Shingle or block construction
US RE17143 E
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 20, 1928.
A. c. FISCHER SHINGLE OR BLOCK CONSTRUCTION Original Filed April 20. 1918 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Nov. 20, 1928. Re. 17,143
A. C. FISCHER SHINGLE OR BLOCK CONSTRUCTION ori inal-Filed April 20, 1918 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 neiauedfn v. 20,1928. I
UNITED srArss PATENT oFFlca.
41.13amv c. rrscnna, or nns' rnsinns, more.
BEINGLE R BLOCK CONSTRUCTION.
or11n1no. 1, 447,aa0, dated March e, 1923, Serial in. 228,881, fled ril 20, 191a. Application (or I reissue flied larch 6, 1925. Serial No. 18,647.
My invention relates to shingle and block construction and more particularly to' shingles or blocks for roof or floor coverings; the
principal object of the invention being ,to pro- 5 vide shingles or blocks whereina backing poras a separate piece applied thereto, extends beyond the edges of the shingle or block body so that'it may underlie the edges of a 'uxtaposed shingle or block to efiect a close joint and prevent leakage therebetween.
It is also an object of the invention to provide shingles or blocks of this character wherein the backin extends from one or more edges thereof an wherein such extended ab e roof.
' In accomplishing these objects, I have provided improved details of structure the pre- '0. ferred forms of which are illustrated in the or accompanying drawings, wherein -d form of shingle constructed according to the present invention. a Fig. II "s a perspective view of a portion of a roof covered with shingles constructed and applied according to the present invention.
- Fig. III-is a cross-sectional view, on the line IIIIII Fig. II, illustrating the laying of the shingles and the over-lapped relation of .the backlnged v 1 Fig. IV 1s a etail perspective view of shinles of a slightly modified form whereinthe acking extends only at one side of the shingle bo Y Fig. is a perspective view of a part of a g roof, illustrating the preferred method of I applying the shingles of the type shown in.
I Fig. IV.
' Fi VI VI'- Fig. V.
Fig. VII illustrates another form of shin gle wherein the backing member is of the k 1 same size as the shingle, but is'oifset at one side and end thereof. Fig. VIII is a perspective view illustrating the preferred method of assembling the shingles shown in Fig.-VII, to cover a roof;
tion, provided either as an integral part, or bod Fig. I is a perspective view of a preferred tween the shingles.
is a cross sectional view on the line;
Fi IX is a sectional view on the line IX- K, Fig. VIII. 7 i
Fig. X is a detail ers ective view of another form of shing e w erein the backing member extends'at all sides ofthe shingle Fig. XI is a perspective view illustrating the assembly upon a roof of shingles having the construction shown in Figure X.
Referring more in detail to the drawings:
In Fig. I, I have shownthe preferred form ofa shingle. This shingle comprises a bod portion 1 which may be of composition fe t and asphalt construction of any desirable thickness and is'hereshown as havin a gravel coating toinsure a durable wearing surface. v I
The body 1 is provided with abackin strip 2,. referably a heavy strip of tarre paper, f e t or similarsubstance, which is applied to, or formed as a part of the body so that the op osite edges 33' thereof extend substantial y beyond the side edges of the shingle body.
The backing 2, thesame as the shingle bodies, maybe made in different thicknesses and maybe apglied by sticking the same to the shingle bo y after the latter has been formed or may be made as a part of the body, and is preferably a flexible and pliable material, and while it is not always necessary, in most instances the upper surfaces of the exposed mar s of the backing stri s are coated with a ayer 5 of asphalt, tar or similar jsubstance so that when the shingles are laid on the roof, asvis presently described, the coating will serve to stick or seal the overlapped edges together to closethe joint be- When laying these shin les to cover a roof, the lower course is placed rst, with the bodies 1 of the shingles spaced apart and leavin drainage channels 8 between them, whic may be alined if desired to provide continuous channels through the whole incline of the roof. The protruding margins 3, 3' of the backing strips, at opposite sides of each shingle, extend, respectively, over and beneath the protruded margins of the backing strips of adjacent shingles at opposite sides .thereof, and thus not only form water-tight joints but also'provide the bottomsof the drainage channels: The overlying backing serves to make the strips adhere together, and
so seals the joints that leakage therebetween is sirevented.
mall nails or tacks may be driven through the upper edges of the shingles as shown at 6 i to anchor the same to'the roof or else small cleats as shownat 7 may be applied to their free end or side margins which more effectively hold the same in place.
The following courses are then laid to slightly overlap the upper edge of the shingles of the first courses and preferably as shown in Fig. II, with the spaces between the shingles of each course in alignment, as this forms a serviceable and the most attractive roof, although a very serviceable roof is provided when the shingles are laid in .broken joints.
Fig. IV shows a slight modification from 4 the preferred formof shingle in that the base laid in either straight or broken joint courses.
The extended or marginal portions of the backing of these shingles may also be coated with a mastic substance and when laid are extended beneath the edge. of the adjacent shingle sufliciently that an effective sealed joint is made. Shingles of this construction are also laid'in courses and are overlapped as shown in Fig. V and may be fixed to t e roof either with tacks, cleats or in any other desirable manner.
The form of shingle illustrated in Figs. VII, VIII, and IX is still another'modification of that shown in Fig. I. In this type the backing member is cut the same size as the shingle body and is then applied thereto so that its margins aand bextend at one side and at thelower end of the shingle body, and-when the shingles are laid to cover a roof, as shown in Fig. VIII, they are placed with their body portion tightly together with- I out over-lapping one another, but with mar- 'nal portions of the backing members overlgaping one another and underlying adjacent 3 vertical and broken horizontal joints.
It will be noted that in this construction and method of laying the shingles all fvertiv cal joints between shingle bodies are entirely portions, and preferably 'in straight,
shingle bodies when coated with a mastic substance, will bond the shingles together to form practically a single sheet of roofing and will absolutely seal all the joints against leakage. I
The shingle shown in Fig. X differs from the others only in that the backing strip 2 has margins ab-c and d extending atall margins of the shingle body.- Shingles of this construction are laid, as shown 1n Fig. XI, close together with the joints either broken or in alignment,-and the margins of the backing at opposite edges of the bodies extended'respectively beneath and above the margins of the backing members of'adjacent shingles, the u per margins in each instance I ubeing extende between; the shingle bodies and their backing strips. Various means, such as tacks, cleats, etc. may be used to hold the shingles in place.
It is apparent that shin les or blocks of the present character shou d be made at a reasonable cost and when properly applied would form a serviceable and durable root.
. It is also apparent that by coating the edges of the backing strip with the mastic material. when the edgesare placed in overlapped relation the mastic will join the parts together and seal the joint to positively prevent weather leakage therethrough.
While I have shown the preferred methods of laying the shingles it is apparent that various other designs could be used without dc parting from the s irit of the invention.
. It is also noted t at whileI have described the shingles as being of composition construction with a-flexible backing. which is pro,-
ferred because the flexibility of the backing adapts it to be pressed out of its own plane in developing a smooth upper surface on the body portion whichoverlaps the margins of the backing members, yet some of the advanplied in the same manner, and I therefore do not wish to be limited to any particular material of construction.
1. A roof comprising shingles, each of which comprises a body portion having a flexible backing portion extending-from opposite side edges thereof. said shingles being ar-, ranged with one of the extending portions of certain of said shingles lying between the body portion and the backing of an adjacent shingle.
2. In a roof, flexible shingles comprising body portions each having flexible backing portions extending from opposite edges thereof, with the extended backing portions of ad jaccnt shingles overlapping, and one of them extending beneath the adjacent body port-ion. 3. A shingle comprising a body portion having abacking member extended at an edge or edges thereof and separable from the b0 y portion near the edge or edges of the latter;
4. A roof comprising shingles each of which comprises a body portion having a flexible backing portion extending from a side edgethereof, said shingles being arranged with the extendingportions of certain of said shingles underlying and adheringto portions of adjacent shingles.
5. A. roof comprising which comprises'a body portion having a ible backing portion extending from a edge thereof, said shingles being arranged with the extending portions of certain of said shingles lying between the body portion and the backing of an adjacent shingle.
6. A shingle comprising a body portion having a flexible backing extending from an edge thereof said backing portionbeing separable from said body portion near an edge of said body portion.
7. A shingle, or tangular body portion of substantial thickness, and a backing portion affixed to the body portion, presenting free marginal portions extending at a side and end thereof, and septhe like, comprising a recarable from the body portion near the edge of the latter.
I Y tic coating applied 8. In a roof orthe like, the combination of shingles in courses said shingles comprising body portions having backing members ap plied thereto in position to leave flexible marginal portions extending beyond the edges of the body portions, said portions having masthereto; said shingles being assembled with their body portions in substantially the same plane, with their flexible marginal portions lapped one over another, and with each outer marginal portion extending in between the underlying marginal portion and the bodywhich carries it.-
9. In a shingle roof, shingles comprising body portions of substantial thickness and backing members of flexible material providing flexible marginal projections thereon; said shingles being assembled with their body portions in substantially the same plane, with their edges 1n the direction'of drainage spaced apart to develop drainage channels between them, and with their marginal portions overlapped in position to provide bottoms to said drainage channels. Y
10. Weatherproof covering, shingles, each shingle having an interlocking opening formed in its thickness parallel with the plane of shingle and near the edge there" of, said interlocking opening being formed to leave the same than belowthe same, and being comprising adapted to receive the lesser thickness made I by a similar interlocking opening formed shingles each of form an interlocking overlap projecting 'a greater thickness of shingle above in an adjacent shingle, for joining two or more shingles in a row and with the weathering surface of the joined shingles in the same separation of the backing member providing an opening for the reception of a similar backing member on an adjacent shingle for joining two or more shingles in a row With their weathering surface in the same plane.-
12. Anasphaltic shingle comprising a body and an extension projecting-therefrom, said body having an interlocking opening therein, one end of which terminates at the edge of the shingle and is adapted to receive an interlocking projection on an adjacent shingle,
that portion of the material of the shingle which is divided by the interlocking opening being constructed and arranged to overlie and und lie the underlying projection of an ad acem shingle when inserted in said openng. v
13. Roofing material composedv of superimposed off-set thicknesses of 'waterproofed.
material adherently united at one! agrea, and freely separated at another area to receivea portion of another roofingmaterial, one of the thicknesses of said material on its ofi-set mar 'n carrying a mastic substance.
14. A prepared asphaltic shingle comprising a body and an extension projecting therefrom, said body having an interlocking means formedv herein wherein an adjacent shingle may be locked, withone partiof its surface overlying the first mentioned shingle, and another part of its surfacev underlying the first mentioned shingle, said interlocking means terminating at a marginal portion of the shingle.
15. A flexible shingle comprising a body and an-extension pro ecting therefrom, said body having an interlocking means formed as an opening in said body and extending in-' wardly from one of the marginal edges thereof, and adapted to interlockingly receive a portion of an adjacent shingle, whereby to between said shingle.
16. In combination two preformed asphal- V tic shingles, each shingle comprising a body and an extension projecting therefrom having an opening formed therein extending from one edge of the body inwardly and sub 'stantially parallel with an angularly disposed edge, one of said shingles having a ortion inserted insaid opening so as to un erlie a portion of the first mentioned shingle and to interlock therewith. In witness that I claim the foregoing I have hereunto subscribed my name this 5th day of March, 1925. v
- ALBERT C. FISCHER.