US RE21081 E
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I L 7 y" X 5 y 1939- T. E. HORST T AL Re. 21,081
0 HINGE 20 7 0 7 2 Sheets-Sheet l Original Filed Jan. 31, 1935 INVENTOR. 7Z/lmon Fffian Her-.5)
BY fl/ fia 1.9444
ATTORNEYS UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE HINGE Tallmon Ethan Horst, Chicago, Ill.
Original No. 2,071,070, dated February 16, 1937, Serial No. 4,287, January 31, 1935. Application for reissue December 28, 1938, Serial No. 248,120
10 Claims. (Cl. 16-164) This invention relates to hinges and is parhinge are all behind the junction of the front ticularly applicable to structures wherein it is surfaces. desired to conceal the hinge mechanism when My invention contemplates further the provithe door or closure element is in the closed posision of a hinge of this character wherein the tion although the use of the hinge is not at all hinge elements on one of the panels are pivoted limited in this respect. to the hinge elements on the other panel in such The most common type of hinge is merely two a fashion that the pivotal axis of the hinge elemembers pivoted together on a suitable axis so ments cannot at any time coincide with the that one may be rotated relative to the other, pivotal axis of the panels.
and these two members are suitably fixed to the My invention further contemplates a hinge of supporting and supported structures. this character wherein the pivotal axes of the In order that the description may be more hinge elements where they are connected to each readily understood, I will, throughout the deother shall, when the panels are in open or closed scription, refer to the two members to be conposition, lie at right angles to the axis about nected together for swinging movement as panels which the panels pivot.
although it is obvious that one of the panels In carryin u he purp es f th inv n n. may consist of a, door or a bar and the other I have I0lll1d that, in order to have positive panel may suitably consist of any supporting movement of the hinge elements or links which stru ture u h as a, framework, a casing, or an connect the panels to each other, it is necessary 20 ordinary panel or wall. to use more than two pairs of elements to avoid In considering the requisite features of a good all of the undesired or lost motion movements hinge, particularly when it is to be used as a conthroughout h C mp Swing 0f e Panels cealed hinge, it is necessary to hide the hinge h respect to each other. elements so that they will not be visible from the I h v f nd ls ha it is ne e s y to piv front sid of th pan l that i th id usually the links or elements to their respective panels exposed to view. Usually the hinge should be on an axis which is located at an acute angle capable of turning the panels through 180 al to a y Plane through the P v axis o the p though in a number of instances the 90 turn I a found that t p v ta es of t hinge is sum ient. A good example f thi i th uelements or links to their respective panels should tomobile door hinge. Another characteristic of e ch be directed along the diagonal of an im eithe hinge is that it must be free acting at all y e of hich the axis about which the points. .A further characteristic ofahingeisthat P e s p t s one Edge. The imag y w it should hold the panels securely, that is to say. r h hinge axis is of course diflerent from free from all lost motion or undesirable movethe others, but each cube includes the pivotal ment, particularly as t d play" h t axis as one edge. The position of the pivotal door is in closed position. Further, the moveaxis of the Panels with respect to the Points ment of all parts with respect to each other mounting of the links On their sp e panels where t are connected should be pivotaL The determines the size and position of each cube for hinge must also be simple, sturdy, and economiits respective linkcal to manufacture and require little or no attenother features and advantage? of the f tion once it is installed tion will appear more clearly in the following Now, the two panels when closed are to make more deta'lied description 'f taken with the a tight joint, and the hinge is also to be confi i g i i certain forms of led. Then the line about which the panels 8 on are 5 15 to be understood P however, that the drawings and description are pivot must be on one side or coincident with the illustrative only and are not to be taken as mu Junction of the front surfaces of the panels in the invention exce tin so far as it 11 where they join, and the hinge must be on the bygthe claims p is mlted other or the back side of the line of Jointure. In the drawings It is the Purpose this inventmn Provide Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a a hinge mechanism in which the P Point cabinet and door showing a set of my hinges about which the panels move with respect to applied t t each other may be located at the junction 0! the Fig. 2 is a front elevational view of the hinge; front surfaces of the panel or in front of the Fig. 3 is a front elevation of a modified form 55 junction while the mechanical elements of the of the hinge connecting two panels together;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 wherein one pair of the hinge elements is dispensed with;
Fig. 5 is an enlarged view showing two pairs of hinge elements in a single assembly where the panels have been opened;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged view showing the position of the hinge elements when the panels have been completely opened;
Fig. 7 is a vertic L1 sectional view taken substantially on the line 1-1 of Fig. 4.
Referring now in detail to the drawings, the hinge as applied in Fig. 1 connects the door panel I0 to the casing II, there being three pairs of hinge elements used, each pair consisting of an element l2 and an element I3 pivoted together by means of the rivet I4 and secured by means of the angularly bent ends I5 and IS in the sockets I1 and I3 which are formed on the plates I9 and 20. Plates I9 and 20 are, of course, intended to be fastened to the casing II and the door III, respectively, by suitable screws or other means. The ends I5 and I6 of the link elements I2 and I3 are preferably secured against endwise movement in their respective sockets, as for example by means of the pin 2I riding in the slot 22, the pin being fastened in the angularly bent end of the hinge element, and the slot being provided in the socket.
In Figs. 3, 5 and 6, the hinge elements are grouped so that four links 23, 24, 25, and 26 may be carried by two attaching plates 21 and 28 which are attached to the panels. The links are pivotally connected to each other, as for example by the rivets I4, and are riveted by means of suitable rivets such as 29 and 30 to the bosses 3i, 32, 33, and 34 formed on the plate members 21 and 28. The hinge elements are shown in Figs. 3, 4, and 7 in their completely closed position, that is with the panels abutting each other.
Now, when the panels are opened, they swing about the edge opposite the edge to which the hinge elements are attached. This edge is indicated in Figs. 5 and 6 at 35. In Fig. 5, the panels have swung half open or through an angle of from the position shown in Fig. 3, while in Fig. 6 the panels are in the completely open position.
It will be noted from an examination of Figs. 3 to 7 that the hinge elements such as 23 and 24, when the panels are closed, lie parallel to each other, and the axes of the rivets l4 are directly at right angles to the line about which the panels pivot. The hinge elements are also spaced away from the pivot line of the panels a distance somewhat greater than the thickness .of the panels.
Now as the one panel is swung or pivoted with respect to the other, the links 23 and 24 are separated and drawn outwardly so as to bring the upper and lower rivets I4 shown in Fig. 3 closer together. The complete swing through now brings the links 23 and 24 into a horizontal position, and the pivotal connection of these links by means of the rivet I4 has moved in toward the pivotal axis 35 and is again at right angles to it.
It is believed to be evident that, by lengthening or shortening the links 23 and 24 to adapt them to any particular thickness of panel, they may be mounted on the inside surfaces of the panels and cause the panels to swing about a line at the junction of their outside surfaces.
Further, by using longer links 23 and 24 than are necessary for the thickness of the panels, these panels may be made to swing about a pivotal axis that is outside or beyond their outer surfaces any desired distance. In any such structure, the pivotal axis connecting the links 23 and 24 will in both the closed and 180 open positions of the panels be directly at right angles to the pivotal axis of the panels. Furthermore, when the panels are closed together, the links will be lined up parallel to the axis about which the panels swing; and, when the panels are opened the full 180, the links will lie crosswise or at right angles to the pivotal axis of the panels.
The aforementioned results are obtained principally by the proper positioning of the axes about which the links turn where they are connected to the panels. In the structure shown in Figs. 3 to '7, I find that the proper direction of the link axis is a direction which will cause the axis to fall within a plane perpendicular to the front surface of the panel and making an angle of 45 degrees with the pivotal axis of the panel. I find also that this axis would lie in a plane which is perpendicular to the end face of the panel and makes an angle of 45 degrees with the pivotal axis of the panel. Incidentally, this works out to be the diagonal of a cube of which one edge is the pivotal axis of the panel, one face is a plane parallel to the panel through the pivotal axis of the panel, and another face is a plane perpendicular to the panel through the pivotal axis of the-panel.
Referring back now to Figs. 1 and 2, the link elements I2 and I3 have their end portions I5 and I6 angularly directed on the diagonal of a cube in the same fashion as the axes of the rivets 29 and 30 are located in Figs. 3 to 7. It is immaterial from the functional standpoint whether the portions I5 and I6 are directed upwardly on the diagonal or downwardly on the diagonal in a direction, for example, exactly opposite to the direction of the members l5 and I6.
I find that in using these hinges, if only two pairs of links are used, then at one point in the swinging movement through 180 there is an unstable position in which the one panel might swing out of alignment with the initial pivotal axis. However, by using three pairs of link elements and spacing them in any position desired with at least one pair of links swinging in the opposite direction to another pair, the movement of the one panel with respect to the other is a true pivotal movement about a single line which by adjustment of the links may be made to coincide with the outer surfaces of the panels or be spaced outwardly therefrom.
By setting one pair of links in opposition to another, the two pairs of links in swinging from closed position toward open position arrive at one point in their travel to a position where the pivotal axes on their respective panels of the two links of one pair are parallel. Also the pivotal axes on their respective panels of the two links of the other pair are parallel, but the plane of the pivotal axes of the first pair of links is at an angle to the plane of the pivotal axes of the second pair of links.
With this structure, it is believed to be evident that the links may be set at different angles with respect to the planes of their panels without interfering with their functioning in the least. Thus the pivotal axis about which a door swings with respect to a casing may be placed outside the door and casing and need not be in line with the junction line of the door and casing. It is only necessary to arbitrarily select the pivotal axis, then so mount the links on the door and casing that the axes on which the links connect to each other lie in a plane including the pivotal axis and make the links of the proper length to cause swinging about the selected pivotal axis.
The links themselves may be curved, bent, or oil'set to get around the adjacent portions of the panels. Any rigid connection between the pivotal connection of two links together and the pivotal connection of a link with its panel is therefore a link.
From the above description, it is believed that the construction and operation of this hinge structure will be clear to those skilled in this art.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by United States Letters Patent is:
l. A hinge structure comprising pairs of links, the two links of each pair being pivoted together and having means at their extremities for securing the links to a pair of members to be connected together for swinging movement with respect to each other, at least one of the pivotal axes of the hinge links to the members being disposed at an acute angle with respect to any plane including the axis on which the links are pivoted to each other. a
2. A hinge mechanism for connecting two panel elements for swinging movement with respect to each other, said hinge mechanism comprising pairs of hinge links, the extremities of which are pivoted to respective elements and to each other, the pivotal axes connecting the respective links of each pair of links together be ing disposed at an angle to the pivotal axis of the panel elements in all positions of the panel elements, the pivotal axis connecting said links to each other being disposed at right angles to the pivotal axis of the panel element in the limiting or wide open position oi said panel elements when said links are parallel.
3. A hinge mechanism for connecting two panel elements for swinging movement with respect to each other, said hinge mechanism comprising pairs of hinge links, the extremities of which are pivoted to respective elements and to each other, the pivotal axes connecting the respective links of each pair of links together being disposed at an angle to the pivotal axis of the panel elements in all positions of the panel elements, the pivotal axis of each link to its respective panel elements being directed on the diagonal of a cube of which the pivotal axis of the panel elements is one edge.
4. A hinge mechanism for connecting two panel elements for swinging movement with respect to each other, said hinge mechanism comprising pairs of hinge links, the extremities of which are pivoted to respective elements and to each other, the pivotal axes connecting the respective links of each pair of links together being disposed at an angle to the pivotal axis of the panel elements in all positions of the panel elements, one pair of said links being mounted to swing in the opposite direction with respect to another pair of said links.
5. A hinge mechanism for connecting two elements for pivotal movement with respect to each other, said mechanism comprising a plurality of hinge links pivotally connected in spaced pairs, means pivoting one link of each pair of links to one of said elements and the other link oi each pair to the other of said elements, there being at least three pairs of said links with at least two of said pairs swinging in opposite directions, the axis on which each link is pivoted to its element being located in a plane making an angle of substantialiy 45 with a plane perpendicular to the axis on which said links are pivoted to each other, and a like angle with the pivotal axis on which the two links are connected together.
6. A hinge unit comprising a pair of links, means pivotally connecting adjacent ends of said links together for parallel swinging movement about said means as an axis, said links having bearing portions at their free ends directed at angles of forty-five degrees to any plane including the first named axis, and to the plane in which said links swing about said axis.
'7. A hinge unit comprising a pair of links pivoted on a common axis and having their free ends provided with portions for pivotally mounting to the elements which are to be hinged together, said portions having their pivotal axes in a common plane which is always at an angle of substantially forty-five degrees with said common axis.
8. A hinge for connecting a door and support comprising a pair of link members, one link member having integral arms extending at an angle to each other, a supporting socket, the end portion of one arm being round in cross section and rotatively engaging said supporting socket during operation of the hinge by the swinging of the door whereby a substantial length thereof has bearing in the socket, a pivotal connection between the free end 0! the other arm and the other link member, and means for mounting the other link member to enable same to rotate about an axis different than the axis 01' said pivotal connection.
9. A hinge for connecting a door and support comprising a pair of link members, one link member having integral arms extending at an angle to each other, a supporting socket, the end portion of one arm being round in cross section and rotatively engaging said supporting socket during operation of the hinge by the swinging of the door whereby a substantial length thereof has bearing in the socket, the other link member constituting a. one piece rigid part, a pivotal connection between the free end of the other arm and. the other link member, and means for mounting the other link member to enable same to rotate axially as a result of movement of the links about said pivotal connection.
10. A hinge for connecting a door and support comprising a pair of link members, one link member having integral arms extending at an angle to each other, a. supporting socket, the end portion of one arm being round in cross section and rotatively engaging said supporting socket during operation of the hinge by the swinging oi the door whereby a substantial length thereof has bearing in the socket, a pivotal connection between the free end of the other arm and the other link member, the axis 01 said pivotal connection being disposed in a diflerent plane from the axis of rotation of said first link member, and means for mounting the other link member to enable same to rotate.
TALLMON ETHAN HORST.