US RE11900 E
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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n. DIESEL. lINTERNAL COIBVSTION ENGINE. (Arppxicatian med JulyB, 1900.) I
No. ",900; .n RBIs-sued ApLGZ, |90l. f R. DIESEL.
INTERNAL CDMBUSTIUN ENGINE.
(Application filed July 3, 1900.)
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11I Ivar i- E /N vE/vrof? y UNITED" STATES PATENT" 'OF-ms..r
R'UDOLE` DIESEL, OE. MUNICH, GERMANY, ssIeNOR, BY MESNE AssIGNL MENTS, TO THE DIESEL MOTOR COMPANY OF AMERICA.
` SPECIFICATION forming part ofjReissuedLetters'Patent No. 11,900, dated April 2, 1901. Original lo. 608,845, dated August 9, 1898. Application for reissue led July 8, 1800. Burial Hof221462' To all whom/:it may concern.- it known that I, RUDOLF DIESEL, asubinclini the King of Bavaria, anda resident of in England, No. 4,243, dated February 27,
15 41895; in Switzerland', Nos. 10,134 and 10,135, E dated March 45,'1895'; in Luxemburg, No. -2,192, 'dated December 10, 1894, and lPatent of Addition No. 2,265, dated March 22, 189,5;
in Denmark, No.v 393, dated February 12, zo- 1896; in Austria, No. 46 203, dated January 18, 1896, and No. 46 2,088, dated May 22,.
1896; in Hungary, No. 4,539, dated-Novem ber 23, 1895,and N o. 7,876, dated March 20, H1897; in Italy, LXXV, 132, dated February z5 21, 1895, and in Spain, No. 16,654, dated De- 'cember 3, 1894, and Patent of Addition No. ,17,085, dated March 4, 1895,) Ofwhich the following is aspecification,
My inventionjas reference to improve- 3o -ments in apparatus for regulating the fuell' supply. in slow-combustion motors, and in particular to internal-combustion engines` adapted for carrying out the process described in my priorpatenfNo.542,846, dated J sly-16,
' 35 1895, u'iichJp-ocess consists in first com pressing airor 'a-,mi'xture of air and neutralgas or vapor tp a degree producing a'temperature above the iguiting-point of the fuel to be conf sumed, .then gradually introducingthe fuel 4o for combustion into the compressed airwhile lexpanding against resistance-'sniciently to prevent an essential increase of temperature and pressure, lthen discontinuing the supply of fuel and further expanding without transf .'4 5'fer,of heat.
-In ordinary combustion-engines the regu- A lation of .work done was performed either while 'thegas was'at a constant pressure or,
'- as in' explosivengnes, with the gaa-atoomA 5o spint' volume.
' connection with the engine, whereby the com- .hereinafler'explainedd My inventionvfurtner relates to a system of cOmpressedfair-supply valves and fuel-sup- 'piy valves and their operating mechanisms and means for placing either into operative 55 pressed air is used to start ithe engine on a two-stroke cycle, and then withoutinteriupting the movement of the engine it is made to operate on a four-stroke' cycle in connection with the fuel-supply. v l
Thesnature-of my invention will be best undel-stood' when 'describled .in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which- Figures 1 and 2 are diagrams illustrating the cycle of operation. Fig. 3 is a vertical 65 section of an engine, illustrating one form of fuel-feed, part being broken away'.l Figs. 4 and 5 are similar views illustrating modified forms for the feed. Fig. 6 is a sectional ele vation illustrating another modified form for the same. Fig. I7 shows sectional views of detail parts. Figs. 8, 9, and 10 illustrate in sectional elevation the arrangement of .the 4mechanismfor operating'tixe valve. Figs. 11, 12, and 13 are sectional elevations'illustrat- 75 ing different devices for mixing the air and fuel.
Similar letters and4 Iigures ofv reference designate; corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings. y
Referringnow to Fig. 1-of the drawings,` which illustrates atheoretical indieator-dia gram of the engine, the curve 2 3 corresponds to the period of admission andconsumption o'f l'uel, the fuel being injected under a pres- 8# sure greater than the pressure 0 2 at the point of highestl compression. By varying the excess of pressure under which fuel is injected and in the 'meantime the long-tn or duration-of admission of fuel the cumbustion-curve 2 3, Fig1 1, schanged .both in its l form or position, as in its length 2 3' 2 3*, '&c., thus producing diagrams" Vsuc-l1 .as 1 2 3 4 or 1, 2 3. 4',&c. 4Inall the diagrams shown in Fig. Lthe fuel is admitted at""thel 95 pointr2 of highest compression.` In Fig. 2v the beginningof admission is variable, as wild be :..Referring 'now toFig. -3 for. a description of anfapp'aratus for carrying out the regularot non of the supply of fuel, the letter o designates a cylinder provided with a piston P and with an air-valve V. D is a nozzle for regulating the supply of fuel, by means of which the periods of admission and cut-01T, and consequently the length of the curve 2 3 or 2 3', &c.are determined withthe use of a needlevalve n, actuated by any well-known mechanism. Pulverulent solid fuel is contained in a hopper T, provided with a rotary distributing-valve r. L is a reservoir which is supplied with compressed gas through a pipe m. The gas mayf be air, a combustible gas, or a mixture of combustible gas and air. The air or gas or the mixture of th sameis held under a pressure (by means of a pump or other wellknown means) in' excess of the highest pressure in the cylinder C. Said' reservoir Lfis connected with the cylinder C by a pipe S andwith the hopper T by a suitable branch `pipe in communication with the pipe S.
When the valve 'n is lifted to open the nozzle D, the excess of pressure in the reservoir L causes the gas to iiow through the pipe S and the nozzle D into the cylinder C, carry- .ing with it the pulverulent vfuel discharged bythe turning of the valve r. In this man- 'ner an intimate mixture of gas and fuel is obtained and injected into the cylinder and rapid and complete combustion is insured.
If' the pressure in the reservoir L were fixed and constant, the same combustion-curve2 3 would always result fora predetermined and xed admission and cut-o ,and Aa predetermined or xed highest compression in the cylinder C; but if under these conditions of admission and cut-oi the curve of ,combus-l tionis to he altered or varied then the pressure in the reservoir L mustbe changed. This change is effected by means of the pressure-regulating valve R,.Fig. 3, the weight B of which can be shifted by means of the rod `@suitably connected with the governor of the engine.L4 (Notshown.)v By the coperation of the needle-valve n, which regulates fuel admission and cnt-off and the adj ustable'excess of gas-pressure, the form of the working diagram is determined. In other Words, both variations conjointly produce the variable form of the combustion curve,` distinctly marking the new method of regulating. A'Both A. can be effected by the governor or one b y the governor andl the otherby hand, according to the degree of sensitiveuess required. The valve for regulating the pressure in the reservor L may of course be of any other cony structio'nwhich will answer the purpose and may in the' usual manner regulate the supply throughvthe pipe mL. The pressure regulation can also be applied as' desiredl to thev pump-feeding'tube m. This latter ethod would be adopted should fluid fuel b e xclw sively used, -in which case the reservoir L` vwould act as the pressure vessel of the pump.
the gas therein would keep the dust in sus'- pension. The hopper T might also contain ii'uid fuel.
The mixture of the fuel and gas may take place in the interior of thecylinder or a prolongation thereof, as shown in Fig. .4. In this case the reservoir L contains pure compressed air,and in addition to the nozzleD for pulverulent fuel I provide a nozzle d for liquid or gaseous fuel for the purpose of intensifying combustion. In `this instance the nozzle d is arranged concentric with the nozz'le D, the liquid or gaseous fuel being supplied to said nozzle through the lateral pipe S', 4while the air for combustion and the solid fuel are supplied to the nozzle D through the .pipe S, ,leading from the reservoir.
The nozzles D and d instead of being arranged concentrically may be arranged side by side, as shown in Fig. 5, and caused. to dischargev into a common combustion-chamber J, forming a prolongation of the cylinder and separated from the bore proper of the same by a perforated partition a.. The regulation may be rendered still more sensitive by changing the fixed point 2 of the diagram, for instance, to 2' or 2, Fig. 2, thus varying at the same time the 'height of the ordinate 0 2, 0' 2', O 2, &c., and the length 0 1, 0' 1, 02 1&c., as well as the expansion-curve 3 4, 3 4', 3'l 4, Jac. This regulation is easily effected by opening thefuel-,valve n, not when thel piston is at the commencement of its return stroke, but somewhat later, in which case compression takes place from 1 to 2, Fig. l
2, as before; but-the compressed gas rst expanda on the `return stroke from 2 to 2' or 2 as indicated in dotted lines between 2' and 3',
Fig. 2. It is also evident thatthe lead may be given to the fuel-valve n on the compression-stroke, whereby the upper end offthe compression-line 2 2 is made steepenand the combustionfcurve changed to 2? 3s, taking under circumstances even a form like Zm'". This lead of the valve may be effected by changing the position of the cam actuating said valve, so that the fuel will be introduced somewhat in advance of the end of the comentering at the mouth should be thoroughly Y.
consumed and without the formation of soot."
For this purpose all of the above-described devices for the admission of fuel 'maybe pro-A vided within the cylinder-with an additional burner similar in construction to those used `fettine same purpose for gas-buruers`that is ,veel say, the jet is not permitted' to enter in solidl cylindrical form, but is subdivided into thin sheetsor'jets. lThe construction may be t o of the piston and passes by the tube b, Fig. 6,
`ouliara1 rangement of the bu'rners-as,lor insimilar to the Bnnsen burner, which, aswell known, gives a smokeless non luminous llame. Such burners, .located within .the compression-space, are shown in Figs. 6, 7., 11, 12, and 13. n -A Fig. 6 showsla burner which subdivides the llameiutoa large nulnberofverysmalltongueshaped slow-burning jets. M' and M show other forms of the same. The principle of the Bunsen burner is embodied in M4 and M", the jet leaving the -lower endwhile burning slowly und without discoloration. A'similar eeot is produced by the use of the twyer M.
The ylniformity of diffusion of the heat through Jutthe whole mass of air in the compressor -space is further increased by the pestance,'in'Fig. 11, where owing to the lengthening oi the twyerpipe the burner is attached at E, so that while the piston is receding from I to II the greater part of the air .is compelled to pass'across the burner E.l A
second burner O may be provid/ed.
Fig. 12 shows an arrangement'for introducing the fuel laterally. The ribs R R on the left force the air on its way from the chamberv las.
to the cylinder and while expanding over the burners. The ribs R R'to the righ-t may be attached tothe piston, so that the motion of the latter causes considerable agitation of the air. Finallyas shown in Fig.l 13, the burner itself may be made movable for the purpose of obtaining more perfect distribution of heat. la this case the burner may be attached to the piston and the fuel supplied through a hollow piston-rod.
Figs. 6, 8', 9, and vlO'ahow another way'of carrying outl-he above-described method of regulation, the use of a special air-pump beingdispensedwith.- 11n this-instance the piston itself compressesthe air necessary, not'- however, in the usual way-by the momentum of the Afly wheel after cessation of combus- .j'tion-but during the normal process of work- 45V` ing without interrupting combustion and as an integral part of the working process itself.
Iu-Figs.` 6 and 8 the letter Y designates a valve, through which during the regular working a small quantity of compressed air yescapes at theend of each compressing-stroke into the reservoir L'. The air-pressure in the reservoir, therefore, equals the highest coin- 'pression-pressure in the cylinder; but according to the .previous description of the process an excess of presser( is required for the n`y jection vof the fuel."-To' obtain this result, the fuel-nozzle is not 'opened until the piston has-slightly receded `from the dead-pointthat is to say, until the pressure in the cylinf der has become' somewhat lessened. vAs the .opening ot the nozzlefbythegov'ernor occurs ne reservoir Land thefnolzzle;4 asin Fig. l3. The valve Y can also' be arranged tox be?.`
The injection ofthe' opened at the end of the stroke by4 thepiston itself, or it might bea self-'aeting-reliefvalve, or for it might be substituted a cook or slide valve. Figs. 9 and 10 show the details of the gear for positively operating. the valve Y.' W is I to V. Cam I operates the compressed-air valve Yin normal`working'. Cam- IIIworks the fuel-valve for nozzleD, and cam IVl opcrates the main air-inlet 'and exhaust valve V of the motor. 'lhis gear servesalso in reverse order lto start the motor, compressed air passing through valve Y from the-reservoir L int the cylinder to` drive the'ipiston and this very short starting period thelever H, Fig. 9, takes the dotted position 1I',- where it lever into a hole' h" in the fra-me, so that? the valve Y is movedtby'oam Il instead of V, while the'fuel-cam III i's disengaged.'l Afthe motor obtains its normal speed. At this moment the pin h,'which retains the leverH in position, i s removed. 'The lever is '-aut matically pushed iby spring Fte the normal working position H, carrying .with vit the system of cams toconti'nue the normal working without interruption. ;y As the moving of the cams has to occur at the exact moment, it can only take place when4 a specially-arranged notch in the hub of the cams receivesthe detent p. (See Fig. 10.) i
To adaptthe engine to work on a two-stroke cycle in starting, the cam AI, which operates formed with two diametrieally opposite protuberances, as shown inFig. 8,.so as to-open the said-.valve at every half-revolution of the cam-shaft.l For the'normal o eration` with a four-stroke cycle-fthe cam II. is formed with a single protnberance,-as shown in Fig. 9, so that the fuelvalve is opened only once in each revolutionof the-cam-shaft. f
The valve VY (shown in Fig. 7) serves three purposes-first, to start the motor with compressed-air; secondly, to ll the-reservoir L 'erate asa safetyvalve, it being loaded by a the gases 'can pass to the reservoir 'L and thence through -the safety-valve R voir L, a hand-wheel H2 is applied, by means of whichthe springl can be compressed more or less either whilel the engine is stopped or in motion.
lof the camv III on the shaft W the timefof 'l opening fof the fuel-supply' valve' can be vaa cam-shaft provided' with a number of cams.
is securedk by a pin h, pasxlsin'gy through he cam III, the valveV by cam IV instead of cam ter a few revolutions made in this manner' during normaLworking, and, thirdly, to 'op- 4 To determine the maximum pressure in the cylinder, and consequently that in the reser-v It is evident that byadjustingl the positionl valve Yin tarting the engine. Cam II works v then escapes through' the`valveV. During .85
the compressed-air valve Yat this time, is
spring l, so that on explosion in the cylinder ried-'that tosay, bytnrning the cam eitner tothe right orto the left on the cam-shaft the time of admission will be .made earlier or later. It is also .evident that byinterchangingv cams a dierent timing of admission can be obtained.
What I claim as new is- 1. I n an internal-combustion engine, the combination bf. a .cylinder and pistou oonstrncted and arranged to compress air to a degree producing a temperature above the igniting-pcnt ofv the fuel, a supply for compressed air cr gas; a fuel-supply; a distributing-valve for fuel, a passage from the air-supply to the cylinder in -communication with the fuel-distributing valve, an inlet to the cylinder'in communication with the air-supply and with the fuel-valve, and a cut-o, substantiall as described.
2. In an. nternal-combnstiou engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston couv ntrncted and arranged to compress air te a degree producin a temperature above the ig-` nitingint o the fuel; adistributidg-valve for fue a cut-'off .for varying the time and duration of the supply of fuel, and a burner placed in the combustion space and constructed for slow and perfect combustion of the gradually-introduced stream of fuel,substantially as shown and described. y
3.o., ln an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston con- 'structed and arranged to compress aito a degree producing a temperature above the ig- .pressed air or gas, a hopper, a distributingvalve for pulverulent fuel, a passage from the air-supply to the cylinder in communication with the fuelg distributing valve, an inletvalve to the cylinder in communication with the air-supply and 'with the valve for pulver-xu'- lent fuel, and la cut-oi! for the fuel-supply, substantially as shown and described.
` 4. In an internal slow-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and p iston con- A,structed and arranged to compress air to a degres' producing a .temperature above the iguiting-point of the fuel, a supply for compressed air, a hopper and distributing-valve 5 fuel, a valve or valves leading to the cylinder and communicating with the pulverulent-v plyforcompressed air, a distributing-valve communicating with the air-supply and with a .fnelsupply for gradually ntrodueing a uiting-point ofthe fuel, a supply for'oom-y for pulverulent fuel, a supply-'pipe for liquid.
unitary, or mixed fnel,`into the combustionspace, a valve placed between the air-supply and the cylinder, and a reversing-gear in cooperation with said valve for starting the mcadapted to open the fuel-feed somewhat in advance of the end of the compression-stroke 'of' the piston and to keep it cpendnring part of the working stroke, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
8. In an internal-combustion engine, the
combination of a cylinder and piston consiructed to compress air or a mixture of air and neutral gas, a storage-reservoir in communication with the combusiionfspac of the cylinder, a valve'controlling "this communicanon and opening m admin nmpressed an from the cylinder tothe reservelr, and a fuelfeed in communication with said reservoir for the introduction of fuel to the combustion-- space under the pressure of the compressed air or gas in the reservoir, substantially as described.
.9. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston constructed and arranged `to compress airto a degree producing aftemperature above tle igniting-point of. the -fuel, ,a distributing-valve for fuel, anda cut-o for varyiu the time and duration of the supply cf. fuel y said valve, substantially as described.
10. In an internal-combustion engine, the
combination with the cylinder provided with v fuel and air valve mechanism rfor operati-ng same on a four-stroke cycle, and with means ifor supplying compressed air thereto, of valve mechanism controlling such compressed-air supply and means for operating said valve mechanism to enable the cylinder to worlr with compressed air on a two-.stroke cycle.
11. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination with the combustion-cylinder provided with fuel,- air admission and exhaust v alves, means for supplying compressed air and a v`.lve governing such compressed-air supply, pf valve-operating mechanisms operatedby the engine and adjustable to operate the fuel and exhaust valves on afcur-stroke cycle or to operate the' compressed-air and exhaust valves ou a two-stroke cycle.
12. VIn an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder, a fuelsupply,.a valve controlling the admission of fuel, means for supplying compressed air, including a valve, "cam mechanismv operatedv by said engine and means for placing said cam mechanism in operative relation with either vthe fuel-valve or the compressed-air valve.
13. In an internal-combustion engine, the
combination of a cylinder; a fuel-supply; a
valve controlling the admission of fuel ';-,m`eans for supplying compressed air, including In testimony thaiI claim the foregongas valve; cams of diverse perpheries formed remy invention I have signed my name in presspectively to impart a. forward throw twice ence of two witnesses.
and once in ech revolution and means for RUDOLF D IESL. 5 connecting at will the twothrow cam with the Witnesses:
compressed-air valve or the one-throw cmu FRANZ WALTER,
with the fuel-supply valve. W. SEI'ljz. Y