US RE15019 E
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INTERN/L coMusnoN ENGINE., M-PLICATION FILED DECA I4, i917.-
3 SHEETS-SHEET I Beissued J an. 4, 192.1.
INTERNAL COMB'USTIGN ENGINE.
APPucnl'oH flunuim. 19H.
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INI/EN TOR A l TURN E V5 lLvL/NDGRAF. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. l APPLICATION mw Dec/14, 19u. i
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Ressued Jau. 4, 1921,.
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` UNITED STAT Es PATENT OFFICE.
JUL-IUS LANDGRAF, OF ERIARGLIFF MANOR, NEW YORK, SSIGNOR 'IO T `E`i?"A 'I:'t'C.S ADMS, OF ELMSFR'D, NEW YORK.
HOMAS I NTERNAL-CMBUSTION ENGINE.
Original No. LZZM., dated ctober 24, 1.916, Serial No. 27352211., ledlMay 12, 1915. A
' "l l iessue'iled December 14, 1917;
I To all fwlwnn it MyCom-cern s Be it known that I, 'lomos LANDGHAF, a citizenof theniteld States, and a resident oit Briarclifii' hftanor, in the county of vWestchester and State of New York,'hnv e invented. certain new and useful Improvements in i Internal-Combustion Engines; and .l hereby declare the `l'ollowin'g to he a full. clear, and exact description of the invention7 such as will enable others skilled in the art to yWhich -it appertains to make and use the same. f
The invention relates to. motors of the multi-cylinder type, and .its object is to pro vide a .new .and improved internal combus- Jtion engine arranged to reduce vibration. to
` a. minimum especially .when running the enfgine at'enhigh rate o f speed/...thus rendering the engine exceedingly serviceable for use on automobiles and other power-driven. con- In orderto produce the desired result, use is made of a. crank shaft having cra-nk arms each provided ivith two wrist pins, one slightly in advance of .the other, pairs of converging' cylinders disposed radially relatively to the axis of the crank shaft, pistons reciprocating in tl'iesaid cylinders, and pitmen connecting the pistons of a pair of cylinderswit-h thewrist pins of a corresponding crank arm. Use 1s also made of pairs of admission land exhaustvalves for each pair of cyllnders,thevalves of4 a. panof cylinders having' their stems inali'nement and extend- .ing toward each other, the outer ends of the stems having hea-ds adapted to he engaged alternatelydiy a cam-on. o cam shaft driven from the crank shaft, and springs connecting,r the-pairs of valves with each other.
A practical embodiment of the ,invention is represented in the accompanying drawings 4forming a part of this specification, in `which similar charactersof reference indicate corresponding` partsin all the views.
Figure l a cross section of the internal combustion engine on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 2 isa longitudinal central section of the same on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1, Fig. V3 1s an enlargedsectional side elevation of the valve ...50.
Ilnechanisml for,r pair otcylindcrs, the sccT ,ine '35-3 ot' Fig.. Ll; Fig. 1l.
' isa plan view of the saine withI part in sec tionglfig 51s a perspective view. of a portion of the crank shaft provided with one of l Specification of Reissued :Letters Patent.
. thecrank arinsheving two wrist `crank arm D3 `'are attached to heads N, N and the Reissued Jan. 4, 19am-i.
ppietio for Serial. Nth 207,211. i g l c pins, one 1n advance of the other; and Fig. 6l is a diagrammatic plan View of the valve mech einem for a pair of cylinders.
On the crank case A of the internal combustion engine are mounted. pairs orl .cylinders B and C, of which 'the cylinders of each pair converge and have their axes disposed radially relatively to the axis of the crank shaft D 'extending through the crank cese A. In the cylinders B -andC are mounted to reciprocate pistons E, E connected by pitmen-F, Fwith wrist' pins D, DZ-on `the formingpart of the .crank `shaft D.. The Wrist pins D' and Dfor the pitinen F, F of each pair of cylinders are set. one slightly in advance of the other,l as
plainly indicated in Figs. l, 2 and 5, so that the pistons E and E reciprocate correspondingly in their. cylinders B and .C,as will be readily understood by reference to Fig; 1. The intakes G, G for each pai-r of cylinders B and C are controlled by, admission valves Il, H', and the' exhausts I- and I' lfor' the pairs oicylinders B and C are `controlled by exhaust valves J and J. I
The valve stems H2, Ha of the admission valves H, H extend. toward each other and. are mounted `irrangfed onthe chests L and L attached te or forming parts of the upper ends ofthe pair of cylinders Band C. The valve stems of the exhaust valves J and-J are similarly mounted andy extendtoward each. other. The outer ends of the vstems H2, H3 stems J2, J3 are attached to heads N 2,. N3. The heads N and N are connected with each other by springs 0, and similar springs O connect the headsNz and with' each other. In the heads N and N" are .mountedv balls Pand P in engagement with the peripheral face of a cam Q. mounted on -cam shaft R jonrnaled in suitable. bearings S arranged on brackets T connecting thevchests L and'l/ with cach other. The l1ea ls2.i.T3 are provided with balls P?, P? in .engagement `with. the peripheral'.:tzicer of a` .cam Q secured. o nthe cam shaft R. The cams Q. aiidQ extend yin opposite. directionsgis plainly shown in Fig. 6, so that when .the vulves I-I and I are open, tl'ievalves H and J are .cl' i, and when the valves'ljlfand .l are d'n, ...the valves H and-J.4 are closed. Each bracket to slide in suitable bearings K,
' piston E i piston E owing to the wrist pm D2 being i Tis provided with bearings T,T2 engaged a-t. the upper side by balls l, heldonthe corresponding heads N, N2 and N', N3', respectively, as will be readily understood' by reference to Figs. l, 3 and 4. One end of the-cam shaft R (see Fig. 2) is provided with asprocket wheel It connected by a sprocket chain R2 with a sprocket wheel R3 lsecured on'the crank shaft so that whenv the latter makes two revolutions it imparts y'one revolution to the cam shaft R by the sprocket wheel and chain-connection above described. The upper ends of the cylinders B and C are provided with the usual ignition devices V and V for igniting the explosive charges at the proper time'.
The operation is as follows: lVhen the engine is running the several valves, H, H, J J are'opened and closed at the proper time bythe action of cams Q-and Q on balls l, P', P2, P3, of the corresponding heads N, N?, N3, it being understood that the balls are held in contact with the peripheral faces of the cams Q and Q by the action of the springs It will be noticed that when the engine is running the, crank shaft l) turns in the direction of the arrow a', see Fig. 1, and when the crank shaft in the position shown in the said figure then the admission valve H is open duringthe suction strokeI of the piston E while the valveH' is closed with the piston E on the power stroke, the however, traveling ahead of the ahead of the Wrist pin D. `During the time the piston E is onthe suction stroke, the valve .T s closed and the valve J begins to open on the next return stroke of lthe valve J is opened to allow escape of the prodshaft, one for opening the admission valve piston E to causetheproducts of combustion to escape from the cylinderl C During the next vreturn stroke of the piston E the valve H is closed to allow compression ofthe charge in the cylinder B, on the -neXt following `inward or power vstroke the 'charge is ignited byv the ignition device V, `and on the following return stroke the ucts of combustion from the cylinder B. .It wi'llbe seen that in the four cycle eight cylinder engine illustrated, the cylindersof each pair arev displaced from each other about the engine shaft by an angle which is less than 90C", 90 being` the angle comprised between the cylinders in the ordinary construction of engines of this type.
Generally speaking, lin explosion engines of' themulti-cylinder V-type, the angle between the cylinders .of each pair must be equal to one or morecircumferences divided by the number of cylinders in order that thi explosions will occur atvregularintervalsi. e., in a four or eight-cylinder engine `this angle is of 90", in a six or twelve cylinder engine, .60 and'so on. f
Byy thsmnseeefhre *he aagle .be
tween the cylinders may be reduced while maintaining the regularity in the succession of the explosions, and thisresult -is attained by the fact that the wrist pins of each crank arm corresponding to a' pair of Acylinders 70 are displaced from each other aboutthe axis of the engine shaft by an .angle which is equal to the difference between the angle which the cylinders ofl each pairshould comprise according to the above stated rule, and the actual angle ot' vdisplacement of said cylinders. i v
This reduction of the angular displacement of the Acylinders is highly desirable as it causes a reduction of vibration, reduction of the size of the engine andreduction of the weight of the engine.
In the construction illustrated, the 'angle between' the cylinders" is 60` and consequently the angle between the wrist pins is 30G, but any other angle may be adopted for the displacement of the cylinders, provided that-the angle between the Wrist pins is accordingly modified so that its sum with the angle of the cylinders gives 90.l
ln the same way a six o1' twelve cylinder engine may be constructed in which the angle of displacement of the cylinders has any desired value less than the wrist pins of each crank arm being'displaced from each other by an angle which added to the angle comprised between the ,cylinders give 60G.
Having thus described -my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure b v Letters 100 Patent:
1. A n internal combustion engine, coinprisinga crank shaft -having a crank `arm provided with wrist pins one ahead of the soA other, a pair of converging cylinders having 105 of one cylinder while the admission valve of the vother cylinder is' closed, and one cam 115 for openin the exhaust valve of the other cylinder wiiile the exhaust valve of the first cylinder is closed.
2. In an internal combustion engine. the combination of a. crank case, pairs of con-V verging cylinders mounted on the said crank case and provided at their outer ends with horizontallyl disposed valve chests'projeeting vtoward each other, a, bracket lconnectin the chests of a pair of cylinders with eaqgk other, a vcrankshaft, journaled in the cran case, pistons reciprocating in the said eylinders, pitmen connecting-the said'pistons with the crank shaft, admissionA and .e ust valves'in eachchest, a ca m shaft ioql'lld' lso in the said bracket and controlling` the said valves, and means for driving;- the saine cam shaft from the said crank shaft.
3. An internal combustion engine,-con'1 prising; a pair of Acylinders each having' an admission and an exhaust valve, the stems of the valves of the two cylinders extending toward each other, a` head on the outer end of each valve stem, springs connecting' oppositely disposed heads with each other, and a `cam shaft intermediate the opposite valve stem heads and provided with cams, one for controlling the admission valves and the other the exhaust valves. l
,-l. An internal combustion engine, comprising a pair of cylinders each having` an admission and an exhaust valve, the stems of the valves of the two cylinders extending toward each other, a head. on the outerv end of each valve stem, springs connecting' oppositely disposed heads with each other, balls in the said heads, and acam .shaft having cams engaged by the said balls.
5. An `internal combustion engine', comprising a pair of cylinders eac-h having an admission and an exhaust valve, the stems of the valves of the two cylinders extending toward each other, a head o n the outer end of each valve stem, springs connecting oppositely disposed heads with each other, means for guiding the said heads, anda cam shaft intermediate the opposite valve stem heads and provided with cams,.one for controlling the admission valves and the other the exhaust valves. y
6. A multi-cylinder, V-type, internal combastion engine comprising the combination of a plurality of pairs of cylinders having the cylinders ofeach pair displaced angularly about the axis of the engine shaft by an angle which is smaller than the number of circumfcrences in which a cycle of the engine is completed divided by the number of cylinders in theengine, an integral crankshaft having a plurality of crank-arms, one for each pair of cylinders, arranged.:-1t equal intervals to each other and having each crank-arm provided with two wrist-pins which 'are displaced from each other about the axis of the engine .shaft by an angle which together with the angle of displacement of the cylinders of each pair equals an angle n'ot'excee'ding 900 and corresponding to the number of circumferences. in which a cycle ofthe engine is completed divided by the number of cylinders, pistons in the cylinders and connecting rods connecting the pistons to the wrist-pins.
7. A multi-cylinder, V-type, internal'coinbusi'ion engine coml'irising the combination of a pluralityl of pairs of cylinders havingu the cylinders of each pair displaced anularly about the axisof the engine shaft by an angle which is smaller than the number of circumferences in which a cycle of the engine is completed divided by the number of cylinders in the engine, an integral crankshaft having a crank-arm for each pail of cylinders and havingeach crank-arm provided with two wrist-pins which are displaced from ,each other about the axis of the engine shaft by an angle which is less than the'angle between the cylinders of a pair and which together with the angle of displacement of the cylinders of each p'air equals an angle corresponding'to the number of cii'cumfer/ences in which a cycle of the engine is completed divided by the number of cylinders, pistons in the cylinders and connecting rods connecting the pistons to the Awrist-pins.
8. In a motor, incombination, eight cylinders arranged in two sets of four each, the sets being disposed in V form with the axes of the cylinders of one set at an angle of less than to those of the otherset,
and a crank shaft having;r a set of crank pins for each set of cylinders, the. crank pins of4 one setbeing offset angularly relatively to those or the other set to'the same extent as the axes of the cylinder sets are less than 90 apart.
9. A multi-cylinder, V-type, internal combustion engine comprising the combination of a plurality of pairs of cylinders having the cylinders of each pair displaced angularly about the axis of the engine shaft by an angle which is smaller than the number of circumferences in which a cycle of the engine is completed divided by the number of cylinders in the engine, an integral crankshaft having;r a single integral crank-arm for each pair of cylindersand having each crank-arm provided with two Wrist-pins which are displaced from each other about the axis of the engine shaft by an angle which is less than 90 and is different from the angle between the cylinders of a pair and which together with 'the angle of displacement of the cylinders of each pair equals an angle corresponding' to the number of circumferences in which afoycle of the engine is completed divided by the num.- ber of cylinders, pistons in the cylinders and connectingF rods connecting the pistons to the wrist-pins.
In testimony whereof I affix my sifrnature.