US RE15442 E
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I. 0. ALMEN. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT-17,1917.
ReissuedSeptB, 1922. 15,442.
2 SHEETS-SHEET l.
1F; :s *4 3 v INVENTOR 'R N Jo/m 0. 19/0760 BY ATTORNEY J. O. ALMENQ INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.-
APPLICATION HLED'SEPT-U. x917.
MENTO J54 Q fl/mcw A TTORNEY r BY 'IMN
Reissu'ed Sept. 5, 1922.
Reiaued Sept. 5, 1922.
UNITED' STATES .Re. l5,442 PATENT OFFICE.
JOHN O. ALIEN, OF SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, ASSIGNOB TO ALIEN-CROSBY IOTORS 00., INC., SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, A COBPQBATION OF WASHINGTON.
Original No. 1,233,635,
reissue filed September 17, 1917. Serial No. 191,876.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN O. ALMnN, a citizen of the United States, residin at Seattle. in the county of King and tate of Washington, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to internal combus- 0 tion en ines" and, while it is intended more especiafiy for explosive engines, it includes devices which may be employed in steam engines.
5 fecting of en ines by the provision of novel means where y the motive power may be ap lied more directly and efiiciently.
he invention consists in the novelconstruction, arrangement and combination of 0 parts, as will be hereinafter described and claimed. 1
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is alon itudinal vertical section of an engine em odying my improvements. Fig.2 5 is a transverse vertical section through 2-2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a detail view shown partly in section and partly in side elevation to an enlarged scale, of elements illustrated in Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a section 0 through 4--4 of 3. Fig. 5 is a diagram of the path traveled by the ball-andsocket connection between one of the arms In carrying out the present invention, I
5 employ a plurality of. axially aligned cylinders 6 arranged concentrically and in parallel relations to the engine shaft 7. For
' each of these cylinders is provided pistons, each of which is formed of two members 8 o and'S' integrally connected in spaced relation by a plate element 9.
As shown in Fig. 1, the various pistons are desinahlv formed with chambers between the adjacent inner and outer walls 10 5 and 11, and a peripheral wall 12, the latter being grooved to accommodate the usual packing rings 13. Between the walls 1Q of a piston is a block 14 having a spherical recess which serves as a socket bearing for 60 correspondingly shaped extremity 15 of the respective arm 16 of a rocker-head, 1'7. The latter is mounted for relative rotary movements on a journal 18 provided in the shaft 7, said journal having its axis from The object of my invention is \the per-.
vof the rocker and the twin pistons therefor.
the axis of themain portion of the shaft. The hub of. the rocker 1s confined between a shoulder 19 and lock nuts 20 engaging screw threads, indicated by 21 in Fig.1.
By reason of mounting the rocker head on an inclined bearing of the shaft, as above explained, and the action of the ball-and-socket joints with the blocks 14, the reciprocation of the power-driven pistons will impart wabbling motions to the rocker-head which, in turn, effects the rotation of the shaft.
The arcuate movement of a pivotal point of one of the ball-and-socket connections between an arm extremity 15 and the block 14, will" appear substantially as shown in Fig. 5 where the lines a and b designate the respective paths of such. a point when viewed from the end and side of the arm;
that is to say, its locus will describe a transverse course of substantially that of the numeral eight (8) when vibrating in an arcuate path 5 about the center of the rocker-head journal 18.
To accommodate such movements and also for the purpose'of obviating rotary mo. tion of the rocker-head, axially aligned studs 22 are blocks 14, suc cally through the balls 15. Said studs extend into circular apertures 23 provided in the adjacent piston walls 10. The diameters of the apertures 23 are such that the studs in revolving about the centers thereof will maintain circumferential contact with the peripheries of the respective apertures.
These revolving or orbital movements of rovided for the respective axis extending diametri the studs will be best understood from an inspection of Fig. 2, wherein they are shown by broken ines in progressive order for an engine provided with eleven cylinders, and particularly designated by 22',
22', 22 etc., when occupying positions designated in Fig. 5. The cylinders are formed integral with a frame or casing including outer and inner peripheral walls 24 and 25 which are, for convenience, cast in two parts'and joined at about the mid? length of the casing by means of coupling bolts 26 engaging flanges 27 provided on the respective members.
28 represents journal'boxes for the shaft 7 which may be bushed with suitable antifriction bearing material as indicated by 29. The said boxes in provided with-peripheral flange elements for rigidly securin the same to the end elements 31: of the a oresaid casing, and are chambered as at 32, to serve as manifolds, so-called, with respect to a carbureter or an equivalent, not shown, with which the manifold chambers are connected by pipes 32'.
For each end of the c linders is a passage 33 extending radial of the casing and terminating in branc es 33' and 33 which respectively serve as an inlet port for the explosive agent and as an exhaust port for the combustion products. -More particularly, the various .passa 33 and the branches thereof are includ in tubular elements which, as best shown in Fi 2, extend into the space 34 which is utif by circulatory cooling water admitted and gflsscparged through pipe connection 35 and The faces 37 and 38 of said tubular elements are machined to present plate surfaces 7 against which the rotary inlet valves 39 and outlet valves 40 are juxtaposed. The inlet yalves are in the nature of wheels having suitably disposed ports afforded by branches 33' and communicate by means of cavity 42 with the adjacent manifold chambers 32.
The above mentioned valves 39 are prefer- 'ably formed integral with hub elements 43 having relatively large bearing surfaces on the journal boxes 28. The valves 40 which serve for co trolling the engine exhaust are in the natu of annular plates secured to the hub elements 43 by means of jam nuts 45 engaging screw-threads 46 provided therefor on the hub elements. The valves 40 are also secured against independent rotary movements by keys 47 and are provided with suitably disposed ports 48 for regulating the accurrence of the openings between the outlet branches 33 and delivery ducts 49 which open into the external atmos here.
The intake and exhaust va ves for the cylinders at each end of the casing are rotated in unison by means of bevel gears 50 provided at opposite sides of the rocker-head operatively engaging the teeth of bevel gears 51 provided on extensions 52 of the respectiveopairs of com lementar valves.
. The motion of t e rocker ead is of a wabbling character and in order to transmit therefrom rotary motion to the valves the g ars for the latter are provided with a different number of teeth from those of the rocker-head gears 50.
53 represents stoppers removably secured in holes provided 1n the piston ends 11 to render the studs 22 accessible. 54 re resents sparking plugs by which the com ustible charges in the various cylinders are fired through. the instrumentallty of the elqtiic ized ports 41 which, upon occasion, register with the current applifl by an ordinary or suitable ignition apparatus, which it is not deemed necessary to illustrate;
In operation, the valves at each end of the engine are rotated in unison through the of.- fice of the gears 51 and 50, when the latter re influenced by the wabbling motions afforded to the rocker-head by the reciprocation of the pistons.
v In the present instance, the pistons are acted upon from opposite ends and in such manner and sequence that the previously admitted charges are compressed in the respective cylinders'during the explosive strokes in the complementary cylinders.
' By" such devices, the force requisite for compressing the charges is applied directly or approximately so, and not through the intermediary of the rockerhead from a cylinder at one side of the shaft to another at the other side. In the present invention the rocker-head. is utilized onlyto drive the shaft and the valves.
The pistons are coupled to the rocker-head arms by universal joints comprising the balland-socket connections between the arms and the blocks, while the studs 22 acting in the piston apertures 23, without causing the blocks to rotate, afford orbital motions to them and permit the adjacent ends of the associated rocker arms to vibrate laterally in relation to the axes of the respect-ive pistons in order to conform to the loci due to the wabbling effects of the rocker-head. Such compensating devices contribute to the high efiiciency of my improved engine.
Another notable factor of the engine is the disposition of the adjacent inlet and exhaust valves 39 and 40 at opposite sides of the passages 33 leading to and from the respective cylinder ends whereby the pressures obtaining therein are balanced to eliminate friction between the valves and the seats 37 and 38. 1
The water circulation obtains throughout the space in which the cylinders and conduits 33 are located to c l the same. The ace within the casi 5 Inner wall 25 and the interiors of the c 'linders with which communication is had by passages 56 are kept free from water and may serve as a receptacle of a lubricant.
What I claim is- 1. Inan engine, a. driving shaft, a pluthe rocker-head whereby the wabbling movements of the latter will effect the operation of said valves.
2. In an engine of the class described, the combination with a drive shaft, cylinders, and pistons therefor, of a rocker-head mounted on the shaft for wabbling move-- ments, said rocker-head being provided with. radially disposed'arms havi spherical extremities, blocks provided wit sockets to receive said" extremities, and studs extending from said blocks into apertures provided in the respective pistons, said apertures being of greater diameters than the studs to afford orbital movements of the latter within such recesses during the reciprocatory travel of the respective pistons.
33. In an engine of the class described the combination with a drive shaft, cylinders,
and pistons therefor, of a rocker-head mounted on the shaft for wabbling movements, said rocker-head being provided'with radially dis sed arms havin spherical-extremities, b ocks connected with the pistons for movements axially therewith, said blocks being provided with sockets to receive the spherical-lends of the respective rocker-head arms, and means for connecting said pistons 'with the blocks whereby the latter are afforded limited revoluble movements.
4. In an engine of the class described, a drive shaft, a plurality of parallel cylinders disposed concentricall about said shaft, said cylinders being provi ed with gas inletand exhaust ports at both ends thereof, rotary valves for 'said ports, pistons operable within the cylinders, means connecting the pistons with the shaft for rotating the shaft through the explosion of combustibles alternately at both ends of the cylinders and means actuated by the aforesaid means for rotating the respective valves.
5. In an engine of the class described, a drivin shaft, a rocker-head mounted thereon, a pdurality of parallel cylinders disposed concentrically about the shaft and provided with radially disposed inlet and exhaust openings, pistons for said cylinders, mieans forconnectin the pistons with the rockerhead for driving the shaft," and a valve rotated from the rocker-head and, disposed at op osite sides of the aforesaid openings for ba ancing end presures obtaining from the gases within such openings.
, 6. In an en 'ne, a driving shaft having arelatively inc ined portion, a plurality of cylinders disposed in parallel relations and concentrically to the shaft, each of said cylinders being provided at each of its ends with an inlet and exhaust passage extending in an approximately radial direction from the respective cylinder, inlet and exhaust valves rigidly connected together and (11S- posed at opposite sides of the respective passages to neutralize any end pressure applied pistons for the cylinders, a rocker-head journaled on the inclined operative connection etween the rockerhead and the istons between the ends of the latter, an means for actuating said valves.
7. In an en ine, a driving shaft having a relatively inc ined portion, a plurality of cylinders disposed in parallel relations and concentrically to the shaft each of said cylinders being provided at each of its ends with an inlet and exhaust passage extending in an approximately radial direction from the respective cylinder, inlet and exhaust valves rigidly connected together and disposed at opposite sides of the respective passages to neutralize any end pressure applied to the valves with regard to the valve seats, pistons for the cylinders, a rocker-head journaled on the inclined portion of saidshaft, operative connection between I the rockerhead and the pistons between the ends of the latter, and means influenced by the wabbling movements of said rocker-head for actuating said valves. a
8. In an engine of the class described, including a shaft, a plurality of pistons arranged in circular relation about said shaft, a rocker-head mounted upon said shaft havortion of said shaft,
ing arms operatively'connected to said pis tons, said connections permitting the arm bearin ,stantia y that .of a figure 8 and restricted thereto when vibrating in an arcuate path about the center of said rockerhead.
9. In an engine of the class described, the
combination with a drive shaft, 0 finders,-
and pistons therefor, of a roc er-head mounted for wabbling movements on the shaft, and operative connections between said pistons and the rocker-head admitting relative orbital movements and restricted thereto in such connections with respect to the axis of the respective pistons during the reciprocatory travel of the latter.
-10. An engine of the class described, including a shaft, a plurality of pairs of axially al gned pistons arranged in circular relationlabout said shaft, each pair of pistons being rigidly connected together, a block to follow a transverse course of subslidably mounted between each said pair of and means whereby 130 said block is guided in a circular path during the reciprocation of said pistons.
12. An engine of the class described. including a plurality of cylindels arranged in circular relation, each provided with an internally directed radially disposed passage for the inlet and exhaust of gases, a valve rotatably mounted within the circle of said cylinders provided with flanges extending in radial directions upon axially opposite sides 10 of said passages and formed with inlet and exhaust openings, respectively.
Signed at Seattle, Vashington, this 22nd day of August, 1917.
JOHN o. ALME'N.