Film forming element
US RE18908 E
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H; i5 VAN DERHOEF Aug. 1, 1933. PM Re. 18;908
Oiiginal Filed Aug. 2L. 1925 ELECTROOEPOSITED CHROMIUM LAYER ADHEREN-r TO THE NICKEL LAYER nun HAvuue n SURFACE CORRESPONDING- gm! pom-SHED NlcKl-IL nu POLISH TO IT. 4 5 LAYER.
TRUED AND POLISHED I COPPER L YER.
cvunomcm. IRON DRUM.
ATTORNEY Re issued Aug. 1, 1933 r V Re,
FILM FORMING ELEMENT Henry E. Van Derhoef, Rochester, N. Y., assignor.
to'Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y., a Corporation of New York Original No. 1,746,751, dated February 11, 1930,.
Serial No. 51,640, August 21, 1925. Application for reissue February 9,1932. Serial No. 591,887
8 Claims. (01. 18-15.)
This invention relates to an element having a smooth or polished that it will not impair the chromium surface or facing upon which solutions smoothness of the polish of the sheet material. or dopes of cellulosic esters or ethers may be Moreover, it must keep this property over proflowed or deposited for the formationv of a film, longed periods, and in spite of the fact that it is or which may be employed in the manufacture subjected to severe wearing forces by reason of its 60 of high grade paper or any other purpose desired contact with the material. by those skilled in the art. One object is to pro- Drums and belts having nickeled surfaces (or vide a wear resisting element with a facing which peripheries) of hi h po i h ve b p y will be-hard and smooth and .at the same time as for instance-in the dryi g f webs of smooth 1() highly resistant to wear, even when exposed to sy p p But the tensions set p y the 65 prolonged wearing contact with sheet materiaL, shrinking of the pap during drying C e the Another object of the invention is to provide an nickled surfaces to become worn too rapidly. I
I element with a smooth multilayer facing adapthave found that the smoothness of the contacting ed to contact with sheet material and impart its Surfaces of Suc supporting elements y be smoothness to the latter or maintain smoothness maintained over far greater periods than those 70 which already exists therein, and yet maintain heretofore'obtained if the smooth nickel surface its own smoothness for prolonged periods or be covered with a layer of smooth electrodeposadapted for any other use requiring a smooth ited chromium. The nickel should be smooth, surface and long wear. Another object of the and p ferably hi h y p li d. Th n the layer 20' invention is to provide a film-making apparatus of chromium will likewise be deposited with a 7 having a facing or surface which will be highly corresponding smoothness, yet it will adhere to resistant to the intense and peculiar deterioratthe nickel with a high deg ee of e y- It is ing forces which exist in the manufacture of an important feature of my invention that I can films from cellulosic compositions. Still another impart to the electrodeposited chromium a object is to provide a film coating surface from smoothness corresponding to that of the nickel 8Q which a deposited film of a cellulose ester or n'diye can m k h l y rs adhere str n y in ether maybe stripped with unusual facility. Anpi f he moo hne s of he ivi in urfa other object of the invention, is. to provide a be we n m- Of C u ut u ace of process for preparing an elementwith such. a the Chromium y e further Polished multilayer surface byelectro depositing f a smoothed if desired. chromium layer upon a smooth nickel layer, the Referrin to he drawin I hav s wn y W y chromium layer deposit having a surface corof example a fragmentary section of a cylindriresponding in smoothness-to that offthe nickel cal wheel or drum comprising a main body 1 and yet adhering strongly to the surface of the having its outer surface finished to a cylindrical 35- nickel, the nickel layer. in turn having been elecp The el at is P a d pon this. trodeposited'upon a copper layer which may be While it can be made in the form of a shell and the base of the element or which maybe a layer Shrunk di e y p the main y 1, I Prefer electrodeposited upon an iron base .of the eleto electrodepos it, a e P a p the ba ment. Other objects will hereinafterappean. 1 a preli n y in rm i in layer f. p- 40 In the accompanying drawing, the single figper 2. This facilitates the union; between" the ure is a fragmentary sectional View of an element subsequently applied nickel and the iron body 1.
having my multilayer facing thereon,'the" parts After the copp is in position, it is Carefully being exaggerated inrelative' size for the sake trued and polished to give a smooth cylindrical of clearness. a a surface. Any of the well known methods for de- ,45 In numerous industrial rocesses, sheet ma-, posi in pp on'ir n y be mpl y d- 10o terials are formed or treated in such a way as On the coppe layer 2 s p c preferably y to have smooth or highly polished surfaces. electrodepositioma nickel layer 3. This is done During the formation of the sheet materials, or by any of t e W known m s for pp y during the treatment to perfect such surfaces it it in strong lustrous adhe e co ay from a v .50 is necessary for'them to contact with supports, nickel ammonium sulfate bath or other equiva- 105. Usually these supports take the form of elelent electrolyte. The'outer surface of this nickel ments having endless surfaces, such, as drums layeris very important inmy process, as the qualorbelts, which rot'a'te in approximate synchroity of the eventual chromium surface depends nlsm with the movement of the material. It is so much upon it. It is carefully smoothed meessential that the surface of the support be so chemically, such asby burnishing, bufllng. etc. Of
by. George J. Sargent.
course, it can be trued by grinding, if necessary, but it generally follows the already true cylindrical surface of the copper layer 2. Its thickness is preferably sufilcient to make it free from holes and imperfections and yet insufficient to form the nodules which sometime accompany thick plating. These conditions are understood by persons skilled in the electroplating of nickel.
The chromium layer 4 is then deposited upon the smooth polished surface of the nickel. If the latter is free from grease, orfreed'from grease by any of the grease-removing expedients used by electroplaters, the chromium layer, when electrodeposited thereon, will adhere to it with an unexpected and very useful tenacity. The electroplating method for the depositing of the chromium may be any of the known systems for accomplishing this purpose. I prefer, however, the process'disclosed in the Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society, vol. 37 (1920), pages 479 to 496 Electrolytic chromium" The bright chromium layer 3 thus obtained presents a smooth white appearance which may be sufliciently polished for most purposes without further mechanical treatment because its corresponds to the smoothness of the nickel layer 3. It may, however, be perfected by the usual polishing or bufling .operations. While various thicknesses may be employed, I have found that thicknesses of the order of magnitude of one-half a thousandth of an inch are generally sufficient. When a chromium layer of this thickness is obtained, it has a notable hardness and freedom from defects. It is white and smooth, and is polished with the minimum of bufling.
Wheels and belts having my multilayerfacing are highly resistant to the conditions to which the facings are subjected in Patent 1,466,733, Sulzer and Van Derhoef, September 4, 1923, apparatus for making sheets or film. In other words, they not only resist the shrinking and creeping wear when used as drums for handling paper, but likewise resist the tensified disintegrating forces which arise in the preparation of films, particularly from the dopes mentioned in the above cited patent. These disintegrating forces encountered in the production of film by deposition of a film-forming solution upon a surface for that purpose are many fold. Not only do cellulose nitrate dopes, and particularly cellulose acetate dopes, normally contain elements which are corrosive to metallic surfaces, but, I have found, the facility or lack of facility with which a film so formed can be stripped from the film forming surface is by no means to be predicted from experience with other materials. For
instance, film was first produced by coating a solution thereof upon highly polished plate glass but many dimculties were encountered in-stripping the film from the glass, the film sticking quite tenaciously to the glass until thoroughly freed of solvents and even then being difficult of removal except under proper humidity conditions. Although previous experience, therefore, with a highly polished quite hard surface, such as glass, indicated that it would be unsuitable for film coating purposes I discovered that a very smooth chromium surface (which is, of course, quite hard) is very suitable for the production of films by deposition of a dope thereon containing the cellulose derivative, such as cellulose n1- trate, acetate or ether.
With such a chromium surface I found that the film need not be completely freed of solvents before remova1'(as in thecase of a hard smooth glass surface) but that the film could be stripped from the chromium surface while the film was quite green, i. e. while the film still contained a good portion of its solvents although having sufficient body to be handled. This also was not to be predictedby past experience with nickel or silver surfaces as such metals are quite soft when compared with chromium or glass.
While I refer hereinbefore to a multilayer facing of which chromium is the outer facing or surface it will be obvious that I may employ the chromium over any suitable supporting metal. As stated above, the nickel may be imposed'directly upon the iron or steel support and the chromium upon the nickel, or the chromium may be imposed directly upon the iron or steel or other metallic support it being necessary only that the support have a polished surface, to
,which the chromium will pr'operly adhere, in
duce only smaller sizes or areas of film. It will further be obvious that my invention may be utilized in the production of any other element where wear-resistance, and even ornamentation is desired, my multilayer coating giving increased wear resistance to almost any article upon which it -may be employed, such as hardware, jewel y, 7e-
fiectors, automobile parts, implements and the like.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A cylindrical element for use in the manu-' facture of films from dopes containing cellulosic derivatives and having a hard smooth peripheral.
surface 'upon which film-forming dopes may be deposited and from which the films may be readily stripped, said surface comprising a supporting metallic backing, a polished nickel surface integrally united to a supporting backing and an outer layer of chromium, and said chromium layer being adherent to said polished nickel surface and possessing a corresponding polish which it imparts to a film formed thereon.
2. An element havinga smooth hard surface upon which film-forming dopes containing cellulosic derivatives may be deposited and from which the film so formed may be readily stripped, said surface comprising a smooth hard facing of substantially pure chromium metal.
3. A film-forming element having a smooth hard surf aceupon which film-forming. dopes containing cellulosic derivatives may be deposited and from which the film so formed may be readily stripped, said element comprising a supporting metallic backing, a polished nickel surface integrally united to the supportingbacking and an outer facing of chromium, said chromium facing being adherent to said polished nickel surface and possessing a corresponding polish which it is capable of imparting to a film formed there- 4. The method of manufacturing cellulose derivative products and thelike, comprising forming the cellulose-derivative material upon tools or implements having a chromium surface.
5. The method of manufacturing cellulose derivative products and the-like comprising formrous foundation metal. a layer of copper electroplated thereon, an outer layer of chromium and a layer of nickel interposed between the layers of copper and chromium. v
8. An article of manufacture comprising a. terrous foundation metal, a layer of copper deposit ed thereon, a layer-o1 nickel deposited upon the copper layer and a layer of chromium deposited upon thenickel layer.
HENRY E. VAN DERHOEF.