|Publication number||USRE22375 E|
|Publication date||Sep 14, 1943|
|Filing date||Mar 6, 1937|
|Publication number||US RE22375 E, US RE22375E, US-E-RE22375, USRE22375 E, USRE22375E|
|Inventors||Rex Earl Basaett|
|Original Assignee||Bendlx Home Appliances|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (17), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sept. 14, 1943. J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL Re. 22, 5.
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS v Original Filed March 6, 1937 ll Sheets-Sheet l A TTORNEYS.
p 1943- J. w. CHAMBERLIN EIAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1957 ll Sheets-Sheet 2 g INVENTORS JOHN W. C/MMBEBl/H BY P4675401.
p 1943- J. w. CHAMBEYRLIN ETAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March6. 1937 11 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTORb. JOHN w. LHflMBt'Ql/H 25x E421. amzrzun By I A T TORNEYJ P 1943- J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 11 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR: 27a 7 JOHN w. cwmareun 3 "111 5 ATTORNEYS.
Sept. 14, 1943. J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL 5 CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 ll Sheets-Sheet 5 r J m m mm M 3 mu n f A ww \H wz Y B M L Sept. 14, 1943. J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL 7 CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 ll Sheets-Sheet 6 224 l Z Z44 4bv INVENTORJ. JOHN w. CHHMBEQL/H Y QEX EHQL 54.75677, Jr
Sept. 14, 1943. J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL Re. 22, 7
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1957 11 Sheets-Sheet '7 /56- 454 w //z 1i /Z6 E /2 a:
@5 2 imp? WINNIE .INVENTOR. JOHN W. Cf/HMGEEUN By QEX EHPL B61) E77 Jr.
p 1943. J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 i1 Sheets-Sheet 8 mmvrona. JOHN w. c'mnamu/Y ezx 54a BHZJjTTE Jn' f A TToRNEYs.
Sept. 1943- J. w. CHAMBERLIN ETAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 ll Sheets-Sheet 9 sept- 1943. .1. w. CHAMBERLIN HAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 ll Sheets-Sheet 10 IN VEN TORS JOHN W. Cfi/flMBEDL/H YQEX EH91 5455577 J):
P 1943- J. w. CHAMBERLIN EIAL Re. 22,375
CLEANING TEXTILE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS Original Filed March 6, 1937 11 Sheets-Sheet 11 IN V EN TORS JOHN w C/IHMBEIZL/N 125x 0121. Bnsxrndz.
Reiuued Sept. 14, 1943 FFICB CLEANING raxmn AND snunna MATERIALS John w. (lhamberlin and Rex Earl Basaett In, South Bend, Incl, assignors to Bendix ome Appliances, Inc., Detroit, Mich, a corporation Delaware Original No. 2,165,884, ems July 11, 1939, Serial No. 129,429, March a, 1931. App ication 101- reissue August a, 1940, Serial No. 351,012
This invention relates to the washing and cleaning of clothes and similar materials, and is described below in connection with a washing and rinsing and drying machine operating automatically according to a definite cycle.
Horizontal rotar washers have many advantages, but heretofore they have been driven at relatively low speeds, and even then the clothes tangle to such an extent that it is necessary to reverse the direction of drive every few revolutions to permit the clothes to disentangle themselves again. This adds greatly to the time rethe cost of building quired for washing, and to the machines.
An important feature of the present invention is based on the discovery that, while these washers must be periodically reversed when driven at low speeds, and while the efiiciency is very low at high speeds, there is a narrow range of intermediate speeds at which the washer operates at high emciency while driven continuously in the same direction. This also permits the building of a lighter and less expensive, as well as 'more efllcient machine, as the considerable weight needed 'in prior machines is mainly on account of the large inertia forces set up in perio'dically reversing a heavy drum full of wet This critical range of speeds is suchthat the clothes are carried bythe drum up out of the wash water, and are then thrown clear of the drum to fall across the drum back into the wash -water, while'at the same time currents are set up in the wash water which also act on the clothes, bringing about a washing action of the water through the fabrics in an entirely new and extremely efiective manner which also has the advantage of minimizing wear due to scrubbing action on the clothes. The manner of determining this speed, and various considerations relating to the depth of the wash water and to the clearance. about the drum to permit the back currents necessary to given maximum eilectivevness, is explained below in detail, as well a our own explanation of the attending phenomena.
We have also discovered that there is a slightly higher range of speeds at which, after the wash water is drained oil, the clothes gradually distribute themselves uniformly about the drum ready for high-speed centrifugal drying or extraction. A very important consideration, which greatly facilitates designing a cyclic automatic machine for washing and dryin the clothes without removing them from the drum, is that these two speed ranges overlap, so that there is a very narrow range of speeds at which clothes will tumble" in washing as described, without tangling, so longas there is sufilcient water in the machine, and when the water is withdrawn (but at approximatelythe same driving speed) the clothes will distribute themselves over the periphery of the drum without "tumbling," ready for high speed extraction. We. are therefore able to control the action of the clothes, in tumbling" during washing and thereafter in distribution ready for high-speed centrifugal drying, by con-- trolling the water in the machine without any change in, either the direction or speed of rotation of the clothes drum. This enables us to embody our invention in a very much simplified machine having a two-speed single-direction drive.
Based onthe above-described novel method of operation made possible by our discoveries, we have designed an improved type of washing and cleaning machine having many novel features of construction and arrangement and operation of parts, which will be apparent from the following description of the illustrative machine shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
' Fig. 1 is a perspective view showing the top and front and one side of the machine s r Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the machine from the front, with the outer casing removed Fig. 3 is a perspective view of an.electric heater element;
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the machine from the rear, with the outer casing removed;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view, from the front, of the base of the machine and the shaft-suppo ing brackets carried thereby;
Fig; 6 is a partial vertical section through the soap-doom Fig. 'l is a partial vertical section through the upper part of the clothes door;
Fig. 8 is a vertical section through the machine in a plane passing through the axis of the tub and drum;
- 'Figs. 9 and 10 are vertical sections, at right of an alternative form, of two-speed transmission,
either of which may be used;
Figs. 16 and 17 show an alternative arrangement for supplying water;
Fig. l8'is a wiring diagram of the machine;
Fig. 19 is an operating diagram thereof;
Fig. 20 is a wiring diagram of a modification of the machine in which controls are provided for The base II also has tlon one end of a second bracket N which has an, inclined portion 26 leading to and through,
radially ribbed or ciency of four is provided with a pulley bracket, and over a drive made of glass,'s0 thehot and cold water from a desired temperature as in Fig. 18;
Fig. 21 is-an operating diagram to accompany water lines, W of supplying Fig.
Figs. 22, 23 and 24 are diagrammatic sections sinsle source at a predetermined can be introduced while the machine is running showing the action of the clothes in the drum at different speeds; and
Fig. 25 is a diagram showing the washing action of the machine. Q
The illustrated machine comprises a casing consisting of suitable top and front. and side panels Ill and and II, removably mounted in any desired manner on a base It. If desired, various combinations of these panel may be made integral with each other, as for example the top panel Ill and one or more of the side panels ll. l r
As one convenient and rigid mounting for the tub and rotor parts described below, there may be secured to the rear of the base It a triangular bracket is having its peripheral portion of channel section to provide stifl'ness and strength, and provided with a central plate portion or web 20, and which carries a shaft bearing 22 at its apex.
secured to its forward porand if desired rigidly secured to, the plate 2|! and which then extends upwardly at 28 to support a second shaft bearing 30a spaced rearwardly from' and alined with the bearing 22. A vertical third bracket 321s shown mounted at the front of the base.
A cylindricalhorizontal metal tub ,covered with suitable heat and sound insulating material,
between the brackets l8 and 32. Within the tub 34 is a rotatable perforated generally cylindrical drum or clothes container is rigidly mounted it, formed with several baffles' or inwardly-projecting ribs 40. The head of the drum 38 is otherwise formed to stiffen it, and is secured to a head or spider formed or keyed or otherwise secured to one end of a shaft 42 journaled in the bearings 22 and 30. A U-section stamping 48 may be welded to the upper ends or the two shaft-supportingbrackets, to tie them together and to hold thebearings'fl and 30.
' The number of baiiies has considerable effect on the manner in which the machine-operates. Forexample, the efficiency of five bailles is high on low loads, average on medium loads, and rather poor on heavy loads. baffles is near the average on all loads. The efllbailles is not high on low loads, but is above average on medium loads and is high on heavy loads. For a domestic machine, four baflles Between the bearings 22 and 20 M for a V-belt it pass-- an idler pulley .48 adiustably mounted plate portion 20 of the first pulley 52 on the driven shaft of a two-speed transmission Bl rigidly connected to and driven by a main motor 6.
ing over in a slot 50 in the of our invention. adjacent, preferably above the door It there is mounted a soap door 82, through which'soap' powder or other detergent and full of wash water, thereby permitting the operator to observe the formation of suds through the glazed door I and accurately control the amount of soap added.
. The door 02 shown in the drawings is mounted on a bowed stamping 63 mounted on a pivot '5 inside the machine, so that it closes flush with the casing, and a bowed spring 81 acts on'it in tendoor is horizontal, and to dump the soap powder be washed, we may The efliciency-of three I on the front The tub 34' has pivoted thereto aclothes door 58 having a latch 60, and which swings either down to a horizontal or vertical position when open, as shown in Fig. 2. If means is provided into the machine when the door is swung shut to its vertical position. The arrangement just described is covered by our divisional application No. 231,653, filed September 26,1938 now Patent No. 2,267,785.
Water, at the desired temperature, is introduced into the tub 34 through a hose connection 8|, under the control of a valve 66 operated by a solenoid or the like 60, being injected into the tub through a. nozzle 69, projecting through the frame III of the door 58.
As hereinafter more fully explained, the water levelin the tub is determined by including in the circuit of the solenoid 58 a switch I2, the oneillustrated being a double-acting switch operated to open and close two'circuits, as hereinafter described, at predetermined high and low water levels, by spaced stops on a; rod ll carried bya float I6 inia float chamber communicating with the interior of the tub-34.
The water is preierablyinjected at a temperature (e. g. 110 F.) suitable ior washing woolens and the like. Instead of putting in hotter water in the first place when cotton materials are to inject the water at the lower (110) temperature, and then heat it to raise the temperature (e. g. to around 160 F.) during the washing of the clothes. For example, an immersion heater, or an electric resistance heater, shown as a ring 19 surrounding the drain collar 8| at-the bottom of the tub, may be provided.
Preferably this. heater is controlled by a switch panel l2; To inject the water at this predetermined temperature, the inlet line Il may be connected to the outlet of a hot and cold water mixing device, which may if desired be constructed and arranged substantially as described in application No. 12,312, filed April 2, 1936, now Patent No. 2,146,929, by Rex Earl Bassett, Jr. This arrangement for raising the temperature of the suds during the washing operation is claimed in our divisional application No. 241,614 filed November 21, 1938,-now, Patent No. 2,279,656. 1 I The housing ll of the float mechanism may be utilized as a breather, to maintain constant atmospheric pressure in the till) 34 even when sealed for holding the door in a horizontal position, it
forms a convenient support in front of the opening. The door preferably has its central portion t the washing action mayreadily be oimerved. According to one feature is connected by means such as a conduit 15 to a 'standplpe or the like 11 which contains suitable bailes to break up bubbles and prevent water splashing out through the conduit. This breather arrangement is moreyfully described and is.
claimed in application No. 130,444, filed March bearing I22 in this housing.
sasvs water with a detergent such as a soap compound containing 72% pure soap, and 28% alkali and the like. This compound, while of greatest ehectiveness with water having a hardness of 5.25
' grains per U. .8. gallon, is reasonably satisfactory even with absolutely soft water, where-theoretically pure soap should be used, and is cheaper than pure soap.
We find it desirable to adjust the amount of soap accurately to each load, by feeding the soap compoundias previously explained) into the machine gradually through the soap door 62 .while watching the formation of the suds through the door 60. Since the amount of soil varies in different loads and with different types of water, the amount of soap compound must be varied to correspond.
Woolen fabrics, and certain types of colored fabrics. are best washed at approximately 110 FL, while for white and fast-color cotton fabrics the optimum temperature is 160 F. However,
. if cotton materials are placed in water at 110 F'., and the temperature is increased gradually to 160 F., as explained above, the washing emciency is some 16% higher than at a constant temperature of 160 F., and for this reason as previously explained, we prefer to supply the water at 110 F., and heat it (when cotton materials are being washed) to the 160 F'. range of temperatures during the washing operation.
The drain collar 6| communicates, through a baffle 60 which directs thewater through a screen or strainer 92, with asump 64 drained by a suitable drain'conduitilfi controlled by a drain valve I 06 operated by a solenoid 60. A removable cover I00 permits access to the screen 62 for cleaning purposes.
While the machine has been described as rotat- No. 127,191, filed February 23, 1937, now Patent No. 2,225,144, by Rex Earl Bassett, or by means I able about a 'horizontal'axis, some variation is and carries the drive pulley. of the III provided with pivotpins I62 for planet gears I64 driven by the pinion I24 and meshing with the teeth of the ring gear I28.
.The planet carrier I00. is keyed to a driven shaft I06, shown as recessed to carry a pilot beargether to rotate as a unit, at high speed,'by the axial thrust of the shaft I66 due to pressure through a ball I46 from a plunger I40 having its conical end formingth'e equivalent of a knifeedge fulcrum engaged by a recess in a lever I60 having a second recess fulcrumed on a knife-edge on a part I52 bolted to the transmission casing. The lever I is operated yieldingly by means such as a spring I64 engaged by a yoke I56 pivoted to the core I66 of a solenoid I60. The solenoid is shown mounted on top of the transmission casing.
Rotation of parts I26I26 -I30 as a unit, when clutched together by the energization of the solenoid I60, is permitted by a suitable oneway clutch, shown 'as including spring-pressed clutch rollers I62 in wedge recesses in a clutch ring I64 encircling the ring gear I26 and nonrotatably connected to the transmission casing by means such as a bolt I66.
When the solenoid I60 is de-energized, the parts I26I20I30 are de-clutched, whereupon pinion I24 drivesthe planet gears I64 on the ring gear I26, which is held against rotation backward by the one-way clutch I62I66, to rotate the planet carrier I60 and the shaft I36 at low speed.
In the alternative transmission of. Figs. 14 and 15, the motor armature shaft II6 drives a pinion I10 shown pinned to the shaft. The pinion I10, in low speed, drives a gear I12 loose on a countershaft I14. The gear I12 has in its side a socket receiving the laterall-y bent end of a friction coil spring I16 wound on the periphery of a clutch disk I10, and in low speed the gear I12 of a two-speed transmission. Two such transmissions are illustrated in Figs. 11-13 and in Figs. 14-15.
The transmission 54 in the form. of Figs. 11-13 is assembled in combination with the motor 66.
This motor is illustrated as a split-phase induction motor having a stator IIO with a winding H2, and an armature III provided with a fan H6 and keyed onan armature shaft H8. The transmission is in a two parthousing I20, one part of which also forms the end of the motor housing, so that the motor. and transmission form one rigid unit. The shaft 6 is journaled in a The transmission is shown in its high-speed position. The end of the armature shaft II6 has a drive pinion I24 formed thereon, and has keyed thereto a cone clutch member I26 which is held by the bearing I22 against movement to the left. A ring gear I26 coaxial with respect to the shaft III! has its ends formedwith cone clutch surfaces, one of which cooperates with the clutch member I26, and the other of which cooperates with a conical clutch surface on a planet carrier winds the spring I16 in a direction to tighten its coils upon the clutch disk I16.
The clutch disk I16 is formed with a coarse screw thread meshing with a similar thread I60 formed on the shaft I14, so that thedrag of the spring I16 in low-gear drive shifts the disk- I10 axially tothe right against the gear I12, to clutch the disk and gear together and cause the gear I12 to drive the shaft H4. The shaft I14 has keyed thereon a pinion I62 driving a gear I64 on a shaft I44, corresponding to shaft I44 of the first-described transmission, and which has secured thereto the drive pulley of the belt drive for the drum.
Adjacent the gear I64 the shaft I44 has sleeved thereon the extended hub ofthe drive pinion I10, which hub is formed with a screw thread. I66 on which is mounted a disk I66 about I the core I56 of a solenoid I60 which is energized when high speed is desired.
The spring I66, when so held against rotation, tends to unwind, but still has suflicient frictional drag on the disk I66 to cause the latter to shift axially on the thread I66, to force toward the left a gear I60 loosely mounted on the hub of the pinion I10. The gear I00 has its. opposite clutch I02, alternate plates of which are keyed to the gear I90 and to the hub of the pinion "0. This clutches the gear'l80 to the pinion I'll,
The gear I drives (at higher speed) a gear I04 keyed on the shaft I14, and causes that shaft to rotate faster. This causes the thread III to turn in the disk Illin a direction to back that disk of! from gear "2. Since this tends to un-; wind the spring I10, it merely turns with a light frictional drag on the disk I10, since the disk I'll andthe gear I12 are now unclutched and the disk is turning (with the shaft I14) faster than the gear.
The above-described transmission of Figs. 14 and 151s claimed per se in application No. 120,700, flled January 15, 1937, now Patent No. 2,167,846,
by Thomas B. Martin, since, while we may use it in the novel combinations embodied in our machine, the structure per se of this transmission is not of our invention.
For controlling the cycle of operations, we may use the multiple cyclic switch described, and
claimed per se, in application No. 78,635, filed May 8, 1936, now Patent No. 2,180,948, by Rex Earl Bassett, Jr. Another cyclic switch which 'may be used is shown in Figs. 9 and of the I attached drawings, and is substantially the same as that claimed in application No. 240,163, flied November 12, 1938, now Patent No. 2,254,509, by Rex Earl Bassett, Jr.. This switch includes a separable two-part housing 200, -202 carried by a bracket 204 provided with a spring catch or retainer 206 and which is mounted on the front panel I2. A cable 200 is made up of the various electric connections from the valve solenoids, the motor, etc., and each of these connections is secured to one of a plurality of sockets 2I0 carried by an insulator plate 2l2 forming the rear face of the housing part 200. I I
The housing part 202 has mounted therein an motor (see Figs. 18 and 20 and which is a self-starting motor of some kind, preferably a synchronous motor or the like. This motor 2I4 drives a suitable reduction gearing 2I6 (not rectly to the'main motor 50.
' electric motor 2 connectedin parallel with the The shaft 2i! is shown' as provided with a I cam 220 (note Fig. 10) which once each revolution gradually lifts and then suddenly drops a pivoted lever 222 having a cam roller 224 riding on the periphery of the cam 220. Each downward movement of the lever 222 causes a pawl 224 pivoted thereto to advance by one tooth a ratchet 228,.a holdingpawl 230 preventing retrograde movement of the ratchet. A spring 232 tensioned between the pawls 22B and 220 holds both pawls against the ratchet 228, and also serves to urge the lever 222 downwardly toward the earn 220. An insulator plate 204 forming the front end of the casing-section 202 is connected to a partition 236 by insulated tie rods 2" which extend -'rearwardly to support the drive unit consisting of the motor 2 and the reduction gear 210 The partition 236 carries a bushing 240 which serves as a bearing for the shaft 2I0, and also for the reduced rear end of a main timer camshaft 242 on which the ratchet 220 is mounted.
The shaft 222 is also iournaled in the front plate 224, and extends forwardly through the some side recessed to receive a small multiple-disk I2, and has detachably mounted thereon a suitable indicator handle 244 moving over a scale 240 (Fig. 1) which is graduated to indicate the cycle of the machine. By removing the handle 244, the casing section 202 with the mechanism inclosed therein, and including the shaft 242, can'be removed bodily for adjustment or repair, without disturbing theconnections 204.
The shaft 242 has fixed thereon a series of Bakelite cams-fllflshown mounted in a unit on a sleeve 252 which is pressed onto the shaft, to raise and lower the outer contacts of a series I, .2, 2, 4 (or Ia, 2a, 2a,'4a, 0a in Fig. 20) of spring contacts mounted on the face plate 234, and forming a series of control switches. The contacts are connectedto plugs 250 adapted to be detachably inserted in the sockets 2I0, for the double purpose of connecting the casing sections 200 and 202 and electrically connecting the leads 200 with the switches I, 2, 2, 4, etc.
I It will be noted from the wiring diagrams in.
Figs. 18 and 20 that switch I controls both motors i6 and 2i 4, switch 2the high-speed clutch solenoid I60, switch 3 the drain valve solenoid 00 and switch 4 the, inlet valve 68, or 600 in the alternative arrangement of Fig; 20.
By turning the indicator handle 244 forward (which is permitted by the ratchet 220, which can turn forward but not backward). the switch I is closed, and this switch remains closed, to cause the two motors to operate, until the end of the cycle. Also, the indicator handle 244 may when desired be turned forward over part of the "was period, to shorten it by that much when the, full period will not be required, From there on the control switch causes the machine to operate automaticallyfor the remainder of the cycle.
Figs. 16 and 1'! illustrate an alternative arrangement, in which no heater is used, and hot and cold water are mixed in the machine, and which may be used with the wiring of Fig. 20 and the cycle of Fig. 21. In this arrangement the hot and cold water pipes 280 and 202 are connected to two hose elements 264 inclosed in a heat-insulating cover 260 to form a heat-' transfer means by which the cold water is partially heated before reaching the machine. The hot water hose connects to the inlet hose 64 directly through a valve 600 operated by a solenoid 08a operatively controlled by the switch whenever the switch 4a is closed.
In order to facilitate the draining of the tub I4, awater pump 2'" may be mounted on the end of the motor 50, and driven by that motor, between thetub 24 and the drain valve 96. The pump is not necessary if there is a gravity drain,
but is essential when the water has to be lifted against gravity into a set-tub or the like.
Fig. '7 illustrates one )formof latch which may be used for the clothes door 50. In this arrangement the latch handle 60 is pivoted at the top of the door, coaxially with a separate latch member 212 connected to the handle by a lost-motion pin-and-slot connection 214. The latch member 212 forms a toggle with a compression spring aasrs A clothes receptacle or drum it having a vol- 7 time of approximately 3600 cubic inches is required for efliciently .washing a quantity of textiles weighing nine pounds when dry, with a proper quantity of water: however, the machine 'will operate reasonably satisfactorily if the load does not exceed six poundspercubic foot of,
cylinder capacity. One axial end of the receptacle or drum is preferably left open, as previously described, for the insertion and removal of the textiles, the shaft upon which the receptacle rotates being located at the other end. The preferred dimensions for a cylinder of this capacity are a diameter of twenty inches and a length of twelve inches. These dimensions give a volume of approximately 3769.92 cubic inches, and the theoretical optimum load is 9.5 pounds dry weight of textiles, as hereinafter more fully explained.
Baiiles may be provided if desired, on the vertical back and front walls of the drum or on other surfaces contacted by the textiles, as well as the baflles 40 projecting inwardly from the periphery. at any rate some irregularity of the periphery .of the cylinder is highly essential.
No very.great diflerence exists between baflles above, the clothes are inserted in the drum 8!, the load preferably being from 1% pounds to 4% pounds per cubic foot of drum volume, i. e. in the illustrated approximately from 2% to 9% poundsu-"When the cyclic control switch is started, warm wash water is inJected into the tub ll until it reaches a depth which is preferably approximately of the drum,
cylinder diameter, i. e., five inches for a twentyinch drum. There should be a clearance between having cross-sectional angles from 0' to 60, in
the particular machine When the angle is increased beyond 60, however, eiliclency drops rapidly until almost zero eihciency is reached at 180.
In present commercial practice the height of i the baifles averages 22.2% of the .diameter of the cylinder. In domestic practice baflles having a height that is 20% of the diameter of the cylinder are usually used. Such high banies are necessary to lift the clothes in a l'ow-speed cylinder, as the clothes gather in front of the bailies. Low baiiles have a desirable scrubbing action on the clothes, but cannot be used with these low-speed machines. We have determined that in our machine the highest emcie'ncy is reached with baflles having a height that is 31.5% of the diameter of the cylinder; It is believed that in this optimum construction a balance is struck between the lifting action of high bailles and the scrubbing action of low baiiies.
In one cylinder twenty inches in diameter I which we have used very successfully, the baflles were one inch and a half high, with .a crosssectional angle of 45. ,The table below summarizes the comparative efliciencies of baflies of various heights, at high speeds of rotation, ex-
pressed as the quantity of dirt removed in a certain standard washing operation.
' the clothes cease i of the clothes and part of the water are beyond water action, the clothe .22, and merely roll the drum and the tub sufllcient for the back cur, rents of the water; this clearance should be at least 20% and preferably 25% of the water depth.
Thisload is about double that which can be handled in the usual low-speed machine: for example, one of these prior machines with a 20- inch cylinder 12 inches deep would be restricted to a load of about 5 pounds instead. of an op: timum load of about 12 pounds in our machine.
Based on the best observations we have been able to make, our explanation of the theoretical background of the invention is as follows. At
lowrotational speeds, the centrifugal force acting on the clothes is not suflicient to hold them against the drum to any considerable height, so they soon tangle up mto a ball as shown in Fig.
When the speed is increased to the point where which is roughly an ellipse; At this speed, which is expressed generally, in revolutions per minute,
by the formula drum radius in feet a very effective optimum washing action takes place, and there is very little tangling.
At speeds exceeding this, up to that a little below that at which the clothes are held against the drum all the way around, tangling disappears entirely and the washing action, less than at the optimum speed, is well within satisfactory limits. The washing is much less efllcient, of course, at still higher speeds where to "tumble" across the drum as described above.
When the clothes are being tumbled as described, at such a speed that the centrifugal force at the drum periphery is around (or even slightly more) of the gravitational force, as the clothesare lifted with the water by the rotating cylinder, as illustrated in Fig. 25, parts a critical circle X (Fig. 25) where, except for would be held against the. cylinder all the way around, the centrifugal action over-balancing gravity. As the drum turns, the water outside of this critical circle is thrown eentrifugally out through the drum perforations and drains back down to the bottom of the tub.
pounds and a maximum of around with very little wash- This is why prior low-speed machines must periodically be reversed to untangle I while slightly ,across the drum.
7 ing machine can be used utilizing a water being inside the critical circle X, as the drum approaches the zenith'position, tend to the-clothes 'tending to drag with them also thatpart of the load-which. is
' beyond the critical circle. Due to their inertia,
they fall across the drum as sho'wmin Figs. .23- and 25, to a point on the oppositelower side of the drum. a
When the water drains away, the clothes tend water) they remain against the after the water is drained away, the clothes gradua'lly distribute-themselves, -mostly in the; zone fall back aasvs Part of the veto and parts of the clothes 45% to-90% of the drum diameter,
of from most of the mechanical features of our invention to arrange themselves outside the critical 'clrcle r x, where (without the downwarddrag of the:
are highly advantageous in such'a machine. 'The optimum water level, however, is around 25%, and at least between 22% and 30% ofthe drum diameter, with the scrubbing action due to the described tumbling." together with economy of water-and soap.
It is also important, as above explained, especially with the optimum water level and with the clothes tumbling as described to havea clearancebetween the tub and. the drum which is at outside the critical circle X where the centrifugal force is 100% v (or more) of the gravitational force.'..'."
Experiments on wet clothes without prelimi nary washing show that the-best speed for dis-. trlbuting the clothesin the drum is that-at which the circle X .is/quite close to the drum, i. e. at
v which the centrifugal force at the drum periphery isapproximately 100% of the gravitational force, or even slightl more. Thisis, in revolutions per drum radius inieet We believe that one important feature of our Q invention is .inthe great simpliilc'ationvof the minutegapproximately determined by the formula machine made possible by our discovery that ata speed approximating, or slightly below, the one determined by this formula, clothes will have a satisfactory washing action with a single direction drive when there is water in the machine, and will also distribute properly when the water is drained'out.
The abovev action, especiallythe washing action, depends to some'extent also on the load in the machine, on'the water level, and on the clearance between the drum and the tub. The mini-v mum load that will "tumble" in the" novel described manner during washing is about 1 pounds of dry clothes per cubic foot of drum vol-' me, and the maximum that will distribute effectively is about 4% pounds per cubic foot of cylinder (drum) volume, although efl'ectivewashing takes place up to six pounds per cubic foot of drum volume. Thus in the illustrated machine, with'a -inch drum, to wash and distribute effectively, the load should be between 2% to 9 pounds (dry weight).
The water level is also important. Below about I optimum conditions; It in this figure a 20-inch with 1% inch clearance very critical importance infloating the clothes, v .with the water above 45% of thedrum diameter,
as the return currents described below are only as described when the clothes are, "tumbling."
Fig. '25 is a diagram of what happens under is assumed that we have pounds of clothes and driven at 60 revolutions per minute, with a 5-inch static water level, and between .drum and tub; The drum is turning counterclockwise.
The clothes are lifted from the bottorn of the drunawith a great deal of water, and in the area if most of the water-is forced out radially into the tub as indicated by'the arrows. The water level in the tub changes slightly :from the static,
level A--A to an inclined level BB. Inside the drum the water level drops to the curve C. The water forced out into the tub in the area Y drains back down clockwise into the bottom of the tub.
The clothes, with most of the rest of the water,
fall away from the top of the drum in a curved path which is the resultant of the centrifugal and gravitational components, and are thrown acrossthedrumabove its axis, back into-the wash water at the bottom. A little water is car- '20% of the drum diameter, the-water does not operate effectively to cause the described tumbling of the clothes. At about of the drum diameter (i. e. 5 inches with a 20 inch drum) an optimum condition is reached where there is a maximum tumbling. Above as the increasing water level causes more flotation and less tumbling of the clothes, and as the one ac-.
tion interferes with the other the eflectiveness drop considerably.
Above about to up to a point where the cylinder is nearly full, an effective washing action is secured by the agitation of the clothes floated in the water. This last is an effective type of washing, although less so than with the "tumbling described as a 25% water level, but 7 deal of water and soap. Where it requires a great this is not a serious drawback, an efllcient washlevel 7 by the arrows D.
ried all the way around by the drum, as indicated Water flows back into the drum mainly as indicated by arrows E, in an area just above the. bottom of the drum on the side from which the drum is turning. the time it has reached the bottom of the drum has again picked. upenough centrifugal force, added to the head inside thedrum indicated by the line C, to balance the head (B-B) outside the drum. Water reaches the area E mainly along three paths:' (1) the back-flowing water from area Y, indicatedby arrows F, (2) a small eddy G due to the fact that the area E is slightly below the level 3-13, and (3) a horizontal flow of water in the tubaround the front and back walls of the drums (arrows H) A little water is also carried around by the drum (arrows D).
the drum diameter) is that level at which the head of water outside the drum is suiliciently greater, than the head withinthe drum plus the centrifugal force on the water within the drum,
to cause the above-described inrush of water at E. With the described water level and drum. clearance, and with a load within the described limits,
drum containing about 6 7 This is because the water by in F18. '24.
the speed of rotation should be between (in revo-- I lutions per. minute) i draining out the water. We prefer to use a speed substantially at theupper limit of this range, as
perfect distribution is more important than a While,
few minutes Y greater washing time. therefore, the upper limit of this ran e may vary a few revolutions per minute above or below that" derived from the formula, on account'of vari'a-.
tions in water level or drum clearance or the like, as explained above, a very small increase -formula causes a marked loss of washing emciency, and upon an increase of even a few revolutions per minute with the defined water level the clothes will cease to "tumble" altogether.
The clothes during distribution are illustrated Withdrawing the water at the end of the washing period allows the clothes to rotate in a larger ellipse than when the water is present and if the washing speed hasbeen at the-top of the critical range, the clothes will rotate almost contact with the drum. Withdrawing the water at the end of the washing periodmay also decrease the load on the motor so'that the-speed steps up slightly, whereuponthe ellipse expands until it almost fills the drum. The garments however can still move freely relatively to each other, and
during the distribution period they do shift around the moving ellipse until they are substantially uniformly distributed about the. drum.
Upon then shifting the drive into'high speed, the ellipse suddenly expands against thedrum periphery and thereafter rotates with the drum, being pressed centrifugally outward against the drum throughout its rotation.
The length of time the clothes are washed can, if desired, be reduced by turning the multiple control switch ahead as previously explained. At the end of this period, the drain valve opens, and the, dirty wash water runs out. This closes the floatswitch again, and (since the inlet valve is open) injects clean water to flush out the 'clothes. Before .the clothes can begin to distribute themselves as described below, the drain valve may if desired be closed again, to give a rinsing period during which the clothes are "tumbled in clean water. Or if preferred the drum may be operated at high speed for a short time, after the draining, and then the tub refilled with clean rinse water and the clothes again tumbled. The drain valve finally opens to give a final short flushing period. If desired, there may be more than one of these rinsing periods.
Thereafter, the drain valve remaining open, the inlet valve finally closes,the drum still being driven at its lower speed. It will be noted that ing' of the drain valve includes a time (usually about one minute) when the clothes are first substantially in the washing and rinsing part of the cycle, and then as rinse water is injected while sac-rs drain remains open, to give the mm n a in speed abovethe limit set forth in the above Y 70' the distribution period that follows the last openaction. the clothes gradually lose their load of water, and begin to distribute themselves gradually uniformly about the periphery of the dnnn.
If the motor is not so powerful but that, as the load on the motor decreases as' the water drains I out,.the motor speed steps up a few revolutions per minute, this will bring the speed to a still more effective speed for distribution; however,
this is not necessary althoughit is usually desirable to use such a motor because of considerations .of cost, since its use-is not detrimental. ,s
The'second part of this period, after the closing of the inlet valve. and which is usually about another minute, sees 4 the, clothes lose enough water (partly by merely draining oil and partly by the low-speed centrifugal action of the drum) to become dry enough to give approximately uniform distribution about the cylinder, tumbling gradually ceasing and the ellipse -of moving clothes gradually expanding until it almost fills the drum.- With very heavy loads there may remain a little tumbling"' of a. garment or two clear at the center, but not enough even then. to produce substantial unbalance'of the drum when it is speeded up. 1
Thus, by selecting a speed which will cause "tumbling" whenthere is water in the tub, and which is also within the range which will cause distribution when the water is drained out, it be-" comes possible to drive the drum constantly at a single speed and in one direction only, until ready for the highspeed extraction step. The control is by controlling the intake and drain of the -water, rather than by complicated speed varying controls such as have always heretofore been considered necessary.
Finally, as already explained, the transmission is shifted into high-speed for a period of time" long enough toextract most of the water, leaving the clothes substantially ready for ironing, and
' then the cycle automatically comes to a close.
Almost immediately upon the increase in speed, the clothe which are undergoing distribution in a shape which is roughly elliptical, expand out against the drum and cease all tumbling.
The details of the above-described cycle of operations will be apparent by comparing Figs. l8 and'19. Fig. 18 shows the wiring of the two motel-s56 and lll, the multiple switches I, 2,1, and I, the solenoids I80, 98, and 68, the heater IS, the double-acting float switch I2, and the manual switch 83 in series with the heater 19, and their connections to the usual 110 volt line wires. Fig. 19 shows a cycle of the machinei45 minutes long) with concentric zones indicating the switches I, 2, 3, and 4 and the float switch 12. It will be noted that this switch in one position (tub filled to the desired level'with water) closes the circuit through the heater 19 if the switch 83 is closed, so that the heater cannot be turned on unless the tub contains water. In its other extreme position the switch is in the circuit for the clutch solenoid I50, so that the transmission cannot be shifted into high speed unless the tub is emptied of water. 1
In this cycle the multiple switch, after a seg- .me nt in which all switches are oft, and beyond washing period, with the float switchopening as I soonas the tub is filled to the desired level, (2) drain valve opens and, as soon as the water level ond (or both) of the tworinse such as clothes,
portion dipping into a cleaning liquid in practice is merged in flushing period as the water drains away. (4) a short high-speed e'x-.
tractionperiod, rinsing by tumbling the clothes in clean water,
distribute, and (8) extract at high sp d. a total of about 45 minutes.
By leading hot and cold water conduits 2 into the machine as described in connection with Fig. 16. and providing hot controlled by the solenoids Ila and "b, the heater ll may beeliminated, and the wiring of the diagram of Fig. and the cycleillustrated inFlg.2lmaybeused. In water is connected directly to the main inlet valve controlled by the solenoid "a, and is on whenever that valve is open. while the cold water valve has its solenoid 55b. in series with the thermostat switch 19a and connected to the line through switches 5a and 88 in paralleL Thus if switch I! is closed, the cold water goes onwhenever the switchla operates the solenoid Ila, provided the water is hot enough to operate the switch Ila, so that through the cycle. If, however, switch 83 is open, inspection of Fig. 21 will show that during the washing period the cold water is turned off regardless of'the thermostat 19a, and high temperature water is used: however, during the sec-- periods switch hisclosed' and mixed waterisused.
In the cycle of Fig. 21, there is first (after advancing the multiple. switch to start the machine) a soaking period during which the machine is filled with mixed warm (110") water and (6) drainand flush. ('7) and cold water valves has? the inlet valve, rinse water flushing p a 1 sped being in the range (in.
2500 drum radius in feet as a minimum and about 3 v drum radius infect as a maximum, withdrawing the cleaning liquidfrom the drum, distributing the materials in I an annulus substantially uniformly about and spaced from the axis of the drum and in contact with the wall of the drum by rotating the drum this case the hot in'the same direction as before and. at the same speed but without cleaning liquid, andextractting the cleaning liquid from said materials centrifugally after they are so distributed by' driving the drum in said direction at a much higher mixed water is used "all speed.
2. That method of cleaning iabflcimaterials such as clothes, by the manipulationof a rotatable generally cylindrical and generally horizontal drum, which comprises rotating the loaded drum continuously-in one direction and dipping into cleaning liquid maintained at a level between 20% and %0! the drum diameter and with a j clearance around the drum adequate to permit baclr flowing currents and not less than 20% of the liquid level and at a speed in the range (in revolutions per minute) between soaked, whereupon the machine stops. The operator then comes back as soon as convenient, and again starts the machine by advancing the multiple switch, at the same until he sees that suds of the desired soapiness have i'ormed.
There follows completed), of (l) (3) extract, (4) fill and rinse, (5) drain and flush, (6) distribute, ('7) extract, (8) till and rinse, (9) drain and flush, (l0) distribute, and (1 1) extract. The total running time is about one hour. The steps indicated as (7), (8), (9), and (103 may if desired be omitted.
While one particular machine and its operation have been described in detail, it is not our intention to limit the scope of the invention by that description, or otherwise than by the terms oi the appended claims. The above-described brackets for supporting the tub are claimed in application No. 135,955, filed April 9, 1937, now Patent No. 2,190,456, by Alfred H. Haberstump, and application No. 135,954, flied April 9, 1937, now Patent No. 2,190,455, by Andrew 0. H0001- lum and --Lovett---.
1. That method of cleaning fabric materials by the manipulation of a rotatcylindrical and generally horicomprises rotating the loaded direction with its lower and at such a speed that the wet materials are held the steps (after washing is dl'nlnand flush, (2) distribute.
time addi soap powder 2500 drum radius in feetried. by the drum on each revolution to a point near the top of the drum and then fall 'clear of and across the drum intothe cleaning liquid at' the bottom of the drum.
y a. That method or cleaning fabricmaterials such as clothes, by the manipulation of a rotatable generally cylindrical and generally horizontal continuously in. one direction and dipping, into cleaning liquid maintained at a level between 20 and 30% of the drum diameter. andwith a clearance around the drum adequate to permit backflowing currents and not less than 20% of the liquid level and at a speed approximately (in revo- 1 uid level, and at a speed in the range (in lutlons per minute) 'Jdrum radius in feet 4. That method of cleaning fabric materials such as clothes, by the manipulation of a. rotatable generally cylindrical and generally horizontal a drum, which comprises rotating the loaded drum continuously in one direction and dipping into cleaning liquid maintained at a level between 20% and 30% of the drum diameter, and with a clearance around the drum adequate to permit backflowing currents and not less than 20% of the liq- .tions per minute) between 2500 drum radius in feet as a-minimum and about centriiugally agai' t the rotating drum until near the uppermost position thereof and then drop b gravity into' the'cleaning liquid, said 3000 drum radius in feet I as a maximum, whereby the material are carried drum, which comprisesrotating the loaded drum revolufrom the axis of the drum and in contact with the wall of the drum and partially to extract the cleaning liquid therefrom, ready for high- 5. That method of cleaning fabric materials such as clothes, by the manipulation of a rotatdrum radius in feet as a minimum and about 3000 drum radius in feet as a maximum, whereby the materials are carried by the drum on each revolution to a point near the top of the drum and then fall clear of and across the drum into the cleaning liquid at the bottom of the drum, and thereafter draining the liquid away while continuing to rotate the drum at the same speed and in the same direction for a considerable period of time to cause said materials to distribute themselves gradually in a generally annular formation about and spaced from the axis of the drum and in contact with the wall of the drum and partially to extract the cleaning liquid therefrom, ready for high speed final extraction.
6. That method of cleaning fabric materials such as clothes, by the manipulation of a rotatable generally cylindrical and generally horizontal drum, which comprises rotating the loaded drum continuously in one direction and dipping into cleaning liquid maintained at a level between and 80% of the drum diameter, and with a clearance around the drmn adequate to permit backflowing currents and not less than 20% of the liquid level, and at a speed in the range (in revolutions per minute) between 2500 drum radius in feet as a minimum and about as a maximum, whereby the materials are carried by the drum on each revolution to a point near the top of the drum and then fall clear of and across the drum into the cleaning liquid at the bottom of the drum, and thereafter draining the liquid away while continuing to rotate the drum at the same speed and in the same direction for a considerable period of time to cause said materials to distribute themselves gradually in a generally annular formation about and spaced from the axis of the drum and in contact with the wall of the drum and partially 28,878 9 by the drum on each revolution to a point near to extract the cleaning liquid therefrom, ready the top of the drum and then fall clear of and for high-speed flnal extraction, and injecting across the drum in the cleaning liquid at the more cleaning liquid to pass through the clothes bottom of the drum, and thereafter draining and be drained away din-mg the first part of the liquid away while continuing to rotate the 5 the distributing step to flush dirty cleaning liqdrum at the same speed and in the same direcuid from the clothes and to cause the distribution for a considerable period of time to cause tiontostart gradually.
' said materials to distribute themselves gradually "I. That method of cleaning fabric material in a generally annular formation about and suchasclotheabythemanipulation ofarotatable generally cylindrical and generally horizontal drum, which comprises rotating th loaded drum continuously in one direction and with its lower portion dipping into cleaning liquid and with a clearance around the drum adequate to permit back-flowin currents and at a peed in the range (in revolutions per minute) between ried by the drum on each revolution to a point near the top of the drum and then fall clear of and across the drum into the cleaning liquid at the' ottom of the drum, and while the drum is rotating in the same direction and at the same speed drawing on? cleaning fluid to lower the level thereof within the drum whereby the materials commence to distribute themselves in a generally annular formation injecting more cleaning liquid to pass through the clothes and be drained away during the first part of the distributing step to flush dirty cleaning liquid from the clothes and to cause the distribution to continue gradually but completely upon the withdrawal of all of the water from the drum.
8. A washing machine comprising a substantially cylindrical receptacle for holding materials to be washed and a detergent, mounted for rotation on a substantially horizontal axis, substantially constant speed means for rotating the receptacle in one direction only at a speed in the range in revolutions per minute between I 2500 recepticle radius in feet and about 3 receptacle radius in feet receptacle is rotating continuously in one direction so long as there is washing solution in thereceptacle, and are distributed in an annulus substantially uniformly about and spaced from the axis of the receptacle and in contact with the wall of the receptacle when the washing solution is drained away, and additional means for rotating said receptacle at a much higher speed for centrifugally extracting washing solution from the material therein, means for draining the washing solution from said receptacle while the receptacle is rotating at the lower speed, and automatic means eilective after the receptacle has rotated for a short interval at the lower speed without the presence of washing solution for changing from the lower speed to the higher speed.
9. A washing machine comprising a tub, a drum in said tub, means for driving the drum
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|U.S. Classification||8/159, 68/12.15, 34/58, 68/12.19, 68/12.26, 236/12.12, 68/12.22|
|Cooperative Classification||D06F2204/04, D06F33/02|