|Publication number||USRE23496 E|
|Publication date||May 20, 1952|
|Filing date||Feb 26, 1951|
|Publication number||US RE23496 E, US RE23496E, US-E-RE23496, USRE23496 E, USRE23496E|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
H. SEELER RESUSCITATOR May 2o, 1952 I5 Sheets-Sheet l original Filed Feb. 2e, 1951 INVENTOR. HE/VY .'ELEE MAM 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 H. SEELER RESUSCITATOR TQ 66.5 .5a/,eef
T0 fcf Mnff May zo, 1952 Original Filed Feb. 26'. 1951 INVENTOR. HENKY 55E E May 20, 1952 H. SEELR `Rei 23,496
Reissued May 20, 1952 UNITED STAT-ES PATENT OFFICE RES'SCITAT'OR Henry Seeler, Dayton, Ohio Original No. 2,581,450, dated January 8, 1952, Se-
rial N o. 212,818, February 26, 1951. Application for reissue February 15, 1952, Serial No. 271,841
(Granted under the ac't of March 3, 18'83, as amended April 30, 1928; 370 '0, G. 757-) n Matter enclosed in heavy brackets lj appears in me 'original patent but 'fon-us no part of this reissue specification; matter printed in italics indicates the additions maderby reissue.
The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or -for the United States Government for governmental purposes without payment to me of any royalty thereon;
The present invention relates to a resuscitator or artificial respiration device of simple, cornpact and reliable construction.
The primary object of the invention is to provide a resuscitator of the kind which includes an aspirator into which lflows a gas under pressure suitable for use in resuscitating human patients and wherein a crank actu-ated butterfly valve within the aspirator is automatically moved from an open position to a closed position and vice versa by the action of a pressure responsive means coupled to an overcenter spring means associated with the crank actuated valve, whereby the valve when open allows gas to flow through the aspirator to produce a suction effect and when closed causes gas to flow laterally from the aspirator to produce a pressure eiect.
A further object of the invention is to provide a resuscitator of the kind which includes an aspirator or Venturi tube into 'which flows a gas :under pressure suitable for use vin resuscitati'ng human patientsl wherein a butteriiy valve in the aspirator downstream from a lateral opening therein is rigidly connected to a simple crank operating means, wherein a coil spring connected to the crank operating means is actuated by a slidably mounted rod xed to a diaphragm, wherein adjustable compression springs are profvided at opposite ends of the slidably mounted diaphragm actuated rod and wherein a lgas iiow channel in the resuscitat-or is in communication with the lateral opening in the aspirator, with a tube leading to a face mask and with one Side of the rod-actuating diaphragm, whereby the butteriiy valve when brought to open position by the diaphragm and slidably mounted rod acting through the coil spring and crank operating means functions to produce the exhalation phase of the resuscitation cycle and when brought to closed position functions to produce the inhalation phase of the resuscitation cycle.
Another object of the invention is to provide a resuscita'tor system including a face mask and associated resuscitator which receives its supply of gas from a pressurized oxygen source or from 'a blower operated by an impulse turbine, and wherein the turbine operates by the inflow of at*- mospheric air by virtue of negative back pressure on the turbine yachieved by use of a simple jet pump operable by a water tap.
Another object of the invention is to provide a resuscitator of the kind which includes `an aspirator 'or Venturi tube into which flows 'a gas under pressure and including a control valve in the aspirato-1' located downstream from a lateral opening therein and wherein the control valve is operable automatically by a simple and reliable mechanism actuated by v`a pressure responsive diaphragm;
The above and other objects of the invention will become apparent upon reading the following detailed description in conjunction with the ac'- companyi'ng drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of the present resuscitator looking down on the gas lead-'in connection and regulating means associated therewith.
Fig. -2 is a 'vertical cross sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 is a transverse cross sectional view through the resuscitator an'd showing the aspirator in longitudinal cross section.
Fig. l is a longitudinal cross section taken through the aspirator and associated control valve.
Fig.. 5 is a schematic view of res'uscitat'or and associated components comprising a possible systemrfor general use in hospitals, aid 'stations and related installations.
RESUSCITATOR CNSTRUCTIO'N Referring to Figs; f1 to 4 of the drawings ythe resuseitator will be described iin detail. The main body I is of generally cylindrical shape and is closed at one end by a screw threaded cap or cover plate 2 having smal-l openings 3 therein. An annular shoulder within the body provides a seat Afor a circular wall member 4, a circular `diaphragm 5 Vand a circular gasket -6 in vseries and these elements are retained by the screw cap 2. The wall member 4 includes a cylindrical lextension 'I having its rim edge seated in a sha1*- low groove formed inthe bodly I at 8l Outwar'dly of the 'extension 'I the wall member I is .pierced by a Series' 'of openings 9*. A small cylindrical boss I0 at the center of the wall member 4 pro- Vides a guide jfor a slidable valve actuating rod or stem l2 extending' through the center of the diaphragm 5 and rigidly xedto a pair of diaphragm supporting plates or disks I3. At ops posite ends of the rod I2k are similar compression springs I4 and I5 to provide light resistance to endwise movement of the rod I2 The adjusting means for the springs I4 and I5 are identical, so that only one such adjusting means need be described. Adjacent to the spring I5 the screw cap 2 is provided with a cup-like extension I6 having opposite slots I'I extending through a substantial part of the circumference and receiving a transverse pin I8, the opposite ends of which are anchored in a rotatable knob I9 fitting over the extension or boss I6. Ball detents 20 in the walls of the knob bear on screw cap 2 to give frictional adjusting action to the knob as the detents snap into suitable indentations. Slidably mounted in the hollow extension I6 is a spring abutment member 2| having opposite and similar cam portions 22 which cooperate with transverse pin I8 so as to produce inward and outward movement of the spring abutment member as the knob I9 is rotated. As seen in Figs. 1 and 2 the knob I9 carries a pointer I9' which may be set with respect to suitable indicia to indicate the pressure response of the resuscitator as it cycles back and forth between suction and pressure phases of the resuscitation cycle. A suitable pin or other spline element 23 may be provide to maintain the abutment member 2I in non-rotatable relation with respect to hollow extension or boss I5. The compressive effect of spring I5 determines the maximum positive pressure applied tothe patient during the vinhalation phase of the resuscitation cycle, while the compressive eifect of spring I4 determines the minimum negative pressure which obtains in the exhalation phase of the cycle. Suggested pressure ranges for these phases are to +8 inches of water for the inhalation phase and 0 to -3 inches of water for the exhalation phase. Suitable indicia adjacent to the spring adjusting knobs provide a calibrated scale for these pressure ranges. The maximum inlet pressure of the gas reaching the fitting 26 will usually be held to the maximum positive pressure used in resuscitation, for example about +10 inches of water.
Referring to Figs. 3 and 4, there is shown an aspirator assembly 25 which extends through the main body I at one side of a central location and coaxial with respect to the gas inlet tting 29 and a gas outlet or discharge passage 21. The aspirator includes a tube 28 having an annular flange 29 at the inlet end seated against an annular shoulder in the resuscitator body I. Seated on the flange 29 is a flanged nozzle element 30 and the contacting flanges are held in place as shown by a threaded ring 3I which includes Wrench-receiving radial slots. The interior of the tubular member 28 is of flared cross section to provide a diffuser section in the aspirator extending almost to the outlet of nozzle 30. Laterally opening gas ports 32 in the tube 28 adjacent to the outlet of nozzle 30 provide communication to the interior of body I and particularly to an annular space between the wall member 4 and the end wall of body I remote from the diaphragm (see Fig. 2). A butterfly valve 33 in the tube 28 is rigidly connected to a crankshaft 34 having an offset end situated at one side of the rod I2 and connected thereto by an actuating spring 35. As the rod I2 is shuttled back and forth by action of the diaphragm 5, the spring 35 moves from one side to the other of the axis of rotation of crankshaft 34 thus causing the valve 33 to snap to open or closed position with a sudden movement (see Fig. 2). The solid line positions of the spring, crankshaft and valve correspond to the open position of the valve wherein the aspirator 25 is effective to pull a vacuum in the annular space leading to the tubular fitting 3B. This brings about the exhalation phase of the resuscitation cycle, since the tting 36 normally carries a tube leading to the face mask. When the valve 33 moves to closed position, the gas from nozzle 3D can only spill out through ports 32 to provide positive gas i'low through fitting 35 to the face mask. The annular Wall portion 'I provides means to form a definite gas channel from the ports 32 to the iitting 39 and vice versa. This protects the moving parts, such as stem I2, spring 35 and crankshaft 34 from moisture exhaled from the patients lungs. One objection to moisture as it relates to moving parts is the danger of freezing up at low temperatures. The operation will be more fully described below.
The outlet end of tube 28 extends into a iianged tubular element 31 having removable liner 38 which carries a screen 39 across the outer end to prevent foreign bodies and extraneous material, such as packing, from entering the resuscitator. The tting 26 for connection with a source of gas under pressure, such as a cylinder of oxygen, has mounted therein a iiow regulating valve comprising a transverse rod 4U extending into longitudinal slots 4I in the tting 26 and also into similar cam slots 42 in the rotatable collar 43. The rod 43 carries a tapered valve member 44 adapted to enter the outer end of nozzle 35 and thus regulate the size of the annular passage between the valve member and the nozzle opening. A pair of screws 45 threaded into the collar 43 have inner ends riding in a circular groove in fitting 26 to prevent endwise movement of collar 43 but still permit free rotation thereof. A pointer 46 on the collar 43 serves to indicate by its position with relation to the scale 4l, the flow rate through the regulating valve and into the nozzle 3D. The suggested scale of values for the flow rate is from 0 to 40 liters per minute. Ordinarily the valve Will only be closed completely when the resuscitator is not in use but the Wide range of flow rates Will adapt the device for use ori people of all ages and all possible basic metabolic rates. Furthermore the flow rate in any given case Will determine the cycling rate of the resuscitator, since the rate of gas ow will determine how fast the patients lungs fill to capacity and how fast the patients lungs are emptied of gas, moisture and waste products.
RESUSCITATOR OPERATION The operation of the resuscitator will be explained by reference to Figs. 1 to 4. Referring first to Fig. 2, the valve actuating diaphragm 5 is here shown in an approximate mid-position and since the buttery valve 33 is open the aspirator is drawing gas from the interior of the resuscitator. Thus the diaphragm is being pulled toward the right in Fig. 2. The eiect of spring I5 is no longer appreciable but the negative pressure spring i4 is resisting further movement of the rod I2 toward the right. Now it will be seen that the setting of spring I4 will effectively determine how low the pressure goes before the coil spring 35 swings to the right past the crank arm 34 and causes the crank arm and the valve 33 to snap to the valve closing position and start the inhalation or positive pressure phase of the resuscitation cycle. NOW with the valve 33 closed the incoming gas will ilow from ports 32 into the resuscitator body and thence around the iiow channel previously described to the outlet fitting 36. As the patients lungs fill up with fresh gas the positive pressure in the resuscitator Will slowly increase to cause the diaphragm 5 to move toward the left, thus moving the rod I2 and bringing the overcenter coil spring 35 to the dotted line position with the crank arm ,34 still `in the dotted line .or valve closed position. Now the .compression spring I4 is no longer producing any appreciable endwise pressure on the rod I2 but the positive pressure spring I5 is resisting further movement of the rod I2 toward the left. Thus it will be seen that the setting of spring I5 will determine how high the pressure goes before the coil Spring 3.5 swings past the crank arm 34 and .Causes the crank arm and valve 33 to snap to the valve opening position and thereby start the exhalation or negative pressure phase of the resuscitation cycle. The spring 35 is ,shown in two positions, each approaching the critical snap-over relation, with respect to the crank arm 34 (see Fig. 2) The crank arm is shown in its two extreme positions. the full line position being the valve open position (see Figs. 2, 3 and .4) and the dotted line position being the valve closed position. In the first position, the contact of the arm and wall 4 provides a definite stop action and in .the second position the contact .of the valve 33 with the walls of tube 28 provides a definite stop action. As noted previously the adjustable inlet valve determines the flow rate for a given subject and also determines at the same time the cycling rate of the resuscitator. In practice a table of values is `furnished with the resuscitator to show the desired setting of the inlet valve for people of various ages and more particularly for people of various sizes. In some cases. the values are varied from the normal, as for instance in applying the resuscitator to persons who have absorbed noxious fumes. Here a higher flow rate will aid in eliminating from the blood some of the undesirable dissolved gases. While the exhalation phase of the resuscitation cycle will preferably proceed until there is a slight negative pressure in the device, this practice is not always recommended. Some authorities do not recommend the use of negative pressures in resuscitation or artificial respiration because of the tendency to cause adhesion of lung tissues and partial collapse of bronchial tubes.
RESUSClTATION SYSTEM Referring now to Fig. 5 there is shown one possible resuscitation system. or hook-up of general application. The resuscitator as described above is shown in exterior end view showing the spring t 'adjusting' knob- I9 mounted on the screw cap 2. The fitting 35 is connected to the face mask 5i), which is adapted to nt ov-er the mouth and nose of the patient and may be held in place by hand or by suitable straps. At the face contacting edges of the mask there is provided a flexible tube 5I connected to the interior of the mask by means of a one-way valve 52, arranged so that the maximum pressure in the mask will be developed in the tube 5I but will not leak back into the mask.
The gas inlet fitting 26 is connected to a conduit 53 connected through a shut-olf valve 54 and pressure relief valve 55 to a blower 56. The
latter is provided with an air inlet screen 51v and the rotor 58 is mounted on a shaft 59 extending into an adjacent impulse turbine unit 60. The shaft 5S also includes a non-circular end portion 6I which may be connected in an emergency to an electric motor or other power source in case the motive power for the turbine 6U fails. In
rnorma1 operation the turbine 60 is operated by atmospheric air entering at the nozzle 62 and impinging on the turbine rotor 6U". The ow of atmospheric air against the turbine wheel is.
brought about by connecting the turbine casing to a jet pump 63 or other vacuum pump. The
jet pump is operated bypassing a ystream of water therethrough from a water tap E4 and the water after passing out of the pump flows into a suitable drain or sink 65. A second source of gas is conducted into the tube 53 by a conduit con.- nected by way of a shut-olf valve E6 anda reduction valve 6l to an oxygen tank or bottle 68. As will :be understood the oxygen may be under very high pressure in the bottle 68 and in order to bring the pressure at the resuscitator inlet 26 down to about +10 inches of water there must be provided an efficient reduction valve preferably mounted directly on the outlet tube of tank or bottle SB.
The system illustrated in Fig. 5 should afford reasonable safety because of the. alternative sources of resuscitating gas. In the illustration, the source of compressed air from blower 56 is connected to the resuscitator since the valve 54 is open at the same time the valve 66 is closed. The pressure relief valve 55 near the blower is for the purpose of maintaining a predetermined maximum pressure in the conduit 53, for instance about +10 inches of water. While pure oxygen having a minor percentage of carbon dioxide mixed therein is the preferred gas, compressed air will always provide a satisfactory substitute. In some cases carbon dioxide is added continuously to the flowing oxygen from a separate bottle equipped with a metering valve.
The embodiment of the invention herein shown and described is to .be regarded as illustrative only and it is to be understood'that the invention is susceptible of variations, modifications and changes within the scope of the appended claims.
1. A resuscitator comprising, a housing defining a gas receiving chamber, said housing being provided with a port adapted for connection with a mask, conduit means traversing said chamber, said conduit means being tted at one end for attachment to a source of gas under pressure and the other end thereof defining a discharge port open to the ambient atmosphere, jet jump means within said conduit means and including a nozzle and an Vadjacent constriction spaced downstream from the nozzle, a rotatably mountedvalve positioned between said constriction and said discharge port for opening and closing said conduit means, a crankshaft rigidly connected to said valve and extending outside of said conduit means, a valve actuating diaphragm in said housing communicating at one side with said gasv re,- ceiving chamber, a slidably mounted rod secured centrally of said diaphragm, spring means extending laterally frorn said rod and connected 'to said crankshaft, port means in said conduit up.- stream from said constriction and connecting with said gas receiving chamber, whereby' gas flowing into said conduit will alternately flow through said port means and to the lungs of ja' patient wearing said mask or ow through said jet pump to the ambient atmosphere as said valve isl closed or opened respectively by action of said diaphragm, rod, spring means and crankshaft.
2. A resuscitator comprising, a housing defining a gas receiving chamber, said housing being provided with a port adapted for connection with a mask, conduit means traversing said chamber, said conduit means oeing tted at one end for attachment to a source of a gas under pressure and the lother end thereof defining a discharge port open to the ambient atmosphere, jet pump 1 means within said conduit means and including a nozzle and an adjacent constriction spaced downstream from the nozzle, a rotatably mounted valve positioned between said constriction and said discharge port for opening and closing said conduit means, a crankshaft rigidly connected t said valve and including a crank arm portion outside of said conduit means, a valve actuating diaphragm in said housing communicating at one side with said gas receiving chamber, a slidably mounted rod secured centrally of said diaphragm and extending at a right angle with respect to said crankshaft, a coil spring connected .between said rod and said crank arm portion and adapted to swing past said crankshaft to two opposite overcenter positions as said rod reciprocates by action of said diaphragm and as said valve is moved to closed and open positions, port means in said conduit upstream from said constriction and connecting with said gas receiving chamber, whereby gas flowing into said conduit will alternately flow through said port means and to the lungs of a patient wearing said mask or iiow through said jet jump to the ambient atmosphere as said valve is closed or opened respectively by action of said diaphragm, rod, spring and crankshaft.
3. A resuscitator comprising, a housing deiining a gas receiving chamber, said housing being provided with a port adapted for connection with a mask, conduit means traversing said chamber, said conduit means being fitted at one end fory attachment to a source of gas under pressure and the other end thereof defining a discharge port open to the ambient atmosphere, jet pump means within said conduit means and including a nozzle and an adjacent constriction spaced downstream from the nozzle, a rotatably mounted valve positioned lbetween said constriction and said discharge port for opening and closing said conduit means, a valve actuating diaphragm positioned transversely of said housing, a perforate transverse wall in said housing spaced from said diaphragm and having a tubular extension engaging one end of said housing away from said diaphragm, a rod slidably mounted through saidtransverse wall and extending axially through said tubular extension, means for securing said rod centrally of said diaphragm, a crankshaft rigidly connected to said valve and extending outside of said conduit means within said tubular extension, spring means connected between said rod and said crankshaft for actuating said valve from closed to open position and vice versa upon sliding movement of said rod in opposite directions, and port means in said conduit means up-.
stream from said constriction and connecting with said gas receiving chamber.
4. A resuscitator comprising, a housing denning a gas receiving chamber, means providing a gas inlet into said housing, means providing a gas outlet from said housing into the ambient atmosphere. means providing a fitting on a wall of said housing connecting with said chamber and adapted for connection with a mask, an
aspirator extending across said housing from said gas inlet to said gas outlet and including spill ports opening laterally from the aspirator into said gas receiving chamber, a rotatably mounted valve in said aspirator downstream from said ports, a crankshaft rigidly connected to said valve and extending outside of said aspirator, a slidably mounted rod in said housing extending at a right angle to said crankshaft, spring means extending g laterally from said rod and connected to said crankshaft to assume overcenter positions at opposite sides of sand crankshaft as said valve is moved from closed to open positions, means responsive to changes in pressure in said chamber for moving said rod in opposite directions as the pressure in said chamber rises and falls, whereby a supply of gas flowing to said gas inlet will alternately flow through said ports and to the lungs of a patient wearing said mask or flow through said aspirator to the ambient atmosphere as said valve is closed or opened respectively.
5. A resuscitator as recited in claim 4, and further comprising, separate adjustable spring means bearing on opposite ends of said slidably mounted rod.
6. A resuscitator comprising, a housing delining a gas receiving chamber, means providing a gas inlet into said housing, means providing a gas outlet from said housing into the ambient atmosphere, means providing a fitting on a wall of said housing connecting with said chamber and adapted for connection with a face mask, an aspirator extending across said housing from said gas inlet to said gas outlet and including spill ports opening laterally from the aspirator into said gas receiving chamber, a movably mounted valve in said aspirator downstream from said ports, valve operating means connected to said valve and extending outside of said aspirator, a slidably mounted rod in said housing, means responsive to changes in pressure in said chamber or moving said rod in opposite directions as the pressure in said chamber rises and falls, spring means connected between said valve operating means and said rod to actuate said valve from closed to open position and vice versa as said rod is moved in opposite directions by the action of rising and falling pressure in said chamber, and separate adjustable [spring] biasing means at opposite ends of said rod for biasing said rod in opposite directions.
7. A resuscitator comprising, a housing defining a gus receiving chamber, means providing a gas inlet into said housing, means providing a gas outlet from said. housing into the ambient atmosphere, means providing a fitting on a wall of said housing connecting with said chamber and adapted for connection with a face mask, an aspirator extending across said housing from said gus inlet to said gas outlet and includingspill ports opening laterally lfrom the aspirator into said gus receiving chamber, a movably mounted valve in said aspirator downstream from said ports, valve operating means connected to said valve and extending outside of said aspirator, a reciprocdbly mounted means in said housing, means responsive to changes in pressure in said chamber for moving said reciprocably mounted means in opposite directions as the pressure in said chamber rises and falls, means connected between. said vulve operating means and said reciprocably mounted means to actuate said valve from closed to open position and vice versa as said reciprocably mounted means is moved in opposite directions by the action of rising and falling pressure in said chamber, and separate adiustable biasing means acting in opposition on said reciprocably mounted means for biasing the lutter means in opposite directions.
No references cited.
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