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Publication numberUSRE16495 E
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 7, 1926
Filing dateMay 3, 1924
Publication numberUS RE16495 E, US RE16495E, US-E-RE16495, USRE16495 E, USRE16495E
InventorsDonald B. Bradner
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
A corpora
US RE16495 E
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 7 1926'.V D- B BRADNER I Re. y16,495

COMPOSITION FOR PRODUCING LACHRYMATING GASES PRODUCTION LACHRYMATING GASES original vFiled Mayy 5.- 1924 Reissued Dec. 7, 1926.

UNITED STATES DONALD B. BRADNER, 0F HAMILTON', OHIO, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, T

rnnERAL LABORATORIES, INC., OF PITTSBURGH. PENNSYLVANIA, A cOnPonA-f' TION 0F DELAWARE.

PBDUCTION 0F LAC-HRYMATING GASES.

4,Pfrlslv'r OFFICE.V

Original No. 1,565,899, dated December 15,- 1925. Serial No. 710,736. filed May 3, 1924. Application :toryreissue led September 2, 1926. Serial No. 133,286.

This invention relates to the production of effective concentrations of lachrymating -gases in non-persistent form. v

Among the objects of this invention is the production of a composition by which effective concentrations of lachrymating gases maybe produced without wasting a large amount of the lachrymator and without rendering the ground or structures in the vicinity where said lachrymating gases are generated untenable for periods of time beyond which lachrymation is desired.

A further Object of this invention is to form a composition of a lachrymating agent such as chloracetophenone, bromacetophenone, iodoacetophenone, etc; with a fuel of th'e type such as nitrocellulose,-nitroglycerine or black powder. These halogen iderivatives of acetophenone will produce irritation and lachrymation when persons are` exposed thereto for a period of three minutes in concentration much below 0.01 milligram per liter.

A further object of this invention is to produce a composition which is practicable for 'use by the police in generation of lachrymating gases for dispersing mobs and other unlawful gatherings.

In practicing my invention, I prefer to use chloracetophenone,'and I place this in direct contact with a fuel which is capable of burning and liberating a sufficient volume l of hot gases to volatilize the chloracetophenone. Preferably, 'the chloracetophenone and the fuel are intimately mixed. The fuel may be a mixture of some oxidizing and reducing agent, such as ammonium nitrate and charcoal or else a material like nitrocellulose wherein each molecule contains both oxidizing and reducing elements. I may also mix an excess of the lachrymator with an oxidizing agent so that thelatter will oxidize a part of the lachrymator and thereb rgrmainder of the lachrymator. It is highly desirable )to avoid or at least `minimize as far as possible the composition of the evolved lachrymator, andV in order to accomplish this result I not only thoroughly distribute the fuel throughout the lachrlymator but adjust the proportion of lachrymator to fuel so that( a suflicient amountof/r heat will be absorbed by evaporation of the generatesuicient heat to volatilize the.

.lachrymator to prevent an excessive rise in temperature. Since combustion of such 'fuels as nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine If a mixture isprepared from chlorace- I tophenone and nitrocellulose and allowed to stand for a time beforeY using, there is a tendency for slow decomposition to develop and in order to overcome or counteract this effect, I stabilize such mixtures by adding thereto an anti-acid such as CaCOg, MgCOa, MgO and ZnO. If Mg() is employed as a stabilizer it should preferably vary from about 8 to 12%n of thev weight of chloracetophenone used in the mixture.

In using my composition, it is placed in a suitable container and suitable means provided for igniting the composition. In the accompanying drawing there is shown a smoke candle whichis a specific -form of device adapted for use with my composition. This device is shown part in elevation and part in section and consists of a can (1) containing the mixture (2) of chloracetophenone, nitrocellulose and MgO as a stabilizer. Above the mixture (2) is the starter composition (3) which is in contact with the tip (4) of the safety fuse (5). This tip (4) may consist of meal powder which is bound to the fuse with a Celluloid-acetone composition. Above the starter (3) is steel Vwool (6). -At the top of the can are the satisfactory mixtureconsists of 7 parts of chloracetophenone to 13 parts of nitrocellulose and 1 part of MgO. Acetone is poured uniformly over the top of the mixture in sufiicient amount to thoroughly moisten the mixture for a depth of about 1/ to 1 inch and the acetone allowed to evaporate, thus producing a hard, compact Isurface on the mixture. The starter composition is then spread over the to Vof the.

mixture, a layer of to 1/8 inch Vo starter mixture beingsuiiicient for 'most purposes. A suitable starter composition for this purpose is a powdery mixture of about equal parts of reduced iron and KMnO4. The steel wool is then placed u on the starter composition andthe discs (g) and' (8) are then secured to the top of the can. AA small y Vopening leading to the starter composition is made in thek steel Wool and the tipped fuse is positioned as shown in thedrawing.

The candle is operated by-igniting the fuse (5) which, after a delay, ignites the starter composition, and this in turn ignites the chloracetopheuone-nitrocelluloSe-magnesium oxide mixture. As the nitrocellulose of this mixture burns, the hotgases volatilize the chloracetophenone which becomes entrained with the combustion gases and the gaseous mixture passes out of the openings (9) and (10). Since 'the' chloracetophenone 'i is so disposed within the @anale that it is in the' combustion zone of the nitrocellulose, it is immediately gasified and an eflicient concentration of lachrymating gas is secured.l

Since nitrocellulose and also nitroglycerine burn under these conditions at temperatures p below'that at which substantial decomposition of the chloracetophenone takes place, the evolved lachrymating gases will be practicallyxundecomposed as they pass out of the candle. l

In the following claims, the term gas is used to include substances which 'are'in the gaseous phase as well as substances which are commonly termed smokes," clouds, va-

` pors, mists, etc., and combinations of these.

In my copending application, Serial No. 133,288, filed September 2. 1926, for reissue of my Patent 1,541,103 of June 9,1925, I havev disclosed a gas grenade having two chambers, one `for a fuel and the other for a gas-producing substance such-as chloracetophenone, the' combustion occurring in one chamber and the heated gases of combustion then. traveling through the` other chamber over the surface of the chloracetophenene.

The presentinvention is` not limited to the specific detailsset forth in the foregoing examples which should be construed as illustrative and not by Way of limitation, and in view 'of the'r numerous modifications which,

may be effected therein Without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention,

it is desired that only such'limitations be imposed as are .indicated in the appended claims. s

I claim as my invention: Y

1. A composition for producing an effec'- tive vconcentration of a lachrymatng gas in non-persistent form, comprising a lach- `rymating organic compound not readily vol- 'atile at ordinary temperatures which lachrymates at a concentration below 0.01 milligram per liter in three minutes and having intimately distributed therethroughA a fuel which burns at a temperature suflicieut to volatilizel said lachrymator but below that at which the lachryinator will decompose Within the time required for Said volatilization.

2. composition for producing an elfective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form, comprising a halogen derivative of acetopheuone having intimately distributed therethrough a fuel which burns at a temperature suflicient to volatilize said halogen derivative but below that at which the halogen derivative will decompose within the time requiredY for said volatilization- 3. A composition for producing an effective concentration of a laclirymating gas in nou-persistent form, comprising chloraceto` phenone having intimately distributedtherethrough a fuel which burns at a temperature sufiicient to volatilize said chloracetophenone but below that at which the chloracetophenone will decompose within the time re- 'quired for said volatilization.

rymating Vorganic compound not readily volatile at ordinary temperatures and having intimately distributed therethrough a fuel comprising nitrocellulose and ,nitroglycerine 6. A, composition for producing aneec- .tive concentration of a laclirymating gas in non-persistent form,.comprising chloracetophenonehaving intimately distributed therethrough a fuel comprising nitrocellulose.

7.`A composition for producing an effective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form, comprising an oxidizing agent intimately distributed and associated with an excess of a lachrymating agent which lachrymates at a concentration below 0.01'milligram per liter in three minutesl and adapted to enter into combination with said oxidizing agent and yield sullcient heat by such combination to volatilize the remainder of said lachrymator.l

8. A composition for producing effective" concentration of a lachrymating gas i n.non persistent form, comprisings an oxldizing agent intimately distributed and associated with an excess of a halogen derivative of acetophenone adapted to enter into combination with the ha ogen derivative of acetophenone and yield sufficient heat by such combination to volatilize the remainder of said chloracetophenone.

9. A composition for producing an effective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form7 comprising an oxidizing agent intimately distributed and associated with an excess of chloracetophenone adapted to enter into combination with chloracetophenone and yield suiicient heat by such combination to volatilize the remainder of said chloracetophenone.

10. A composition for producing an ei'ective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form, comprising a lachrymating compound which lachrymates at a concentration below 0.01 milligram per liter in' three ,minutes and having intimately distributed therethrough a vfuel which burns at a temperature sufficient to volatilize said lachrymator but below that at which the lachrymator will decompose within the `time required for said volatilization and an antiacid for preventing or retarding decomposition of the lachr vniator and fuel.

11. A composition for producing an ef fective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form, comprising chloracetophenone having intimately distributed therethrough a fuel which burns at a temperature sufficient to volatilize said chloracetophenone but below that at which the\ chloracetophenone will decompose Within the time required for said volatilization and an anti-acid for preventing or retarding decomposition of the mixture of chloracetophenone and fuel. 1

1Q. A composition for producing an effective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form, comprising a lach'rymating organic compound which lachrymates at a' concentration beloW'0.01 milligram per liter in three vlminutes and not readilyv volatile at ordinary temperatures and having intimatelyv distributed therethrough a fuel comprising nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine and an anti-acid for preventing or retarding decomposition of the mixture of lachrymator and fuel.

13. A composition for producing an effective concentration of a gas in non-persistent form. comprising a lachrymating' halogen derivative of acetophenone and having inti- 'mately distributed therethrough a fuel comprising a nitrated organic body which burns at a temperature suicient to volatilize said halogen derivative of acetophenone but below thatfat which the said halogen derivative of acetophenone will decompose Within the time required for said volatilization and an anti-acid for preventing or retarding decomposition of the mixture of the halogen derivative of acetophenone and fuel.

14. vA composition for producing an eiective concentration of a lachrymating gas in non-persistent form,` comprising chloracetoplicnone having intimately distributed therethrough a fuel comprising nitrocellulose and an anti-acid for preventing or retarding decomposition of the mixture of chloracetophone and fuel.

15. For the production of lachrymating gases, a halogen derivative of acetophenone and a fuel which burns at a temperature sufficient to volatilize said halogen derivative but below that at which will decompose within the time required for volatilization, the halogen derivative being placed in the zone of combustion of the fuel.

16. For the production of an effective concentration of a lachrymating gas, chloracetophenone, and a fuel which burns at a temperature suiiicient to volatilize thechloracetophenone but below that at which the chloracetophenone svlll decompose within the time requlred for said volatilization, the

chloracetophenone being placed within the combustion zone of the fuel. 17. For the production of an effective concentration of a. lachrymating gas, a lachrymating organic compound not readily volatile, atA ordinary temperatures, and n fuel capable of self-sustaining combustion which burns at a temperature sufficient to vaporize the lachrymating compound but 'below that at which it Will decompose Within the time required for such vaporization, the lachrymating compound being within the combustion zone of the fuel so as to be directly ex` posed to the flame thereof.

18. For the production of an effective concentration of a lachrymating gas, chloracetophenone. and a fuel comprising nitrocel.

lulose, the chloracetophenone being placed within the combustion zone of the fuel.

19. For the production of an effective concentration of a lachrymating gas, a vaporizable lachrymator and a nitrocellulose fuel, the lachrymator being within the combust-ion zone of the nitrocellulose fuel so asto4 be directly exposed to the iame thereof.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand. A

A DONALD B. BRADNER.

Certificate of Correction. Reissue Patent No. 16,495gl'a,nted December 7, 1926, to

DONALD B. BRDNER. y

i It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the abovementioned patent requiring correction as follows: Page'l, line 47, for the 'Words the composition read decomposition; and that the said'Letters Patent should be 1 read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record ofthe case in the Patent Oiice.

Signed and sealed this 22d day of February, D. 1927.

[me] M., J. MooRE,

Acting Uommissz'oner of Pate/M85

Referenced by
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US6569907 *Dec 20, 1999May 27, 2003Earth Chemical Co., Ltd.Heat transpiration preparation and method of the heat transpiration of chemical by using the same