Suspension hydraulic swivel and feed
US RE21677 E
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Dec 1940 s. R. TREMOLADA Re. 21,677
SUSPENSION HYDRAULIC SWIVEL AND-FEED FOR ROTARY WELL DRILLING Original Filed May 22, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 I N VEN TOR: G'zgliebno R. Tremoladw,
G. R. TREMOLADA Dec 24, 1940 SUSPENSION HYDRAULIC SWIVEL AND FEED FOR ROTARY WELL DRILL ING Original Filed May 22, 1936 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 9 B \H\ B 7- Id M w; M, z x F l H 9 i U H B. m 7 9o 0 M J a 6 3 S 7 MW 8 INVENTOR: G'zglielmo R. Trenwladw,
Dec 24, 1940 G. R. TREMOLADA SUSPENSION HYDRAULIC SWIVEL AND FEED FOR R OTARY WELL DRILLING Original Filed May 22, 1936 J3. g x T 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR: bno 1E. Trernoladm,
mama 1)....24, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Guglielmo R. Tremolada, Los Angeles, Calif. Original No. 2,099,779, dated November 23, 1937,
Serial No. 81,167, May 22, 1936.
Application for reissue September 19, 1938, Serial No. 230,747
This invention relates to swivels, feeds and retraction means for rotary well-drilling apparatus.
In the operation of rotary well-drilling appara- 5 tus the great weight of the drill string on the conventional metallic thrust bearing swivel wears out said swivel in a short time, often within twenty-four hours. Such swivels are expensive, and their frequent failure adds materially to the cost of drilling operations.
In feeding the drill bit in deep wells the Breat weight of the drill string, amounting at times to several hundred tons, must be relieved from the .bit and the bit controlled in such manner that it will engage the bottom of the well under no greater pressure than the weight necessary for drilling; otherwise the bit will deviate from the perpendicular, by following a soft formation, and
will drill a crooked hole, or the bit will dig into the earth too rapidlyand twist of! the drill string.
Various means are at present employed, in conjunction with the conventional metallic thrust bearing swivel, for maintaining the proper pres sure on the drill bit, such as the electric differentiai motor lift, the hydraulic lift and other means. Such means, however, are all extra equipment, added to the conventional drilling apparatus, which are cumbersome and expensive, and are employed only for the control of the weight on the drill string.
The general object of my invention is to provide a combined hydraulic cushion suspension swivel and feed for rotary well-drilling apparatus.
Another object is to provide a hydraulic swivel for rotary well drilling apparatus, whereby the entire weight of the drill string is suspended and revolved upon a body of liquid, thus eliminating the great wear andfrequent replacement of the conventional metallic thrust bearing swivel, and increasing the life of the swivel indefinitely.
Another object is to provide an improved hydraulic feed for rotary well drilling apparatus, which will feed the drill bit smoothly and will enable accurate measurement of the pressure or weight of the drill bit in order to prevent the application of excessive pressure on the bit.
Another object is to provide a feed for rotary well-drilling apparatus, the stroke of which may be increased to the length of the kelly, thus eliminating the frequent retracting operations required in the present rotary well-drilling apparatus.
Other objects and advantages will appear hereinafter as this specification progresses.
In the annexed drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of an oil well derrick equipped with my invention.
Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section of my hydraulic swivel and feed.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section of the mud swivel Joint.
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section of the mud swivel Joint taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section of a modified form of my invention, embodying my suspension hydraulic feed and a metallic thrust bushing bearing swivel.
Fig. 6 is an elevation of my invention with the mud joint disconnected therefrom, and showing a snubbing hook screw seated on the lower end of the piston rod and engaging the cable of a snubbing means for snubbing the drill string into a well hole. 1
Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary longitudinal section of my invention, showing the piston and slidein their uppermost position in the cylinder.
Fig. 8 is a horizontal section of my invention taken on line 88 of Fig. 7. 1
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary elevation of my invention showing a modified form of suspension means.
Referring more particularly tothe drawings, in which corresponding parts are designated by the same reference characters in all the figures, I designates my hydraulic swivel and feed in its entirety, which is suspended at its upper end by a ball 2 from the hook 3 of a traveling block 4 in a derrick 5, said traveling block being suspended by a cable 6 from a crown block (not shown) on the top of said derrick.
My invention includes a cylinder I, piston B, and piston rod 9, and slidabie guide l0, said guide being positioned in said cylinder above said piston. The cylinder I is formed with a cooling jacket I l, surrounding the same, in. which Jacket is placed water, air or other cooling medium for preventing overheating of said cylinder. The cylinder I is constructed with a head I! at its upper end, which head is formed with a pair of horizontal trunnions l3, received within the bearing ,atthelowerends of the bail 2. Said headis provided with a central bore I5 through its upper wall to provide access into the upper end of the cylinder I, said bore being normally closed at 'its upper end by a plug l6 formed with an external flange l6, which rests upon the top of the head [2 and is bolted to the head by bolts .I I, whereby the bore II is detachably closed by said plug. The lower end of the cylinder I is closed by a head I8, which is bolted thereto by bolts I 9, said head being constructed with a packing box II, and a roller bearing II through which the piston rod extends. Thepiston I is keyedon the piston rod 0, with its upper end against an enlargement 5 ii on said rod, and said piston is constructed with a peripheral recess 22, extending upwardly from the lower end thereof, to receive a hydraulic packingll, which is maintained in said receu by a gland II, secured in the lower end of said piston, said packing engaging the inner surface .ofthe cylinder'l tosealtheliquidinthecylinder below said piston. The lower side 24' of the piston gland 24 is preferably spherical to provide a better hydraulic cushion eflect of the piston I,
andreducetheeddycurrentsintheliquidinthe cylinder and the heat generated thereby to a minimum. The slidable guide ll is'constructed with annular rings and II and with a bearing housing 21 within said rings. the ring 25 hego ing spaced above the ring 28, and said rings being joined to said bearing housing by radial longitudinal webs". The rings II and I. of the sliding guide II are slidably fitted to the inner surface of the cylinder I. The upper end portion :5 of the piston rod 8 extendsupwardly through the bearing housing 21 and is journaled in roller bearings 28 and II fitted in the lower and upper ends respectively of said housing. A hearing spacerll isfittedonthepistonrodlwithinthe a bearing housing I! with its upper end engaging the lower end of the roller bearing ll and its lower end engaging the upper end of the lower rollerbearingll. Theupperendoftheroller bearing 2. is closed by a thrust washer II fitted over the upper end'of' the piston rod I and a sleeve 33 is fitted overthe upper end of said rod and rests at its lower end on the upper side of said washer II. A gland is is secured in the upper end of the bearing housing 21 over the a washer II with the sleeve I3 projecting through the opening 3|, in the center of said gland. said glandbeingconstructedwithapackingflin contact with said sleeve 33 whereby, the upper end of the roller bearing' is hydraulicallysealed.
r A washer l1 fits over the upper threaded end of-the pistonrodlupontheupper endofthe sleeve 83 anda nut II screws on said upper threaded end of said piston rod against said washer I1, thus holding the gland 34 in positionintheupperendofthebearinghousingIL- 'Thelow'erendoftberollerbearingilisclosed by a washer ll fitted over the upper end portion ofthepistonrodlupontheupperendofthe enlargement ii. A gland 4| is secured in the lowerend ofthe bearinghousing Il beneaththe washer 3! and rests upon the enlargement 2| with the upper reduced portion ll of said enlargement projecting upwardly through the openinginsaidgland,saidglandbeingconstructed with a packing II in contact with said reduced portion of said enlargement, whereby thelowerendoftherollerbearingliishydraulically sealed. A nipple 43 projects through the lower end of the cylinder 1 and is connectper endof a flexible hose 44, the lower end of which hose being connected to one endofapipelllocatedatonesideofthederrick I, which pipe extends downwardly from hose to the lower part of the derrick where jl uble oil, supplied to the cylinder 1 through said said u it is bent t N uponitself and extends upwardly into the pipe from the tank 41. for raising or lowering the piston e in said cylinder. A U-shaped pipe ll is connected at its ends to the pipe 4' at upposite sides respectively of the valve II, to which pipe I! is connected a pressure indicator N. A 5 bleeding valve Ii is interposed in the pipe II. From the cylinder I, at a point immediately above the piston I, when said piston is at the upper end of its stroke, leads a drain pipe '2 for leakage upwardly past said piston. 10
A mud joint II is provided for the circulation of mud downwardly through the drill string, around the drill bit, and upwardly through the well in the usual manner. Said mud joint comprises a casing N, a spindle 5! extending through is said and roller bearings 66 and II mounted respectively in the lower end and upper end of said casing, on which bearings said spindle is journaled to rotate in said casing. The rollers II and 59, respectively, of the bearings II and 29 51, are conical and are disposed at an angle to support the casing 54 on the spindle ll. The lower end of the casing 54 is closed by a gland ill surrounding the spindle i5 and constructed with a packing ii in contact with said spindle, 25 which packing seals the lower end of the roller bearing It around the spindle. A ring 62 is secured on the spindle 55 above the roller hear- .ing l6 and is constructed with a peripheral packing it in contact with the inner surface of the 80 casing ll, which packing seals the upper end of the roller bearing l. The upper end of the casing l4 ls'closed by a gland '3 surrounding the upper end of the spindle 55 and constructed with a packing M in contact with the spindle, I which packing seals the upper end of the roller bearing ll around the spindle; A ring I! is fitted on the upper portion of the spindle II immediately below the roller bearing '1, and is constructed with a peripheral packing 86 in contact with the inner surface of the casing M,
which packing seals the lower end of the roller bearing 51. The bore-of the casing I! is enlarged slightly above the lower roller bearing litoreceiveapackingl'l andagland ll to 5 maintain said packing in said enlarged bore around the spindle II. The bore of the casing 54 is also enlarged slightly below the upper roller bearing I! to receive a packing I and a gland II to maintain said packing in said enlarged bore around said spindle. The casing 54 is enlarged internally intermediate its ends to provide an annular mud-circulating space H surroimding the spindle l5, and said casing is provided with mud inlets I2 and 13 leading into said space from opposite sides-of the casing ll. Nipples l4 and II are secured to the outside of the casing I in communication with said inlets respectively.- The spindle II is provided with a bore ll extending upwardly in the spindle from its lower end to a point 'll coinciding with the upper end of annular'mud-circulating space Ii in the casing 84. The spindle II is provided with a plurality of elongated mud inlets ll leadingfromthespaceli intotheupperendofthe spindle bore 'l'l. The upper end of the spindle II is formed with a ..box "to receive a pin" i II on the lower end ofthe piston 'rod l, whereby the mud joint II is detachably connected to the lower end of said piston rod. The lower 7 end of the spindle I is formed with a pin", II for engaging a "box" I! in the upper end of the kelly 83 of a conventional rotary drill string for detachably connecting the upper end of said kelly to the lower end of said spindle, said kelly 7i extending downwardly through the turntable 88 on the floor oi the derrick I. .A hose "leading from a mud pump (not shown) is connected to either nipple I8 or II for circulating mud through the joint 88 and drill string to the bit in the well.
The operation, uses and advantages oi my invention are as follows:
The cylinder I, together with the mud Joint 88, kelly 88 and drill string are raised by the draw works, until only the lower end of the kelly remains in the turntable 88 and the piston 8 rests upon a liquid cushion in the lower end of said cylinder below the drain 82, and the lower end of the kelly is secured in the turntable by slips. The cylinder I is then lowered by the draw works until the piston 8 reaches its uppermost position in said cylinder, while the valve 88 is opened so that liquid flows from the tank 81 through the pipe I 88 and said valve, and through the hose 88, into the lower end of the cylinder I until said cylinder is filled with liquid below the piston 8. The valve 88 is then closed, the slips are removed from the turntable and kelly and the bleed valve II is opened sumciently to allow only a small amount of liquid to pass through it under a predetermined pressure of the piston 8 on the liquid in the cylinder, corresponding to the pressure 01 the drill against the bottom of the well required for drilling. The liquid passing through the bleed valve 5| passes up through the pipe 88 into the tank 81 on the upper part of the derrick 5. The piston 8 then descends, under the influence oi the weight of the drill string against the head of the liquid in the cylinder, functioning as a hydraulic feed, while the turntable 88 is rotated in the usual manner, whereby the kelly 82 and drill string, together with the mud joint spindle 55, piston rod 8 and piston 8, are rotated, the piston rotating upon the liquid in the cylinder 1 functioning as a hydraulic swivel, and the drill bit drills the well hole to a depth equal to the length of the stroke of the piston 8 in the cylinder I, whereupon the piston 8, upon reaching the lower end 01' its stroke, automatically closes the outlet nipple 83, and rests upon a cushion of liquid in the lower end of said cylinder below said nipple aiter forcing all of the liquid above said liquid cushion out 01' the cylinder through said nipple, hose 88 and pipe 85. Slips are then inserted in the rotary table to hold the drill string, and the cylinder 1 is lowered by the draw works until the piston 8 again reaches its uppermost position in the cylinder, while the valve 88 is opened to permit fluid to fill the cylinder below the piston. The valve 88 is then closed, the slips removed from the rotary table, and the bleed valve 8i opened, and the drill string lowered further the length of the stroke of the piston in the cylinder. The above-described operations of the cylinder and piston for lowering the drill string for drilling are repeated. When the drill bit has drilled the well hole to such depth that the upper end of the kelly descends to the turntable 88, the cylinder I, kelly 88 and drill string are raised by the draw works until the upper end of the drill string projects through the turntable, whereupon slips are inserted in the turntable, the kelly 88 is unscrewed from the upper end of the drill string, and another section of pipe is introduced between the upper end of the drill string and the lower end of the kelly and connected thereto. The slips are then removed from the turntable, and the cylinder 1, kelly 88 and the drill string are lowered by bleed valve 5| until the lower end 0! the kelly enters the turntable 88, whereupon the well is drilled to the proper depth.
In the form of my invention shown in Fig. 5,
the guide I8 is eliminated, a piston 88 is substituted for the piston 8 and an end thrust roller bearing 81 is mounted in the upper end 01' said piston for sustaining the load 01' the drill string on said piston through a piston rod 88, which extends through said piston, there being a nut 88 on the upper end oi! said piston rod engaging said end thrust bearing. The piston rod 88 is journaled in roller bearings 88 and M in the piston 88, so that said rod may rotate in said piston. A packing box 82, containing a packing 82' is provided in the lower portion of the piston for packing the piston rod 88, and sealing the lower end of the roller bearing 8|. A packing box 88 is provided in the lower end of the cylinder I through which the rod 88 rotatably extends.
In Fig. 6 the mud joint 88 has been disconnected from the lower end of the piston rod 8 and a snubbing hook 88 is screw seated on the "pin" 88 on the lower end of said rod for engaging a snubbing cable 85, which cable extends over the conventional sheaves (not shown) on the derrick floor or rotary table and is connected to the conventional snubbing bar (not shown) on the upper end of a drill string for snubbing said drill string into a well hole against gas pressure therein.
Means, comprising a fluid pump I88, a pipe I8I leading irom said pump and connected to pipe 85 between the cylinder I and valve 88, and a valve I82 in said pipe, are provided for lifting the drill string hydraulically, which might be desirable at times. By closing the valve 88 and opening the valve I82, the pump I88 may be operated to pump fluid through pipes IM and 88, and hose 88 into the cylinder I to raise the piston 8 and the drill string.
In Fig. 9, I have illustrated a modified form of suspension means for my swivel and feed, which comprises an external shoulder II8 on the cylinder head I2, and a collar I l I surrounding the cylinder I and engaging said shoulder, said collar being formed with trunnions H2 received within the bearings I8 of the ball 2.
I do not limit my invention to the exact construction herein disclosed, because various changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit oi! the invention.
1. In a rotary well-drilling apparatus, a cylinder suspended from the traveling block of said apparatus, a piston rotatably mounted in said cylinder, a guide mounted in said cylinder, a piston rod extending through said piston and said guide, and secured in said piston, a roller bearing in said guide in which said rod is journalled, said piston rod extending through one end of said cylinder, means for introducing fluid into said cylinder below said piston or allowing said fluid to escape from said cylinder, and means for connecting the drill string to said piston rod.
2. In a rotary well-drilling apparatus, a cylinder, a piston in said cylinder resting upon a body of liquid therein, a sliding guide fitted in said cylinder above said piston, a piston rod extending through said piston and said guide, said rod being keyed to said piston, hearings in said guide in which said rod is iournaled, means for hydraulically sealing said rod and said bearings within said sliding guide, said piston rod extending through the lower end of said cylinder,
and means for connectlns the lower end oi said rod to a drill string.
3. In a rotary well-drilling apparatus, a cylinder suspended from the travelling block of said apparatus, means for cooling said cylinder. a piston rotatably mounted in said cylinder. a guide fitted in said cylinder above said piston. a piston rod extending through said piston and saidguideandsecuredtosaidpiston.anda roller bearing in said guide in which said piston rod is iournaled, said piston rod extending though one end of said cylinder.
4. In a rotary well-drilling apparatus, a cylinder suspended from a raising and lowering means oi said apparatus, a piston rotatably mounted in said cylinder, a guide for said piston axially movable in said cylinder, a piston rod secured to said piston and extending through one end of said cylinder. bearing means cooperating between said piston and said guide, means whereby fluid may be introduced into or withdrawn from said cylinder below said piston. and means for connecting the drill string ot'said apparatus to said piston rod.
5. In a rotary well-drilling apparatus, acylinder suspended from a raising and lowering means oi. said apparatus, a piston rotatably mounted in said cylinder, a guide for said piston movable in axial direction relative to said cylinder, a piston rod secured to said piston and extending through one end.oi said cylinder, bearkm means cooperating between said piston and said guide. a body or fluid in said cylinder below said piston, and means tor connecting the drill string of said apparatus to said piston rod.
mm a rotary well-drilling apparatus, a cylinder suspended from a raising and lowering means of said apparatus, a piston rotatably mounted in said cylinder, a guide for saidplston mounted in said cylinder and operatively connectedto said piston so as to move along said cylinder with said piston and to make essentially non-rotative engagement with the wall of said cylinder, a piston rod secured to said piston and extending through one end of said cylinder, a body of iluid in said cylinder below said piston, and means for connecting the drill string 01' said apparatus to said piston rod.
7. In a rotary well-drilling apparatus including a suspension part and a drill string part, a cylinder connected to one of said parts, a piston mounted in said cylinder, said cylinder and piston being relatively rotatable, a guide fitted in said cylinder and operatively connected to said the other said parts.
(mount-Mo R. TREMOLADA.