US RE15866 E
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 24, 1924.
W. S. ELLIOTT TREATMENT 0F LIQUIDs Original Filed March El, 1915 2 Sheena-sheen 1 INVENTOR June 24, 1924.
- w. s. ELLIOTT TREATMENT oF LIQUIDs 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed March 3l 1915 A INVENTOR Reiasued June 24, 1924.
UNITED STA WILLIAM S. ELLIOTT, 0F PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA.
TREATMENT OF LIQUIDS.
original lo. 1,321,999, daten November 1a, 1919, smal ma. 18.26B, mea March s1, 1915. AApplication for reime nica April 22, 1924. serialpma. 708,322.'
To all whom z't may concern.' Be it known that I, WILLIAM S. ELLIOTT, a citizen ,of the UnitedStates, residin at Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsy vania,have invented a new and useful Im- -provement in the Treatment of 'Liquids,'of which the'followin is a full, clear, and exact'description, re erence being'had to the accompan in drawings, forming part of this speci cation..
My invention has relation to the treatment of liquids for the purpose of removing the airand other gases contained or dissolved therein. While applicable to the treatment of other liquids, 1t is of particular advantage in the treatment of water for industrial pur-poses. It is a well known fact that the air contained in steam and water causes boiler corrosion, and also corrosion of the valves, pi es, fittings, and other )metal parts with whichY the Water or steam comes in contact. Besides'the air, water containsother gases dissolved therein, such as carbon div oxid. The object ofthe resent invention is to provide a simple met 0d and means for the treatment of water or other liquids by which a" maximum percentage ot the air and other ases contained therein may be removed rom the liquid before the latter is used. yThe present invention4 involves broadly the treatment of liquid to effect the release therefrom -of its contained air and other gases and by subjecting the same to such conditions lthat there is produced a change of phase of such a percentage of all of the liquid being treated as to ensure the removal of 'substantially all of the air.
In the illustrated method of: producing lthis change of phase or evaporation of a definite percentage of the liquid, the liquid is admitted into a receiver, into a region of vacuo` at such a temperature that it can exist only as superheated vapor: and is there caused to boil ata temperature lower than that corresponding ro the temperature of the liquid immediately before it enters the receiver. The temperature in the receiver -is lowered by lowering the pressure therein by any suitable means. such as a vacuum pump connected thereto. A condenser is preferably interposed between the vacuum f he`nature of my invention will-be better understood by reference to the accompany-- ing. drawings, in which I have illustrated vone method and form of apparatus for carrying out the invention, and which will now be described, it being ,premised however, that the particular apparatus shownis illustrative only and thatv theinvention is capable of various other embodiments withinthe scope of the' appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings- Figure 1 is a view partly in side elevation and partly in section, and largely diagrammatic. of one form of apparatus for carrying out the invention; K
Figure v2 is a diagram of a portion ofthe apparatus showing a modification, and
Figure 3 is a diagram showingone arrangement of apparatus for using the treated liquid. f
AIn these drawings. the numeral 2 desi nates a suitablel heating tank or receptac e into which the liquid to be treated is conducted by means of the supply pipe 3. This pipe -is shown as entering the 'upper portion of the heater atthe central portion thereof, and is branched as indicated at 4, these branches supplying the spray pans 5. These. pans are shown as having overflow or spray troughs 6 which discharge onto a sui'table arrangement of distributors 7. Pipe 3 is provided with a control valve 8 having actuating connections 9 with afloat 10 within the heater whereby a substantially constant level of the water is maintained. 11 designates an overflow chamber within the heater and 12 a dischar e pipe therefor. This chamber 11 not onlyta es care of any overow which may occur in case the level should for any` reason rise beyond its normal. but it also takes care of the entrainment from the steam supply pipe 13. The lat-` ter opens into an o'set portion 14 vof the heater 2 and is arranged to discharge against a separator plate 15, the drip from which falls into the chamber 11. The purpose of the separator 15 is to separare out any oil which may be entrained with the steam in pipe 13. The steam delivered by this pipe .is employed for the' purpose of heatin the water in the tank, although any other eating means may be employed.
16 designates a receiver which is connected by a pipe 17 with the discharge of the heater 2.. The pipe enters the upper portion of the receiver and the latter is provided with splray pans 18 and distributers 19 similar to t osev in t-he heater. Any other suitable means may, however, be provided for receiving the water as it enters the receiver. 20 is a control valve for the pipe 17, and 21 isa control float therefor. 22 is the actuating con- 23 is an otl'take pipe for the treated water leading` to a pump 24.-
he receiver 16 is connected with a vacuum pump 25 through a condenser 26 by means of the pipes 27 and 28. The condenser 26 has a water supply connection at 27.I discharging into the bottom chamber 30, a bank of heating tubes 29 connecting this chamber 30 with an upper chamber 30". The ipe 3 is connected to the outlet of this chaniber 30, 31 `is a sedimentv discharge or clean-out connection for the receiver.
The operation is as follows: Tater entering the condenser 26Yfrom the pipe 27A passes upwardly through the tubes 29 to the chamber 30, and thence into the heater 2 by way ofdthe pipe 3. Itis brought to the desired temperature in this heater and is ythen discharged into the receiver in which a -partial vacuum is maintained bythe action of the pump 25. The effect of this vacuum upon the water entering the receiver is to cause it to boilat a temperature verted into vapor.
which is lower than the temperature of the lliquid immediately before it enters the receiver. By maintaining a sufficient degree of vacuum in this receiver, the water entering it is immediately subjected to a violent boiling action and is in part rapidly con- In fact, the boiling action which occurs is of such a violent character that it is in the nature of an explosion or flashing. The Water then flows down over the series of distributers in a distributed or film-like condition. so that all portions thereof are subjected to the vacuum action. The combined eect of the dashing or explosion and ofthe vacuum actinr upon the water in moving over the distrlbuters results in the air and other dissolved gases contained in the waterbeing extracted `to a maximum extent. The water vapor and other gases thus liberated by the boiling are drawn oil' through the condenser 26 by the action of the pump 25`: and in passing over the bank of tubes 26 impart a very ann siderable degree of heat to the water contained in said tubes before it enters the heater 2. At the same time.I by reason of the cooling action of the water in the pi es 26 a large percentage of the condensa le:
vapors are condensed, and the liquid of condensation is drawn off b the action of a suitable pump 32 throng the pipe 33, or otherwise disposed of. For instance, in stead of the pump 32, I may (as shown in Figure2) elevate the condenser, as indicated at 26, to a height above the heater 2.a such as to create a head of Water in the U-sha ed tube 34 leading into the heater 2'l suicient to discharge the water from the condenser into the`he`ater, against the action of the vacuum in the condenser.
In Figure 3, I have shown dia-grammatically an arrangement of boiler, turbine and condenser apparatus for utilizing the treatedwater. In this apparatus the pump 24, before'referred to, delivers the purified water through the pipe 35 into a boiler 36. The steam generated in this boiler isconducted by the pipe 37 to the turbine 38. The exhaust of this turbine is connected by the pipe 39 with a condenser 4() which may be of any wel] known type. This results in a very considerable percentage of the contained scale-forming elements in the water being precipitated to ,the bottom of the res ceiver in the form of mud which can be readily removed. This is also a valuable feature of my invention.
On account of the removal of the air from the water in the manner described, the steam reaches the condenser 40 in a condition practically free from air, provided there is no leakage in the pipe line between the condenser and turbine.
Vith the old condensers employing a large dry pump, all of the air and other gases must be extracted by the use of very large vacuum air pumps, working against a high vacuum. By' the employment of my system, the dry pump at the main condenser need be only of a small per cent pf the capacity of that heretofore required, as a large percentage of the air has already been removed from the liquid at a vacuum pressure which is but a small percentage of that employed in the main condenser. This results in great economy in the operation of the system. In actua] operation I have found that under economical commercial operating conditions my invention will effect a separation of ninety to ninetyreight per cent of the contained air. It will accomplish a separation such that the remaining dissolved gases will, -at a 'temperatureof thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit at 14.7 pounds p1 r square inch, occupy a volume of .2 per cunt to .1 per cent, as computed upon the volume of the dissolving liquids. .These Figures apply to substantially all simple gases which are found dissolved in natural air as a mixture or constituent of a mixture, with the exception of carbon dioxid. The
latter is separated to as complete an extent as boilin it for a limited time is able to accompli My invention also reduces all soluble carbonates dissolved in the liquid in the form of bi-carbonates` from the state of solubility to that of insolubility.
Another advantage of the present invention arises from the rovision of a method whereby there is ro uced such an evaporation or change o phase of the 1i uid as to result in the release of substantia ly all of the contained air, and the subsequent conveying of this substantially air-free liquid to a point of utilization thereof.
A further advantage of my invention is. that in its employment the slight heat losses which occur are more than recovered by the gain in the ,relative power required to operate the large vacuum pumps heretofore required in the operation of'condensers, to say nothing of the gain due to the increased vacuum in the condensers. It will be readily understood that the form of the various apparatus described can be widely varied..
and that any suitable form of heater and receiver can be used. Where the.water to be treated is already at the proper temperature the heater 2 ma be entirely omitted and the water conduc various other changes can 'be made.
What I claim is:
1. The herein described method of treating liquids for the removal of air and other `contained gases, which consists in heating the liquid to be'treated and then introducing the same into a chamber, maintaining a pressure in said chamber lower than the pressure corresponding to the temperature of the li uid immediately before entering said cham r, distributin the liquid in said chamber, whereby it is su jected to a boiling action to a degree corresponding to the pressure in the receiver, utilizing the vacuum producing means to draw the vapors and gases produced by the boiling through a condenser, conveying substantially air-free liquid from the chamber to a point of utilization thereof, and controlling the introduction of liquid into said chamber substantially wholly in accordance with the demands onsaid chamber for such air-free liquid, substantially as described.
2. The herein described method of treating lliquids for the removal of air and other .contained gases, which consists in heating th liquid to be treated and then introducing the same into a chamber substantially wholly in accordance with the demands on said chamber for the'treated liquid, maintainin a pressure in said chamber lower than t e pressure correspondin to the temperature of the.'l' iiid' immediately before entering said cha-mbe'r, distributing the liquid in said receiver, whereby it is subjected therein, which consists in introducin directly to the receiver, and` tions to c Yto a'boiling action 'to'a degree corresponding to the pressure inzthe chamber, exhaustin the vapors `and gases from the receiver an assing them through a condenser. and passing the li uid to be heated throu h said condenser` su tantially Ias describergl.
3. The method of treating liquids for the removal of air and other gases contained the liquid into a chamber, distributing the liquid in said chamber, continuously maintaining in said chamber pressure and temperature conditions such as to change the phase of said liquid to a percentage sutlicient to release substantially all of the air contained` therein, and conveying the substantially airfree liquid from said chamber to a point of utilization thereof, substantially asdescribed. i
4. The method of treating liquids for the removal of air and other contained gases, which consists of introducing the liquid into a suitable apparatus, maintaining in said apparatus continuous pressure and temperature conditions to change the phase of said liquid to a percentage suilicient to release substantially all of the air contained therein, and conveying the substantially airfree li uid from said apparatus to a point of utilization thereof, substantially as described.
5. The method of treating liquids for the removal of air and other contained ases, which consists in introducing the liqui into a chamber, continuously maintaining in said chamber pressure and temperature condiange the phase of said liquid to a percenta sucient to release substan-` .tia ly all o the air contained therein, causin the liquid to flow downwardly in a dis# tri uted condition through said chamber, and l conveying the substantially air-free liquid from the chamber to a point of utilization thereof, substantially as described.
6. The method of treating liquids for the removal of air and other contained gases, which consists in introducing the liquid in a heated condition into a chamber. continuously maintaining a sutlcient,..vacuum in said chamber to cause a violent V'ebullition or flashing of the liquid on entering' said chamber under the action of the heat contained in said liquid, and causing the liquid to flow thro h said chamber in aA distributed or film-li e condition subject to jthe action of the vacuum therein, substantially as described.
7. The method of treating liquids for the removal of-.air and other s and also for thea'reiiioval of scale-forming' elements contained therein, which"consists in introducing theliquid into a chamber in heated condition, continuously maintaining a Vs uilicient vacuum in said chamber to cause `a violent ebullition or dashing of the liquid as it enters said chamber under the action of the heat contained in the liquid, whereby the air e and contained gases are liberated and scaleforming elements precipitated, and conveying substantially air-free liquid from said chamber to a point of utilization thereof., substantially as described.
8. The method of treating liquids for the removal of air and other contained gases, which consists in introducing the liquid into a chamber in a heated condition, maintaining a' suiicient vacuum in said chamber to cause a violent ebullition or flashing of the .liquid as it enters said chamber under the action of the heat contained therein, causing the liquid to flow through said chamber in a distributed condition while subjected to the action of the vacuum therein, automatically controlling the level of the liquid in said chamber, and conveying substantially air-free liquid from said chamber to a point of utilization thereof, substantially as described. y
9. The method 'of treating liquids for the removal of air and other contained gases, which consists in introducing the liquid into a chamber at a relatively high temperature, continuously maintaining in said chamber a pressure suiiiciently lower than' the vapor pressure of the hot liquid before it enters said chamber to cause a violent ebullition or flashing ofthe liquid as`it enters the chamber, removing the liberated air and gases from said chamber, utilizing the same as a heating medium, and conveying substan-l tially air-free li uid from said chamber to a point of-utilizat1on thereof, substantially as described.
10. The method of treating liquids by the removal of air and other contained ses, which consists in introducing the liquid in a heated condition into a chamber, continuously maintaining inv said chamber a pressure suiciently lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid at its temperature before Aentering the chamber to cause a violent ebullition or flashing of the li uid as it enters the chamber, and with rawng` the heated vapor and gases from the chamber and utilizing the 'same for heating the li uid before it is introduced into the cham r, substantially"as described.
11. The method of deaerating liquid, coinprising providing a receiver having a liquid space and a valpor 'space conve ng substantially air-free iquid from sai liquid space to a point of utilization of such liquid, automatically suppl ing to said receiver substantially wholly in' accordance with the How of such aimfree liquid from the liquid space, liquid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature in the receiver and which has a substantially constant dif-r ference in temperature thereover, and maintaining said substantially constant differiases ence in temperature, substantially as de scribed.
- 12. The method of deaerating liquid, comprising providing a receiver having a liquid s ace and a vapor .space conveying substantially air-free liquid from said liquid space to a point of utilization of such liquid, automatically supplying to said receiver substantially wholly in accordance with the flow of such air-free liquid from the liquid space, liquidwhich is at a temperature higher than the temperature in the receiver and which. has a substantially constant difference in temperature thereover, and recovering the heat released in the receiver, substantially as described.
Y 13. The method of deaerating liquid, comprising passing the liquid to be deaerated successively through a condenser, a heater and into a receiver, maintaining conditions within said receiver to cause a change of phase of the liquid to a percentage sutiicient to release substantially all of the air contained therein, withdrawing substan- .tially air-free liquid from the receiver and conveying the same to a point of utilization of such iquid, and controlling the rate of feed of liquid to the receiver substantially wholly in accordance with the demands for air-free liquid thereon, substantially as described.
14. The method of treating liquids to effect the removal of air therefrom, comprising providing a receiver having an air outlet, feeding liquid to said receiver in a substantially continuous manner, supplying heat to the liquid to an amount to change the phase thereof to a percentage suiiicient to release substantially all of the air contained therein, recovering at least a portion of the heat released in the receiver, and withdrawing from said receiver, in a substantially continuous manner air-free liquid and conveying it as such to a point of utilization, substantially as described.-
15. The method of deaerating liquid, com-` prising providing a receiver having a liquid sV 'ace and a steam space, conveying substantially air-free liquid from the liquid space thereof to a point of utilization of' such liquid in a practically continuous manner, automatically su plying to said receiver substantially` who ly in accordance with the demands for air-free liquid 'on said liquid space. liquid and heat, teeding the entering liquid through the atmosphere in the. steam space of the receiver, and continuously withdrawing air and vapor from the liquid space of said receiver to maintain temperature and pressure conditions in the receiver to cause the liquid to release substantially all of its -contained air, substantially as'described.
16. The method of deaerating liquid, coiii-` prising providing a receiver having a liquid les ' ner, automatica space and a steam space, conveying substantially air-'free liquid from the liquid space thereof to a point of utilization of such liquid in a racticall continuous mansu p ying to said receiver substantial w olly 1n accordance with the demands or air-free 1i uid on said liquid space, liquid and heat, eedingthe entering liquid through the atmosphere in the steam space of the receiver, and utilizing the heat of the air and vapor for preheating the liquid su plied to the receiver, substantially as described.
17. The method of treating liquids for 15 the .removal of air and other contained fases, which consists in introducing the iquidrinto a suitable apparatus, maintaining in said apparatus continuous pressure and temperature conditions to change the phase of said liquid to a percentage suicient to release substantially all of the air contained therein, conveyin the substantially air-free liquid from sald ap aratus to a point of utilization thereof, and) condensing the condensable vapors released by the change of phase and utilizin the condensate, substantially as described.
In. testimony whereof, I. have hereunto set my hand.
WILLIAM S. ELLIOTT.