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Publication numberUSRE16431 E
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 21, 1926
Filing dateJul 28, 1923
Publication numberUS RE16431 E, US RE16431E, US-E-RE16431, USRE16431 E, USRE16431E
InventorsHerman E. Kratzer
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process oe baking bread and apparatus therefor
US RE16431 E
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 21 1926. y A a 16,431

I H. E. KRATZBR PROCESS .OF BAKING BREAD AND'APPARA'IUS THEREFOR Original Filed-July 28, 1923 2' Sheets-Sheet 1 Sept. 21 1926.

H. E. KRATZER PROCESS OF'BAKING BREAD AND APPARATUS THEREFQR oi-iginal Filed Julyfi', 1,92: 2 Sheets-Sheet Reissued Sept. 21,1926. I Re. 16,43 1- UNITED STATES PATENT OFF/ICE.

HERMAN E. KRATZER, OF SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH.

V PROCESS OF BAKING BREAD AND APPARATUS THEREFOR.

- Original No. 1,516,232, dated November 18, 1924, Serial No. 654,383, filed July 28, 1923. Application for reissue filed April 12, 1926. Serial No. 101,555.

This invention relatesto the art of baking, against breaking when wrapping, shipping and the especial improvements reside'in novor otherwise handling the same, as well as elly constructed and functioning bread bakfor keeping the bread, freshly moist while ing pans and connecting and handling free from moldiness, and all of this in addi- 5 means for a plural assembly thereof, which tion to the more pleasing resultant appear- 60 said baking pans have been more particuance of the all-crusty browned loaf. larly designed for the baking of loaf bread Another important object of the improve- 7 that is adapted to be sanitarily wrapped for ments, both as to efliciency and economy in the market. baking as well as in the more facile han- 10 Under the more sanitary present day dling of a battery of the pans as a unit, remethods of marketing bread, either in single sides in the manner of the plural spaced asor plural loaf form, the same is desirably sembly of the pans and the means for conwrapped within waxed aper, or otherwise, necting, supporting and handling the same which wrapper may urther be actually as a unit, whether connected and supported sealed or not as preferred. as a permanently fixed structure or as a 7 As a matter 0 fact, however, even though knock-down arrangement, whereby the bakofl-hand it may seem to be of minor im- 'ing heat is caused to attack the dough with portance and appearingly obvious of attainsubstantially the same intensity all around, ment, considerable difficulty has heretofore thereby not only insuring a more evenly been experienced, prior to my invention, in baked loaf in a relatively shorter time but 7 so suitably baking the loaves as to prevent also being thus more economical both as to the grain and texture thereof from breaking, the conservation of heat as well as of time or the wall surfaces crumbling oil, when and labor, and all of which foregoing feawrapping, shipping or otherwise handling tures are important factors in bread baking the same, and to retain their normally conwith economy and perfected results. tained moisture for a substantial length of The foregoing as well as other objects and time, without moldy deterioration when kept advantages of the improivements, however, or stored in close containers for instance, will be so clearly apparent it is believed, as thus guarding against the bread becoming incidental to the following disclosure, that 30 either soggy or moldy tasting or rapidly it would serve no useful purpose to further ,dried out and stale. Also, in many instances enlarge upon the same initially, and with even a wrapped loaf, with weakly crusted or these prefacing remarks, therefore, refernon-crusted side wall surfaces, will have beence will now be immediately had to the accome streaky or soiled in appearance, from companying drawings, illustrating certain handling or otherwise, before being delivpractical embodiments'of the improvements, 9o

ered to the customer or consumer, and all in which drawingsof which foregoing features are not only Figure 1 is a perspective view of one of very unsightly and undesirable but are also the improved s ngle loaf bread baking pans;

otherwise ob1ectionable in the desired at- Figure 2 is a substantially. similar view 40 taimnent of well-preserved, substantially airbut of a double loaf baking pan; 7 95 tight and moisture-proof cleanly appearing, Figure 3 is a view substant ally analogous neatly and sanitarily wrapped loaves. to Figure 1, although obviously the structure One of the primary ob ects of my invenshown may be employed with a double loaf tion, therefore, for obtaining the most satispan as well, but in which the end walls of the facto results, has been to devise simple, pan are made of screen analogously to the durab e and effective means .for causing the side walls thereof; bread itself, whether as a single or double Figure. 4 is a partially broken away top .loaf, to become so formed in the baking plan view of a permanently fixed plural asthereof as to provide an encompassing pro:- sembly of single loaf pans of the type shown 50 tective wall coating, or an integral edible enat Figure 1, but obviously this would apply velope container as it were, that is crusted of to the structures of Figures 2 and 3 as well,

substantially the same browned consistency with spacing, connecting. supporting and as the fully exposed top surface thereof, handling means for the battery thereof;

whereby there is providedrcinforced protec- Figure 5 is an elevational view of said 55 tion for the gram and texture of the loaf battery assembly of Figurev4, on a smaller scale, looking towards the ends of the pans Figure 6 1s a longitudinal sectional view 7 along the line 6-6 of Figure 4; I

y the ends desired.-

Figure 7 is a perspective detail view of one of a set of pan spacing and interlocking cleats or springy clips employed Figure 8 is a View analogous to'Figure 7 but showing an altered minor detail thereof;

Figure 9 is a fragmentary top plan view, analogous to Figure 4, but of a knock-down assembly arrangement, with a part of the upper portion of the left hand end pan shown in sectlon, and with the complementary pairs of spacing cleat elements shown respectively in fully locked and withdrawn positions;

Figure 10 is a longitudinal sectional view along the line1010 of Figure '9; and

Figure 11 is a detail cross-sectional view alon the line 1111 of Figure 10.

While obviously it is not requisite to unnecessarily multiply the views of the drawings by specificallyv illustrating in plural assembly the pan structures of Figures 2 and 3, stilliof course it is to be understood that the illustrations embraced in Figures 4 to 11 are intended to likewise apply to an assembly of the pan structures of igures 2 and 3, or any other equivalent forms.

The numeral 12 designates the longitudinal or'side walls of the pans, which walls in all instances are always formed of metallic mesh screen, as distinguished from a foramivnate structure in the sense of a freely perforated otherwise solid wall, which latter will. not function in the accomplishment of Walls arepreferably builtup from v say,. #16 meshjblack steel mining screen, and

they-provide freely exposed open-mesh sur-, faces that are, unencompassed-or uncovered,

and substantially, unobstructive to the direct I n I {ing an untoasted or streak-like marginal p enetrat'ion or passage of heat therethrough,

oraminous material, having openings of] the size just .stated,'does not permit the dough of the bread to project into the open ings, thus sealin" the edges thereof and preventing-access o the heat to the dough adjacent the openings during. the baking process. These screen walls may if desired be reinforced along their bottom and end edges by marginal stri s as at 13, which strlps might be margina flanges of the metal bottom 14 and the transverse or end walls 15.

The bottom 14 and the end walls 15 are preferably imperforate, and/this is particularly true of the bottom to allow for proper reusing, if for nothing else, although in so ar as the essence of-my invention is concerned the end walls could be freely perforated, or even formed of fine screen, if

found to be expedient or desirable for any reason. In this connection the pan structure of Figure 3 is shown as having its end walls 16 of the screenanalogously to the sidewalls -12. The open wallsof the pan permlt the heat to have access to the dough adjacent the closed bottom and ends, if such are used} around the edges of the closed. portions of the pan, resulting in the formation of a denser crust than that obtained'by the use of the ordinary closed pan. Such crust greatly enhances the keeping quality of the bread.

In the double loaf pan of Figure 2, the only difference over either of the single loaf pans of Figures 1 and 3 is that the double .loaf pan is naturally made larger, and proprovldes a central longitudinally disposed upstanding plate or base division strip 17.

In the ordinary general structures, the

upper edge portions of the ans are provided with a binding or retaining band or wirelS that encompasses the same, with the upper edge portions of the transverse and longitudinal walls turned thereover as crimped rims 19 and 20, and as well under-' stood.

Referring first to the permanently fixed assembly ofFigures 4 to 6, the numeral 21 designates a pair ofspacing bars for supporting or connecting the pans in coupled approximately equidistant spaced relation.

tobe observed, however, that these bars 21- do not extend around the screen side walls l2, but terminate approximately at the positions 22 as before stated, and this-is import- UP per-side ofthe baking bread, thereby leav- "band as it werdtherealong. 'It is *to be further particularly observed that not only are" the remotely disposed screen side walls 12 of the endpans thu's 'adapted'tobe. freely exposed inopen-meshcommunication with the oven space, but also that the'interiors of the pans themselves will be in open-mesh communication with each other, serially,"directlythrough the oven space between the adjacent screen sides andwithout any. intervening heat barrier walls, 'The baking bread itself, therefore, will be the only substantial barrier to heatby way of said side walls, the side walls of the baking bread acting as reverberative heat absorbing surfaces,

so that the storage baking heatwill directly and uniformly attack the same, without loss by radiation and with much economy, in point of conserving heat and time in the actual baking operations, as well as attaining the highly desired end of causing 'the side walls of the bread to be formed as atoast-like protective crusty coating. The

fant becauseotherwise they would ,obstruct the free. passage of direct" heat; to'that x spaced side walls 12 of adjacent pans are also connected to the bars 21, but indirectly so through cleat elements: hereinafter referred to.

A combined handle and end spacing member, for each end pan of the series of pans as a unit, is generally indicated by the numeral 24. As specifically illustrated, although other equivalent means might be employed, each of said members preferably comprises a bar of strap iron that has a central depressed portion 25, secured as at 26 to the outer side wall 12 of its complementary end pan, with outwardly divergent short offset-ting arms 27 merging into oppositely directed sections 28 which provide continuing inwardly directed sections 29, bent at right angles to the sections 28, the said sections 29 terminating in inwardly bent short offsetting arms 30, having fastening cars 31 which are secured both to their complementary spacing support bars 21 and the end walls 15 of the end pans, as by means of rivets 32 or their equivalent.

It will be seen, therefore, that the sections 2829 are in the nature of corner encompassing angle-bars which, however, are

rigidly maintained-spaced from the side and end walls of the endpans, by the pairs of short offsetting arms 27-30, and they dually function both as handle means, for the series of pans as a unit, and as endwise and lateral spacing means for several such units in the oven, both relatively to each other and the walls of the oven. This latter is of no mean importance, as it permits of the even distribution of the baking heat all around each pan, with each pan itself in its unit being substantially spaced from the next adjacent pan, as has heretofore been referred to and which will now be more specifically described.

The several pans of a unit are held spaced apart,-approximately equidistant, mainly by means of the supporting or connectingibars 21 secured to the end walls 15 thereof by the rivets 23, but I also provide further spacing and anchoring elements between upper edge portions of adjacent side walls 12 of the pans, which additionally connect the said upper edge portions of thepans indirectly to thebars 21, and thereby serve as bracing or trussing means, as it were, for more rigidly mounting and supporting the pans against any tendency towards central sagging or warping.

To this end I provide cleats or clipmemhers, see Figure 7 as to details, preferably comprising a corrugated top plate 33, of fairly resilient or stifi' springy metal, the longitudinal edge portions of which are bent over upon themselves to form longitudinal grooveways or clip arms 34 for encompassing, in resiliently gripping relation, the end portions of the rims 20 of the adj acently disposed side walls 12 of the complementary therebetween, and each at its outer end 1s provided witha downwardly projected lug or tongue that is apertured at 36 for fastening, as by a rivet 37, to the inside face of its complementary pan-coupling bar of tie-band'21, the latter having a series of appropriately spaced apertures for this purpose. It is obvious, however, that the aper ture 36 may be substituted for by a pin, as indicated at 39 of Figure 8, adapted to serve as an integral rivet element, and it is likewise obvious that the plate 33 does not essentially have to be corrugated,- nor that it nor its clip arms 34 need necessarily be springy, although it may be preferable that they all be so.

In the knock-down structure of Figures 911, while the main principles are generally the same as heretofore described, the tie or pan-coupling bars are indicated at 41, and in this arrangement they additionally function as detach ably connecting or supporting bars, terminating preferably at substantially the positions 22, as mentioned with reference to the bars 21, slightly short of the outer side walls of the end pans. The object of having these bars so terminate in both arrangements, instead of extending around the outer side walls of the end pans, is to leave the said walls Wholly unobstructed thereby and thus not be a hindrance to the direct passage of the baking heat, at those positions, to the contents of the end pans.

- The bars 41 are shown as provided with appropriately spaced apertures40 for the reception of the pins 39 of the cleats 33 of Figure 8, but obviously these apertures 40 may be substituted for by pins cooperating with apertures 36 of the forms of cleats of Figure 7.

Also, in this knock-down arrangement, the combined handle and end-spacing members 24 are substantially the same as heretofore,

" excepting thatin this case the inset arm portion 25 thereof provides a lug,,teat or pin 42 cooperating with a depression, socket or aperture 43 formed in or mounted by the outer side wall 12 of each end pan, for a snap-in attachment therebetween. Obviously, however, the elements 42'43 may be. reversely mounted in transposed relation, and as a matter of fact such elements 4243, ifso desired, could additionally be supplied with reference to the tie-bars 41 and the end walls 15 of the pans.

In this modified arrangement, the combined handle and end-spacing members 24 are not fastened to the end pans, nor are the tie bars 41 directly secured to any of the pans by rivets or otherwise, 41 and the members 24 are fixedly connected but the tie bars together, as an integrally removable whole relatively 'to the pans and fastening means therebetween, by means of the rivets 38 and the additional short strut arms 44, with the riveting means 46 therefor, the rivets 38 and 46 supplying fastening means to the bars 41 only. of course these specific details of attachment may be provided for by equivalent means.

In assembling the arrangement of Figures 7-11 it will be apparent that, with the adjacent side walls 12 of thecomplementary pans coupled together by the cleats'33 in their withdrawn positions, as shown at one sideof Figure 9, the frame like main-support, embodying the elements-41 and 24, may readily be snapped into interlocked relation with the outer side walls 12 of the end pans,

tively to storing facilitites and the replacement of .the pans in a unit, for instance, although otherwise both structures .function substantially in the same manner, with reference to handling, spacing and baking features, in which latter two relations they most effectively permit the baking heat to be evenly distributed around all sides of each pan, including the end pans as well as the intermediate ones, thereby causing the heat to attack both the side walls and end walls of. all pans, and hencethe contents of the pans, with the same intensity from all sides,

and whichhas not been feasible in baking operations as heretofore practiced.

From the foregoing description, 1t 18 believed that the full objects, advantages and functioning of the improvements will be clearly apparent, but, while there has thus been disclosed certaln preferred embodiments thereof, it may later be found to be expedient or desirable to make some alterationsin the structural form and arrange ment of elements, although without departr ing from the gist or the spirit of the invention.

It is to be understood, therefore, that the invention is not to be restricted to all of the details exactlyias illustrated and described,

excepting as they may come within the terms of the claims, or equivalent elements and combinations or arrangements thereof, or as when fairly interpreted in the light of the specification if necessary.

the sizes of the foramina in themetallic material do not exceed 16 mesh.

3. The pan as set forth in claim 1 in which the bottom and end walls of the said an are composed of non-perforated meta lic material. v

4. In the process of producin .a bread loaf having a substantially uni orm crust covering over its' entire surface, the step which comprises causing the gaseous medium contained in a heated atmosphereto intimately contact with the sides of a kneaded dough mass confined within a restricted space while in said atmosphere.

5. In'the process of producing a bread loaf having a substantially uniform crust covering over its entire surface, the steps which comprise introducing a kneaded dough mass confined within a restricted space into aheated atmosphere, and causing the gaseous medium comprising said atmosphere to intimately contact with the sides and top of said mass while in said atmosphere.

6. The process of producing a bread loaf having a substantially uniform crust coverunobstructed, passage to ing over its entire surface which comprises forming a kneaded dough mass, confiningsaid mass within a restricted space,.introducing the confined mass into a heated atmosphere, and causing the gaseous medium comprising said atmosphere to intimately contact with the sides and top of said mass while in said atmosphere.

7.'The combination with a plurality of baking pans, each comprising a'bottom, end

walls and side walls, of means for connecting same in series as an assembled battery unlt and with the adjacent side walls of complementary pans maintained spaced apart, and combined end spacing and handling means for each end of said battery unit, each of which embodies corner encompassing angle bars extending from the outer side\wall of an end pan to the end walls thereof.

8. The combination with a plurality of baking'pans, each comprising a bottom, end walls and side walls, of means for connectingsame as an assembled battery unit and with the adjacent side walls of complementary pans maintained spaced apart, which said means embodies a pair of supporting bars, seating along the end walls of said pans, and paired spacin cleat members disposed in interlocking re ation between the said pans,

.bars extending in spaced side walls and a complementary one of said supporting bars, and outwardly projected combined spaein and handling means extending from the and walls and the outer side wall of each end pan of the series.

9. The combination with a plurality of baking pans, each comprising a bottom, end walls and side walls, of means for connecting same as an assembled battery unit and with the adjacent side walls of complementary pans maintained spaced apart, which said means embodies a pair of supporting bars, seating along the end walls of said with paired spacing cleat members disposed in interlocking relation between the said 5 aced side walls and a complementary one 0 said. supportin bars, and combined end spacing and han ling means for each endof said battery unit, each of said latter means embodying corner encompassing angklle spaced relation from t e outer side wall of an end pan to the end walls thereof.

10. The combination with a lurality of baking pans, each embodying a ottom, end walls and side walls, the said side walls being formed of freely exposed unencompassed open-mesh screen, of means for connecting said pans sidewise, as an assembled battery unit, with the adjacent side walls so spaced apart, with no substantial heat barrier therebetween,

as to cause the interiors of said pans to serially, directly through the unobstructed oven space between said adjacent side walls, and combined endvspacin and handling be in open-mesh communication, 7

means for said .unit, embo ying corner encompassing angle bars extending around the corners of said unit .in rigidly supported spaced relation thereto.

11. The combination with a plurality of baking pans, each comprising a bottom, end

walls and side walls, the said side walls be- 7 walls and a complementary one of said supporting bars, and combined end spa ing and andling means for each end of sai battery unit, each of which said latter means embodies corner encompassing angle bars extending in spaced" relation from the outer screen side wall of an and pan ,to the end walls thereof.

In testimony whereof ture.

1 afiix my signa-

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2606510 *Jan 28, 1947Aug 12, 1952Dow CorningCooking utensil, its method of preparation, and the baking of bread therein
US2672104 *Sep 2, 1949Mar 16, 1954Dow CorningBaking pan, coating compounds, and methods of preparation and baking
US2672105 *Sep 2, 1949Mar 16, 1954Dow CorningBaking pan, coating compounds, and methods of preparation and baking
US2718325 *Jun 5, 1953Sep 20, 1955Int Harvester CoFood storage receptacle
US5054636 *Apr 30, 1990Oct 8, 1991Karl NetzerDrum storage system utilizing detachable blocks
US6718635Mar 11, 2003Apr 13, 2004Design Ideas, Ltd.Method for making mesh containers
US7270245Oct 22, 2004Sep 18, 2007Design Ideas, Ltd.Mesh container, system using mesh containers, and method for making mesh containers
US8006858Sep 25, 2008Aug 30, 2011Design Ideas, Ltd.Method for making mesh containers with a rail and mesh container formed therefrom
US8584889Aug 11, 2011Nov 19, 2013Design Ideas, Ltd.Method for making mesh containers with a rail and mesh container formed therefrom