the keys P, Q, or Ris made to close and-break the circuit. When the main circuit is closed the 'magnetism at N and O operates the local lever or key which connects the local circuit,

- having the loca l battery S `and the. registermagnet T in the. local circuit,causin'g the lever` operated by T to mark the characters on the paper at U.

.In the Example 1 .the receiving-magnet propagates the magnetic impulse from circuit to circuit on consecutive and mutually-depend- `pendent circuits.

a -is permitted to move the whole train.

ent circuits. In Example 2 it is propagated from 4 a main circuit simultaneously to 'inde- Connection Qf `the other parts of the machincry with then'rcuits.-0. Sheet ll, Fig. 3` is the main battery, from one pole of which-tho main conductor n' proceedsto the plattev Q in theearth. From thenceitpasses in the direction ofthe arrow to the plate Q, thence to the; key N, vwhere ity terminates at t. Ooinmcncing 'again at u, it proceeds to the helices ofthe ma'gnet K K and back to the other pole ot' the battery O.

R is the local battery, from'one pole of which the conductor X X X ot' the local circuit proceeds to the screw y and to the point w, where it terminates.

ard P to the screw z, from thence through the helices ofthe registerfmfiguet E, and thence back to the other pole ot the battery R.

'Having thus described the object and'coustruction of my inven|ion,-and 'the connection of the different parts ot` the. machinery with each other, I will new describe theV operation of the system combined as a whole.

The' register D is at rest and the weight v prevented from acting land moving the clock'- work by the pressure or t'rictionof the brake` k upon the brake-wheel i, the brake being kept in contact with the brake-wheelv by the'power ofthe weight' itself. Now, `when the key or correspondent N is pressed down, so that the metallic hammer t shall strike the anvil u, thisv being'the only part of the main circuit that is interrupted or broken, the circuit of conductors from the two poles of the main battery' O are byl this act connected, and the electricity from the battery freely passes through the en,- tire circuitn n'a, imparting magneticpower t0 the helices HH of the receiving-magnet K K. The armature S on the metallic lever T isI now attracted by the polesA L Land e w.,

The only part of the local circuit broken are broughtitogether, closing the local circuit .r a: w of the local battery R, which instantly imparts Amagnetic power 'to the register-magnet E, to strike the point or peng against the paper. The rising of the lever F has suddenly raised the braike k, by means of the rod m, from the brake-wheel t', so that now the weight The rollersd e commence drawing the paper in regular time from the paper-reel' C. It' the key,

which has been pressed down is now released and the circnitbroken, the lever F falls, the power being gone that held it; but when it falls the lower end of the brake-rod, having free play through' the opening i-n the brake-lever, does not, in its descent, take down the brake, bntleaves it to the action of the clockwork gradually tobring it down into contact again with the lirake-wheel.4 While closing and breakingthe circuit, therefore, `for imprinting-the characters, the machine keeps in movement, for every rising of the lever F, in

the act of writing or imprinting, prevents the Gommencingat e on the lever T, it passes'through the metal staudbrake-liever vfrom riescendin vund coming in l vcontact'. vwith thefbrake-wheel, forpthe vcord v which connects Gwith G' slips'upoii. thesma'll'- est wheel G', from the quickness of-th'e action' ot' the. lever; but whenihecircuiti remains'- brok en fora-Short lime; the lever- Filis-win g 'brake lever ik i n-slowlyfiewending` hy 'the nc# vtion nf itlmnmcliiner tillji comes'in contact.

musmman Inf-hismnnner, b5- 'tlefupp'tntus o rgmuchiiie; kor combi-nntionfof machinery alici-'e hscrbell, In'm enabled,` stand-ing t any one station, to1 mark ofr vi lupi int signs or signals'v at ginyother' v station, hoiivteverV distant, anti by a,"conihinii?` tion ofthese machinempymenns' magnetism, alii hein-g iin` order," ,I can jatV the same instant, bypiessnre uponv one vk 'e 5",m au k crimprintthefsanie signs orsignals-'at any.v number of points `throughmit 'the' American continent. This nichinerylfcull the .Ameri-v can'elect'rc-nmgnetic telegraph.A

Wha-t. I claim as, my invention, and llesire'to circuit, of adeviceor contrivnnce 'calledihe v'taining snch a reletion to the register-magnet or other-magneticr contrivances forregistering,

,.and to theilength of'circuit of telegrifphicline aswill en nble me to obtain, with the aid; of a -niain galvnnicjbattery-aud circuit and the i'n- {tervention of local battery and'local circuit, such'fmotion orfpowe'r forfregistering as could .not be obtihed otherwise without the-usc of nmuchflarger galvanc battery,'i'f at"a ll." Y 'Ehe-combination' of the apparatus called llijiself-stoppi'ugapparatne connected withthe 'clock-'work of the register, for setting said? register in action andstoppingy it,nitll the pen- .1evel"F ,-'a`s herein described'.

TlJecombiuution of the point or pointsol" the-"pen and pen-leveror its equivalent with tllejgroo veil rollerv or other .equi-v aleut 'device over vwhich'` the paper orothe rim'ut-eriul vsuitable for marking" upon characters, Vby which means I am' en ubled marker pri'ntsigns'orsignals upon paper orother fabric byindentation, thus dispensing withthe use ot' v coloring-matter for marking, y asspecied in lnyLeitersv Patent of January v15th, 'Y t i. i 1 LSAML. F.^ B;'Mo si:. g

may be. made to, pass fo'r. )the purposeofreceiving'thevim'pression of the short. local independent circnit'orcircuif s,each- '-Witnes'sesr-v f havinga'regisier and register-mgn'et-,or other j GrEog"W010i),` magneticcontriviuncesforregisteringundsinsy" JLTHOMASQLARK.

Referenced by
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US7760192Nov 3, 2005Jul 20, 2010International Business Machines CorporationCadence controlled actuator