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Publication numberUSRE18122 E
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 7, 1931
Filing dateJul 18, 1924
Publication numberUS RE18122 E, US RE18122E, US-E-RE18122, USRE18122 E, USRE18122E
InventorsEnergy Between A Current
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Arrangement por exchanging energy between a current and a body therein
US RE18122 E
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 7, 1 931. A,. 1'T Red-18,122

ARRANGEMENT FOR EXCHANGING ENERGY BETWEEN A CURRENT AND A BODY THERE! Originai Filed July 18, 1924 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.4

III/III .9

w mp1s In venfor':

July 7, 1931.

A. FL EI'TNER mam!" FOR EXCHAIGING ENERGY BB'IIBBN A CURRENT AND Av BODY THEREIN Original Filed July 18, 1924 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 In venfor:

r9271? /ef/rrer July 7, 1931. A. FLETTNER 13,122

ARRANGEIENT FOR EXGHANGING ENERGY BETWEEN A CURRENT AND A BODY THEREIN Original Filed July 18, 1924 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 I 129 f6 |l H 55 1&9}

,a mwm Hffarwqys Julj 7, 1931. A. FLETTNER Re. 18,122

ARRANGEMENT FOR EXCHANGING ENERGY BETWEEN A CURRENT AND A BODY THEREIN Original Filed July 18, 1924 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 /n venfor:

5/77? F/e/f/Mr Reissued July 7, 1931 UNITED STATES ANTON FLETTNER, OF BERLIN, GERMANY, ASSIGNOR TO N. V. INSTITUUT VOOR AERO EN HYDRO-DYNAMIEK, OF AMSTERDAM, NETHERPANDS, A DUTCH CORPORATION ARRANGEMENT F R EXCHANGING ENERGY BETWEEN A CURRENT AND A BODY THEREILI Original No. 1,674,169, dated June 19, 1928, Serial No. 726,825, filed July 18, 1924, and in Germany July 28, 1923. Application for reissue filed December 30, 1929. Serial No. 417,540.

My invention relates to bodies located in a medium current which are to transmit energy from the current to an object utilizing this energy, for example, in the manner that as a sail on a ship converts the energy of wind for moving the ship or the blades of a wind-' mill utilize the energy of the wind to drive the mill, or in other ways including my novel arrangement of aeroplane construction.

The principal objects of my invention are improved arrangements in a wide variety of uses for driving abody by means of the energy of flow of a surrounding medium. According to my invention the transverse propulsion force, resulting from the energy of flow such as the wind, in ships and aeroplanes, is effected on the basis of actions of the nature of the Magnus effect by means of surfaces moving in the direction of their extent, or by means of surfaces, the skin of which moves in the direction of'its extent, round the surfaces, and which surfaces operate in the flow of the fluid medium such as air or water.

Especially the skin or the border of that body or element on which the flow acts, is moved within its shape adjacent to the flow in such manner that the skin is moved to produce a partial vacuum, or an increased pressure, or both, due to the Magnus effect, whereby said element will be pulled substantially transverse to the flow of the medium or in a direction having a transversecomponent with respect to said medium.

On account of this transverse drivingaction, such a body may be designated a transverse drive body.

The accompanying drawings show how the invention can be put into practice:

Fig. 1 is a diagram illustrating the relative movement between a current and a body with movable skin;

Figs. 2 and 4 show in side elevations, and

Figs. 3 and 5 in respective plan views. the arrangement of a broad roller-guided ribbon for driving ships;

Figs. 6, 8, and 12 show in side elevations, and

Figs.7,9, 11 and 13 in respective plan views,

arrangements in which cylinders serve as bodies with movable skin; parts of the outer surface in the arrangements of Figs. 6 to 9 inclusive, 12 and 13 being covered while in the arrangements of Figs. 10 and 11 the cylinder rotates freely in the current;

Figs. 11 and 15 are respectively a side elevation and a plan view of the arrangement of a movable ribbon the outer surface of which is partly covered toward the current;

Figs. 16 and 17 show diagrams of the power distribution on a ship driven by means of a rotary cylinder;

gigs. 18, 20 and 22 show in side elevations, an

Figs. 19,21 and 23 in respective plan views, arrangements of bodies with rotary skin, in which by the particular design of the body positive desired speed distributions over the length ofthe driving body in a ships drive are attained;

Fig. 24 shows the detailed construction and the driving mechanism of a rotary cylinder;

Figs. 25 and 26 are respectively a longitudinal section and a cross-section through a tall projecting construction; and

Figs. 27 and 28 are side views of a wind power station, in two different forms of construction;

Figs. 29 and 30 show in plan view and side elevation respectively an aeroplane with cross-drift planes, while Figs. 31 and 32 show-in plan view and side elevation respectively a ship with stabilization fins and rudders.

The drawings illustrate appropriate examples only for carrying the invention into practice; other constructions and modes of applications within the scope of the invention being possible.

The general principle is first to be explained with reference to Fig. 1, in which 11 may represent any plain body, for instance, the sail of a ship, or the driving surface or sail of a currentopcrated device. If the skin or border surface 12 of said body is moved in the current- 13, in thedirection of the full line arrows shown adjacent thereto, it will be seen that the skin on the upperside of the body moves in the direction of the current indicated by the dotted lines while the skin on the underside of the body moves in opposite direction thereto. This means an aiding of the current on the upper side and an opposition to the current on the underside of the body. Thus, if the body moves opposite to the current or, vice versa, if the current moves opposite to the body, with the regular symmetric design of the body, a considerably lower pressure, i. e. partial vacuum,

is produced. on the' upper side while an in- 14 two rollers 15, 16 are ocated around which a band 17 is loosely placed. The roller 16 may be rotated from any power source 18 over the gearing 19 in such a way that it moves in the direction of the arrows shown by full lines. The loosely stretched band forms then by action of the low pressure produced during its movement a profile shape corres nding to the current 1n one. direction. f the band 17 is moved in the opposite direction indicated by the dotted arrows, the profile shape in the other direction is formed. The band can be made of any appropriate material such as fabric, leather, flexible metal, or the like. The system of'planes consisting of rollers and band is rotatably mounted in an appropriate bearing 20.

'Depending on the direction in which the transverse pressure or drive produced on the s stem of planes is to be used for driving the ip, the system of planes is turned either directly from the ship or by means of auxiliary planes, or by means of auxiliary planes 21 constructed like Flettner auxiliary planes and controlled either directly on the spot or from any other convenient'place of the ship. In this manner, an efiective device for steering is obtained.

Figs. 4 and show an arrangement, in which for improving the profile shape produced by the loose band, separate profile pieces 22, 23 are made to adjoin or form an extension of said profile shape. In some cases it will be preferable to use only one or the other of said separate rofile pieces. In-

stead of one moving skin orming an endless band a plurality of skin elements 27, 28, 29, 6 and 7) may be employed. As the efiect on the low presure side is the stronger one, it suflioes, for producing a vigorous.

transverse drive, to move the skin on that side of the body only on which. the low pressure is to be produced. Such an arrangement is also represented in Figs. 6 and 7, in which the rollers 27, 28. 29, 30 are covered by means skin the wall, 33 of 'a cylinder 34, which for instance is turned in the direction of the arrow (Fig. 11) if the low pressure is to be produced on the front side of the body. Profile 'pieces 22, 23, or one of them only, may be provided'to adjoin said cylinder, it bein howeversuflicient to use cylinders only. f such cylinders are used as sails of a ship, with difi'erent wind directions a forward or backward movement of the ship in the desired direction can be produced depending on the rotary direction imparted to the cylinder. Of course as already described .with reference to Figures 2 and 3, the profile pieces 22, 23 are rotatable as a unit on a separate pivot 20, the same as the sail body 17 in Figures 2 and 3 rotates on its pivot 20, in order to ad'ust it according to the wind direction. In Figs. 10 and 11, 14 designates again a ship, 34 a driving cylinder. The latter can be rotated as a whole, or its envelope (skin) only may be rotated, and it can be subdivided in its height and be collapsible in telescopic fashion. If cylinders with adjoining profile pieces, for instance a cylinder 34 with a tail profile piece 22 only, are employed, such as sails, said adjoining profile pieces may be steered by using vthe current forces with the aid of auxiliary planes, for instance auxiliary rudders, similar to the arrangement shown in Fig. 2. Also in all other cases, plain bodies with movable skin can be controlled and secured in their preferably covered or placed within a profile body.

Arrangements of this kind are shown in Figs. 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 15. Figs. 12 and 13 show a cylinder 34 rotating within an unsymmetrical stream line body 40. The gap between cylinder 34 and cover 40 forms preferably a tapered channel. Figs. 14 and 15 show a movable band 17 guided by means of three rollers 41, 42, 43 and located in a symmetric stream line body 44. Of course, other covers may be used. In all these cases, a current along the skin is produced which results in a very strong transverse drive or pro ulsion. The latter occurs intensely even w on the system of planes is not yet moved to any working angle relatively to the medium.

Thus, by coverin parts of the rotary skin, for instance by a joining pieces having a stream line oontour,'a directional efl'ect on is the low pressure range, with reference to the low pressure range can be attained, that the current relatively to the body with rotary skin, can be located at any desired place.

- According to the adjustingof the adjoining pieces 22, 23 or the tail piece 22 only in Figs. 8 and 9 with reference to the current,

for instance by means of auxiliary surfaces,

transverse driving action may be produced in one or the other direction. Thus for instance a sail body fitted with the improved arrangement will receive a more or less vigbrous driving action in one or the other di-' rection accordin to the relative position given to the profile pieces with reference to the direction of the wind, as will be further explained hereinafter with reference to Figs. 15 and 16. V

This invention relates to a further development of the propulsion arrangement described for the purpose of advantageously shaping the vacuum region on the transverse propulsion member, for example, on solid rotary bodies or those having a rotating skin.

I The shaping of the vacuum region on the transverse propulsion member may be effected in various ways, for example, either by giving the vacuum region a definite d1- reetion such as come into consideration for the direction of the drive or of travel for the, time being desired, or by predetermining or distributing or regulating the vacuum region over the transverse propulsion body or the rotary solid itself in any desired manner, lengthwise for instance, or in some other This predetermination of the vacuum region may be obtained by regulating the ratio of skin velocity. to current in accordance with the desired conditions. For the purpose of regulating thisratio the propulsion velocity of the moving surface member or of the moving skin may be variable. Zones of skin velocities differing from one another may be also provided. This may be obtained by the construction of the surface member so that a commonly driven transverse propulsion member shows zones of differing circumferential speeds, according to the shape of its zones. Or the transverse propulsion member may be subdivided into several portions or zones driven at speeds differing from each other and regulated separately, so that different circumferential speeds of the zones may be obtained and the ratio of skin velocity to current velocity be altered in accordance with the desired conditions.

Figs. 16 and 17 show a sailing ship 14, on

tion. In order to sail in the direction indicated by the position of the ship, the an le 0: between the resultant transverse propu sion force and apparent wind must decrease from the wind direction of Fig. 17 to the wind direction of Fig. 16. Thus, in order to adjust the direction of the propulsion, the initial speed of the rotary body or of the rotating skin must be changed corresponding to the wind direction.

By a change of the relative speed of the rotary body, the low pressure range is displaced on the rotary body with reference to the direction of the current, as has been proven by experiments. 1

In order to attain, for instance, with the wind direction of Fig. 16 a smaller angle a between the resultant transverse propelling force and the apparent wind, with certain ratios between current velocity and peripheral speed the revolving body should be driven at a lower peripheral speed, while with the wind directed as shownin Fig. 17 a higher peripheral speed will be chosen. \Vith peripheral speeds which are great as compared with the velocity of the flow, the opposite conditions hold good.

If the wind blows, instead of from starboard, from port, only the rotary direction of the body must-be changed, as described in detail above.

The low pressure area for producing the transverse drive can thus be so adjusted with reference to body and current that it assumes definite angular positions with reference to the axis of the rotary body.

Under certain conditions it may be also desirable to give to the vacuum area certain positions and extents measured at the periphery of a section on meridian of the rotary body. This may be the case when it is found that thevacuum area is unevenly distributed over the length of the rotary body. Thus for instance it may be less at the ends through being fed from the layers of higher pressure air in the vicinity, but also because the rapidly moving layers of current on the rotating body rub against the stationary layers.

In order to equalize inequalities of the low pressure range over the length of the rotary body or to increase the low pressure at definite regions, or to adjust the low pressure range at will, for instance a cylindrical or other rotarybody may be divided into zones of different shapes which are driven at different speeds. Thereby, a. gradual transition from the outer non-influenced layers to the layers of lowest pressure production can be etfected.

Figs. 18, 19, 20, 21 showsome constructional forms for producing-this effect where the rotary body is tapered at one or both ends, by giving the body 45 of Figs. 18 and 19 for example an elliptical shape, or a cylindrical shape with parabolic or elliptical head so that zones of different diameters are created on the body which rotate at different circumferential speeds, if the entire element is rotated at uniform angular speed over its whole length. Thus the ratio of circumferential speed to the velocity of the current is gradually increased towards the side or toward the bottom, so that losses due to friction between areas of flow having difiercnt velocities are reduced. It is not essential to shape'the meridian curve as a continuous curve, but it may consist of individual truncated portions as shown in Figs. 20, 21, in which the rotary body consists of a cylindrical middle portion 46 and two truncated cone ends 47, 48. The contour of the rotary body may also be stepped-off towards the ends so that the body is bounded by imaginary cone envelopes or cylinder sections of different diameters.

In the case of transverse drive bodies which, owing. to their dimensions extend into zones of different velocity of the current as, for instance, the sails of a wind-mill, for example 217 in Fig. 27. in which the travelling speed of the-sail is greater at the top than at the base, or in the instance of sails of a sailing ship in which a greater wind velocity must be-reckoned with towards the top, the meridian section can be chosen over the length of the rotary body so that over the whole length of the revolving body or a part of it the ratio of circumferential speed to current velocity is constant or practically constant.

In case of a sail for a ship the section of the revolving body therefore becomes larger from the base towards the top as shown at 48 in Fig. 20.

In this figure the meridian curve is chosen so that a gradual change of that ratio from that enlarged part of 48 to the upper'base plate is obtained by shaping the top of the body as a truncated cone, with a cylindrical part 46 inserted between the top 47 and the main lower portion 48 of the body.

Fig. 21 shows a top view of the sailing ship of Fig. 20.

Figs. 22 to 24 show a different way of arranging different zones of the skin rotatable at different circumferential speeds. In this example the zones comprise parts salient from other parts by providing for instance on a cylindrical rotary body annular members or discs of larger diameter than the the body.

This means may be used in order to equal ize lack of uniformity in the vacuum zone over the length of the rotary body or to increase the vacuum in certain zones.

These. annular members may be driven at the same angular velocity as'the body of revolution or the skin of the same, the ratio of their circumferential velocity to the velocity of current then being a greater one ti than at the other parts, so that they may infiuence the adjacent area of the current in some dilferem desired way than the other parts of the travelling skin so that the pulling or transverse driving action due to the Magnus effect can be adjusied o1 predetermined in any desired way.

F or the purpose of adjusting and prede termining the vacuum zone on the transverse propulsion element to any esired extent,

these discs or annular members serving as zones adapted to be rotated at different circumferential speeds may also be driven at angular speeds different from that of theretary body or its skin and may be regulated in their speeds, for example, b means w ich will be described later on wit reference to Fig. 24.

If. for instance, for the driving body 50 of the vessel 14 of Figs. 22 and 23, it is desired to increase the low pressure zone of the middle portion, a ring 51 mu t be arranged which efl'ectsan increase of the inflowing current owing 'to the Magnus eflect, and thus of the transverse'drivc at this place. If a plurality of such rings or discs, for instance 52, 53, 54, 55 are arranged, the low pressure zone can be kept uniform over the whole length of the rotary body, by rings of higher circumferential speed preventing deteriorati on of the low pressure zone toward the ends of the rotary body, and also by causing the zones bounded by adjacent rings or discs to impartan increased speed to a larger volume ofcurrent than corresponds to the working range of the skin itself.

A further cause forthus increasing the; low pressure efiectdies in the fact that by l to pressure and at the same time reduce the friction between adjacent air layers, as the discs rotating at high peripheral velocity 7 cause an increased flow towards these discs, while on the other hand they accelerate also the outer adjacent current so that a gradual transition from the non-influenced layers to the influencei'l ones is created without the efficiency of the low pressure range being impaired thereby. Under certain conditions it may be desirable to drive the rings or discs at an angular speed difierent from that of the adjacent skin or of the adjacent skin sections, for instance at higher speeds. Furthermore. the sections of the rotary body created by said rings 0'. discs can be driven at different speeds. 'This can be etfected by means of an appropriate mechanical device, for instance differential gearing. The constructional features of a cylinder serving for example for a sail of a ship such as 34 in Figs. 8 to 13 or 16 to 17 or 50 in Fig. 22 or serving for a propeller of awind mill 217 such as shown in Figs. 27 and 28 are shown in Figs. 24 to 26.

The cylinder is preferably composed of a shell or mantle 111 of thin material such as sheet metal. Horizontal rings 11201 strutting plates 113 serve for strengthening the envelope 111 against bending. Theite rings are preferably of such a cross-section that they have a bending resistance in horizontal direction. The bending strength in vertical direction is immaterial because the rings are secured against bending in this direction by the cylinder walls. The rings may, however, also receive increased breaking strength, bymaking the same of an I-shaped or Z- shaped cross-section. If it is desired to also increase their strength in vertical direction, they may be fitted at their free edges, as shown in' Figs. 24-26, with vertical stays 114 of fiat material, of which the longer side of the cross-section is radially directed, so that these construction elements havea greater bending resistance against yielding in radial direction as well as in vertical direction.

In the example ofFig. 24 the cylinder is fitted with two end rings 54, fixedly connected with the skin of the cylinder while a middle ring 251 may be driven at an ad justable speed independently from the cylinder. The main cylinder 121 is mounted on a pivot 128 and is driven by an electric motor 129, 130, 131. One part of the electric motor, for instance the armature, may be keyed on the pivot. The other part, for instance the field 131 may be appropriately connected with the envelope of the cylinder, for instance by an elastic and resilient plate 132 and brackets 134 so that a reliable mounting of the cylinder is insured. The current for the motor may be supplied from the engine room of the ship through a bore of the pivot 128.-

For independently driving the annular members 251, a second electric motor 126 and a gearing are arranged, which drive the annular member 251, which latter is sup ported by a ball-bearing fixed to the envelope of the cylinder. Current is supplied to the motor 126 bv slip rings 127 and the bore of the pivot. By means of this motor or other appropriate gearing the circumferential velocity of the annular member may be regulated or adjusted conveniently relatively to the circumferential ve ocity of the cylinder.

The invention has been explained as to transverse driving members for sailing ships.

As already mentioned it is, however, also applicable to other transverse driving bodies such as driving planes for current operated devices, for example wind-mills or propel lers or impellers.

Two examples of this latter modeof application are represented in Figs. 27 and 28.

The wings 217 of a wind-mill arranged on spokes 215 consist of bodies having a movable skin or of rotary cylinders or of any other form of a transverse drive body just as described before with reference toFigs. 1 to 24. The wing system is revolubly mounted on the tower 220, and it can be adjusted by means of anappropriate vane 230, for instance by means of a Flettner fin 231. The propellers 217 are rotated on their own longitudinal axis by suitable means provided in the interior of stationary body 220 and not shown here, being immaterial so far as the presentinvention is concerned. It may be accomplished by any suitably geared motor drive, well within the province of one skilled in the art of mechanical engineering. Such a tower 220 may be constructed in a manner known in art; it' may be also constructed in a similar way as the thin-walled cylinders shown in Figs. 24 to 26. It may consist of separate parts 220, 221, 222, 223 of stepwise diminished diameters, the largest diameter of the tower being thus at the top where the energy transformingdevice is located." In the-example shown in Fig. 27, this tower is held in position by means of guy ropes 225,

.and in the example shown in Fig. 28 by means of struts 226 of similar construction to that of the tower, the diameter of these struts being decreased from the middle, where the highest bending strength is required, in upward and downward directions.

The invention is likewise applicable to carrving or steering planes for aeroplanes, rudders for ships, or stabilization planes for ships or aeroplanes.

Thus Figs. 29 and 30 represent an aero-' plane, of which the supporting wings 140 show in cross-section the construction of Figs. 12 and 13 or, of course, the construction of Figs. 6 to 9, 14 and 15, as well as those showing the band 2 to 5 each inclusive) or the rotor shown in Figs. 10, 11, and 16 to 24, each inclusive, or various embodiments thereof can be used. Said wings shown in Figs. 29 and 30, comprise a rotary cylinder 141 similar to any of the cylinders or shapes shown in any of the other figures of the drawings hereof and a cover 142 of a certain profile for covering part of the surface of said cylinder. The height rudders144 are similarly arranged and comprise rotary cylinders 145with covers 146. A rotary cylinder 147 serves as a cross rudder, while an engine 148 with appropriate lever and control gearings 149.159 is provided for driving the system of rotors and rudders as shown. The propeller of the aircraft illustrated in Figs.

tially transverse to the medi the main engine illustrated schematically at I 153. If the aeroplane stalls, the rotors will offer a lifting force and the aeroplane ma thus be safely landed. According to the a justment of-the profilepieces 142, vthe direction of the transverse drive can be adjusted. An aeroplane having planes according to the invention with a movable skin free at one given to the plane system with reference to the ship, sailing or steering in one or the other direction can be efiected.

Figs. 31 and 32 show the application of the invention to stabilization planes 150 and to the-rudder 151 of a ship, 1n the form of rotary cylinders.

I What I claim is 1. In-an arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium in combination an object for utilizing the ener of flow, an elem'ent having a shape suita le to produce the Magnus effect carried by said object, means for moving at least the border surface of said element within its shaple on that side of the element ad'acent to t e medium and in the direction 0 flow, on which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said element substantially transverse to the me dium flow.

2. Incombination a ship, a sail body hav in a'shape suitable to produce the Magnus e ect for sailing the ship by means of the wind, means "for revolving said sail body within its own shape on that side of the sail body in the direction of the flow, on which side, due to the Magnus efiect a vacuum is to be produced, for pulling said sail body substantlally transverse to the wind.

3. In'an arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium through the Magnus efl'ect in combination an object for utilizing the energy of the flow, at least one cylinder carried by said object,

means for revolving at least the cylinder said p skin within the .shape of said cylinder on that side of the cylinder adjacent to the flow and in the direction of the flow on which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said cylinderv substan- 4; In combination a shi a sail body comprising at least one cylin er forsailing the ship by means of the wind through the Magnus eflect and means for revolving at least the skin of said cylinder around the axis of the cylinder on that side of said cylinder in the direction of the flow on which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for 1 said formoving at least the envelope of said cyl-- inder'around said cylinder on that side of the cylinder adjacent to the flow and in the direction of the flow on which side, due to the Magnus'efiect, a vacuum is to be roduced for pulling said cylinder substantial y transverse to the medium flow.

6. In combination a ship, a sail body comprising at least one cylinder for sailin the ship by means of the wind through the agnus effect, a pivot on the ship for carrying said cylinder, an engine for revolving at least the envelope of said cylinder around its axis with variable speeds.

7. In an arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium, in combination an object ,for utilizing the energy ofthe flow through the Magnus effeet, at least one rotary cylinder for driving said body, a pivot, an electric motor for driving at least the envelope of said cylinder, one part of said electric motor being firmly connected with said pivot and its other relatively movable part being suspended from the envelope of said cylinder.

In combination a ship, a sail body comprising at least one cylinder for sailin the ship by means of the wind throu h the agnus efl'ect, a pivot on the ship or carrying said cylinder, an electriemotor for driving at least the envelope of said cylinder, one part of said electric motor being firmly connected with said pivot and its other relatively mov able part being suspended-from the envelope of said cylinder.

b means of the energy of a flowl t rough the Magnus effect, in com ination an object for utilizing the ener of flow, at least one rotary cylinder for drlvin said body, a pivot, an electric motor for driving at least the envelope of said cylinder, one part of said electric motor being firmly connected with ivot and its other relatively movable ing elastically suspended from the envelope of said cylinder.

9. In an arrangement for 'drixng a body" medium 10. In combination a ship, a sail body com- I prising at least one cylinder for sailing the ship b means of the wind through the-Magnus e ect, a pivot on the ship for carrying said cylinder, an electric motor 'for driving at least the envelope of said cylinder, one part of said motor being firmly connected with gigrot and its other relatively movable part ing elastically suspended from the envelope of said vcylinder.

11. Inan'arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium through the Magnus effect, in combination an object for utilizing the energy of the flow, at least one rotary cylinder for driving said body, a pivot, an electric motor for driving at least the envelope of said cylinder, one part of said motor being firmly connected with said pivot, a horizontal plate strutted within the envelope of said cylinder, and having the other relatively movable part of the motor fixed to it. w

12. In combination a ship, a sail body comprisingat least one cylinder for sailing the ship b means of the wind through the Magnus e ect, a pivot on the ship for carrying said cylinder, an electric motor for driving at least the envelope of said cylinder, one part of said motor being firmly connected with said pivot, a horizontal plate strutted within the envelope of said cylinder and having the other relatively movable part of the motor fixed to it. v

13. In an arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium through the Magnus effect, in combination an object for utilizing the energy of the flow, an element carried by said object, the skin of said clement comprising different-zone portions rotatable within their respective shapes at different circumferential speeds.- means for rotating said zone portions on that side of the element in the direction of the flow on which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said element substantially transverse to the medium flow.

14. In an arrangement for driving a body by means of the'cnergy of a flowing medium, in combination an object for utilizing the energy of the flow, an element having a shape suitable to produce the Magnus effect carried by said object having at least its skin movable within its own shape, rings projecting from said skin, means for moving the zone portions of said skin within their shapes on that side of the element in the direction of the flow on which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said element substantially transverse to the medium flow.

15. In an arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium, in combination an object for utilizing the ener of the flow, an eleinent having a shape suita le to produce the Magnus effect carried by said object, at least the skin of said element being movable within its own shape, means for moving the skin, projecting rings on said skin, means for moving said rings -within their shapes at an angular velocity differing from the angular velocity of the skin in the vicinities of said rings, said movements being on that side of the element in the direction of the flow, on which side, due

to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said element substantially transverse to the medium flow-.1

'16. In an arrangement for driving a body by means of the energy of a flowing medium, in combination an object for utilizing the energy of the flow, an element having a shape suitable to produce theMagnus effect carried by said object, at least the skin of said element being movable within its own shape,

'nieansfor moving the skin, projecting rings on said skin, gearings for moving said rings within thelr shapes at an angular velocity dlffermg from the angular velocity of the skin, said movements being on that side ofthe element in the direction of the flow on i means for moving the skin, projecting rings on said skin, at least one electric motor for separately driving said rings within their shapes at variable speeds independently of said skin, said movements being on that side, of the element in the direction of the flow on s which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vac-- uum is to be produced for pulling said element substantially transverse to the medium flow.

by means of the energy'ofa flowing medium, in combination an object for utilizing the energy otthe flow, an elementhaving a shape suitable to produce the Magnus effect carried by said object, at least the skin of said element being movable within its own shape, projecting end discs fixed on said skin, means for moving the skin within its shape on that side of the element in the direction of the flow on which side, due to the Magnus effect,

a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said element substantially transverse to the medium flow.

19. In combination a ship, a sail body comprising at least one cylinder for sailing the 37 ship by means of the wind through the Magnus effect, an engine for revolving at least the envelope of said cylinder around its axis at variable speeds and projecting discs fixed to the ends of said cylinder and adapted to rc- 18. In an arrangement for driving a body LIT and means for causing rotation of said cylinder or cylinders about their respective axes when said frame is rotated.

' 22. In a rotor'propeller. a'main driving.

shaft. directed in the line of proposed movement. a plurality of auxiliary shafts mounted radially with regard to said main shaft and carried in revolution therewith, a plurality of bodies having surfaces of revolution formed by rectilinear generatrices and each mounted for individual rotation about the axis of one of said auxiliary shafts, means to cause said bodies to rotate during the movement of revolution with said main shaft, and means on each of said bodies toprevent the spilling of fluid over the ends of the bodies under the effect of forces arising during said revolution.

:23. A wind motor comprising a supporting frame. a rotatable shaft therein, a plurality of radial axes attached tosaid shaft, a conical wind engaging member tapering toward said shaftmtatably mounted on each of said axes, and means for rotating said members.

24. A wind motor comprising a support ing frame, a rotatable shaft therein. a plurality of radial axes attached to said shaft,

a conical wind engaging member tapering toward said shaft rotatably mounted on each of said axes, means for rotating said members and means for maintaining the plane of the axes of said wind engaging members approximately normal to the direction of the wand.

25. In combination, an object for utilizing the energy of a flowing medium, an element having a shape suitable to produce the Mag pus efl'ect carried by said object. means for moving at least the border surface of said elc ment adjacent to the medium to produce the Llagnus effect whereby the object is pulled substantially transverse to the flow of the medium, and means for utilizing the Magnus elfect to steer said object.

26. In combination, an object for utilizing the energy of a flowing medium. an element having a shape suitable to produce the Magnus effect carried by said object. means for moving at least the border surface of said element adjacent to the medium to produce the Magnus cfl'ect whereby the object is pulled substantially transverseto the flow of the medium, and means for utilizing the litliagnus effect to elevate saidobject. V 27.'In combination. an object for utilizing the energy of a flowing medium, an element having a shape suitable to produce the Magnus efl'ect carried by said object, means for moving at least the border surface of said element adjacent to the medium to produce the Magnus e lfect whereby the object is pulled substantially transverse to the flow of the ment having a shape suitable to, produce the Magnus eflect carried by said object, means for moving at least the border surface of said clement adjacent to the medium to produce the Magnus effect whereby the object is pulled transverse to the medium of flow, and means for utilizing the Magnus cfiect to steer said object, the means for moving said element being likewise adapted to drive said steering means.

29. In combination, an object for utilizing the energy of a flowin medium, an element having a. shape suita le to produce the Magnus effect carried by said object, means for moving at least the border surface' of said element adjacent to the medium to produce the Magnus effect whereby the object is pulled substantially transverse to the flow of the medium, and a second element carried by said object and located in spaced angular relation to said first element and likewise having a shape suitable to produce the Magnus eifect, said second element being driven from the same means as said first element to produce the Magnus effect in such manner as to steer said object.

30. In combination, an object for utilizing the energy of a flowing medium, an element having a shape suitable to produce the verse to the flow of the medium, a second clement carried by said object and located in spaced angular relation to said first element and likewise havin a shape suitable to produce the Magnus c act, and means for moving at least the border surface of said second element to produce the Magnus efiect in such manner as to steer said object.

31. In combination, an object for utihzing the energy of a flowing medium, an elcment having a. shape suitable to produce the Magnus efiect carried by said object, means for moving at least the border surface of said element within its shape on that side of the element adjacent to the medium and in the direction of flow, on which side, due to the Magnus effect, a vacuum is to be produced for pulling said clement substantially transverse to the flow of the medium, a second elenient carried by said object and located in spaced angular relation to said first element and likewise having a. shape suitable to produce the Magnus effect, said first element driving means being adapted to move at Inn least the border surface of said second ele-, ment within its shape, said object thus being I steered by the Magnus effect produced.

medium, a stream-line body arranged to be supported by said object, an element associated with said body, said element having a shape suitable to produce the Magnus effect, and means for moving at least the border surface of said element adjacent to the medium, whereby a force is produced tending to pull or bodily move said object in a direction having a substantially transverse component relative to the direction of the flow of the medium.

34. Incombination, a bodily movable object for utilizing the energy of a flowing medium, an unsymmetrical stream-line body arranged to be supported by said object, an element associated with said body, said element havin a shape suitable to produce the Magnus e ect, means for moving at least the border surface of said element adjacent to the medium, whereby a force is produced tending to pull or bodily move said object in a direction having a substantially transverse component relative to the direction of the flow of the medium, and auxiliary means for producing the Magnus effect to control the direction of the movement of said object. V

35. In combination, a bodily movable object for utilizing the energy of a flowin medium, an unsymmetrical stream-line y arranged to be supported by said object, an element associated with said body, said element having a shape suitable to produce the Magnus effect, means for moving at least the border surface of said element adjacent to the medium, whereby a force is produced tending to pull or'bodilymove said object in a direction having a substantially transverse component relative to the direction of the flow of the medium, and means, whereby said unsymmetrical stream-line body may be adjusted relative to said object.

36. In combination, an object bodily movable with respect to a base, arranged to utilize the energy of a flowing medium caused by relative motion between said object and the medium, an element connected with said ohject and having a shape suitable to and arranged to produce the Magnus effect, and means for moving the surface of said element whereby a force is-produced in the medium operating to move said object in a desired redetermined direction, with respect to the ase in relation to which said object is movng.

:7. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage, and means adapted to utilize the energy of the medium with respect to which said selage has relative movement, including an element supported by said fuselage having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus eifcct and means whereby the surface of said element is moved whereby a force is produced in a direction producing alift for said fuseage.

38. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage and means for utilizing the energy of the flowing medium caused by relative movement between said fuselage and medium, including an airfoil and an element having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus effect, propelling means supported by said aircraft, and means for moving the surface of said element whereby a force is produced in the medium moving relatively thereto in a direction for producing a lifting efl'ect for said aircraft.

39. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage and means for utilizing the energy of the flowing medium caused by relative movement between said fuselage and medium, including an airfoil and a rotor having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus effect, propelling means supported by said aircraft, and means for moving the surface of said rotor in said moving medium whereby a force is produced in a direction for producing a lifting effect for said aircraft.

40. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage and means for utilizing the energy of the flowing medium caused by relative movement between said means and medium, including an airfoil and a cylindrical element havin a shape suitable to produce a Magnus e ect, a disk located adjacent each end of said element, propelling means supported by said aircraft, and means for moving the surface of said element whereby a force is produced in the medium moving relatively thereto in a direction for producing a lifting eflect for said aircraft. 7

41. In combination an object, means to cause relative motion between the object and its surrounding fluid, an element cooperating with said object said element having a shape suitable to and arranged to produce a Magnus efl'ect, and means for causing relative motion between said element and said object whereby a force due to said Magnus effect is produced operating to modify the movement oflf said objectwith respect to its surrounding uid.

42. In an aircraft, thecombination of supporting means and means adapted to utilize the energy of the medium with respect to I movement, inc uding an'element supported a by said supporting means adapted to proac. an

surface of said elements on that side of the pluraliti of rotary members supported by' aircraft.

duce Magnus effects and means whereby that portion of the medium adjacent to said ele- 'men t is moved with resgect thereto, so that a force due to Magnus e ect is produced operating to modify the movement of said su-'- porting means with respect to its surroun mgmedium.

43 In an -arran ment tending to move a bed by means 0 the energy of a flowing m 'um, incombination an object for utilthe energy of flow, an element connected with said ob'ect and having a shape suitable to produce t e Ma-gnus efl'ect, and means for moving at least the border surface of said element on that side of the element adjacent the medium and in the direction-of flow on which side due to the Magnus elfect a force is produced operating to modify the move! ment of said object with respect to said medium.

44. a In an ar ment tending to move a bod by means 0 the energy of a flowing m ium, in combination an object' for utilizing the energy of flow, a lurahty of elements connected with said ol ject and havi a slia suitable to produce the Magnus e ect, means for moving at least the border elements adjacent the medium and in the direction (if flow on which gideddue to the Magnus e ect a force is pro uce 0 rating to modify the movement ofsaid obfie ct with respect to said medium.

' 45. In an aircraft, the combination of a body supporting means a propeller for-said aircraft, and means a pted to utilize'the energ of the medium havin movement with respect to said body, inclu mg an airfoil, a

said ar dtoand ha ashape suitable to p uce a Magnus-e ect, and means to rotate the surface of said rotors whereby-a force is produced in a direction producing a lift for said l 46. For use in an aircraft av' the combination of a fuselage, means lifiapted to utilize the ene of the medium with respect to which said lage has relative movement; a rota? member ada ted tobe supported by sai 'fllSelll and aving a shape suitable to produce a agnus effect, and discs on said member, radially extending discs intermediate said'ends, and means on said ro-- tary member to rotate the surface of said rotor whereby when driven, a force is producedin a direction producing a lift for the 47. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage. propeller and main engine there-' for, and means adapted to utilize the en .of the medium with respect. to which said fuselage has relative movement, including a rotary member supported by said fuselage arranged to and having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus efiect, an auxiliary engine, and means to rotate the surface of said member by said auxiliary engine whereby a force is produced in a. direction producing a lift for said fuselage. v I

48. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage, a propeller and 'main engine therefor,and means adapted to utilize the energy of the mediumwith respect to which said fusela has relative movement, including a 'movab e member sup orted by said fuselage,

arranged to and having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus efiect, an auxiliary engine, and means to move the surface of said member by said au xilia engine whereby a force is produced in a direction producing a lift for the aircraft.

49. In an aircraft, the combination of an airfoil, a fuselage, a propeller and main engine therefor, and means adapted to utilize 'the'energy' of the medium with respect to which'said fusela has relative movement, including a plur ity of cylindrical members associated with said airfoil and arranged to produce a Magnus effect, an auxiliary engine, and means to rotate the surface of said cylinders by said auxiliary engine whereby a force is reduced in a direc-- tion kgilloducing a li for said fuselage.

50. an aircraft, the combination of an aircraft supporting body construction and means for utilizing the energy of the flowing, medium caused .by relative movement; between said medium and said body, including an airfoil and an element having'a shape us effect, and

suitable to produce a means for moving the sur ace layer of the medium :(dgacent said element whereby a force is p uced tending to move said body in a direction for producing a lifting effect 4 I for said aircraft. V

51. For use in an aircraft having the combination of a supaorting bod and means adapted to utilize e energy 0 the medium -havmg relative movement with respect to said bod including a member su ported on said airczaft and arranged to produce a Magnus eflect, enddiscs extending beyond the periphery of said member, and means to rotate the surface la er of the medium adjacent to the surface 0 said member whereby a force I is produced in a direction producing a lift for the 'aircraft. 52. For use in an bination a supportingbody and meansadapted to utilizethe energy of the surrounding medium having relative movement with respect to said body; a member adapted to be supported on said and arranged whereby Magnus effects are produced, means to prevent end loss of energy at the end of said member,

fthavingincomand means for moving a portion of the nedium adjacent to the surface of member whereby a force due to Magnus effects is produced operating to modify the movement of said body with res ect to said medium..

53. In an aircra the combination of a supfiorting body, a propeller for said.aircra and means adapted to utilize the energy of the medium having movement with respect to said body, including an airfoil, a pluralit of rotary members supported by said bo y arranged to and having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus eflct, and means to cause relative motion between the medium adjacent said rotors whereby a force is produced in a direction producing a lift v for said body.

- 54. In an'aircraft, the combination of a fuselage, a propeller for saidaircraft, means to drive said propeller, means adapted to utilize the energy of the medium in which said aircraft is located and between which there is relative motion including an element supported by said fuselage and having a shape suitable to produce a Magnus efl'ect, means whereby the surface layer of the medium adjacent of said element is moved in a direction whereby a lifting force is produced for the aircraft moving in said medium, and direction controlling means for said aircraft, said means located in the slip stream produced by said propeller. 55. In an aircraft, the combination of a fuselage, a propeller for said aeroplane, means to drive said propeller, means adapted to utilize the energy of the medium in which said aircraft is located and between which there is relative motion including an element supported by said fuselage and having a. shape suitable to produce a Magnus effect, means whereby the surface of said element is moved in a direction whereby a lifting force is produced for the aircraft moving in said medium, and means for controlling the direction of movement of said aircraft, said means located in the slip stream produced by said pro eller. p ANTON FLETTNER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2532899 *Jan 3, 1947Dec 5, 1950Charles DubostAerodynamic lifting device
US2596726 *May 26, 1948May 13, 1952Josef G A RydellWind motor
US6234102May 28, 1999May 22, 2001Petroleum Geo-Services AsDeflector
US8253264Feb 14, 2011Aug 28, 2012Erwin Martin BeckerOrbiting drum wind turbine and method for the generation of electrical power from wind energy
WO1986004646A1 *Feb 12, 1986Aug 14, 1986Kjell BudalArrangement for controlling wave forces on bodies submerged in a fluid
WO2012019179A1 *Aug 6, 2011Feb 9, 2012Garver Theodore MFluid interface device and method
Classifications
U.S. Classification244/10, 415/908, 415/4.5, 416/DIG.600, 415/905
International ClassificationB63H9/02, B64C23/08
Cooperative ClassificationY02T70/58, B64C23/08, B63H9/02, B63B2745/04
European ClassificationB63H9/02, B64C23/08